Reconstructing the evolutionary history of China: a caveat about inferences drawn from ancient DNA.
Yao Yong-Gang,Kong Qing-Peng,Man Xiao-Yong,Bandelt Hans-Jürgen,Zhang Ya-Ping
Molecular biology and evolution
The decipherment of the meager information provided by short fragments of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is notoriously difficult but is regarded as a most promising way toward reconstructing the past from the genetic perspective. By haplogroup-specific hypervariable segment (HVS) motif search and matching or near-matching with available modern data sets, most of the ancient mtDNAs can be tentatively assigned to haplogroups, which are often subcontinent specific. Further typing for mtDNA haplogroup-diagnostic coding region polymorphisms, however, is indispensable for establishing the geographic/genetic affinities of ancient samples with less ambiguity. In the present study, we sequenced a fragment (approximately 982 bp) of the mtDNA control region in 76 Han individuals from Taian, Shandong, China, and we combined these data with previously reported samples from Zibo and Qingdao, Shandong. The reanalysis of two previously published ancient mtDNA population data sets from Linzi (same province) then indicates that the ancient populations had features in common with the modern populations from south China rather than any specific affinity to the European mtDNA pool. Our results highlight that ancient mtDNA data obtained under different sampling schemes and subject to potential contamination can easily create the impression of drastic spatiotemporal changes in the genetic structure of a regional population during the past few thousand years if inappropriate methods of data analysis are employed.
Polymerase chain reaction based C4AQ0 and C4BQ0 genotyping: association with systemic lupus erythematosus in southwest Han Chinese.
Man X-Y,Luo H-R,Li X-P,Yao Y-G,Mao C-Z,Zhang Y-P
Annals of the rheumatic diseases
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association of complement C4 null genes (C4Q0, including C4AQ0 and C4BQ0) and C2 gene with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in southwest Han Chinese; 136 patients with SLE and 174 matched controls were genotyped. METHODS:C4 null genes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). The 2 bp insertion in exon 29, which was previously identified in non-Chinese populations and caused defective C4A genes, was directly typed by sequencing the whole exon 29 using exon specific primers. The exon 6 of complement C2 was also sequenced in both the patients and controls. RESULTS:The frequency of homozygous C4AQ0 allele was 12.5% (17/136) in patients with SLE compared with 1.1% (2/174) in controls (p<0.001, odds ratio (OR)=12.286, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.786 to 54.170). There was no significant difference for homozygous C4BQ0 allele between patients with SLE and controls (p=0.699). Patients with the C4AQ0 gene had an increased risk of acquiring renal disorder, serositis, and anti-dsDNA antibodies compared with those without C4AQ0 (for renal disorder, p=0.018, OR=8.951, 95% CI 1.132 to 70.804; for serositis, p=0.011, OR 4.891, 95% CI 1.574 to 15.198; for anti-dsDNA, p=0.004, OR 7.630, 95%CI 1.636 to 35.584). None of the patients or controls had the 2 bp insertion in exon 29 of the C4 gene. The type I C2 deficiency was not detected in the 310 samples. CONCLUSION:It is suggested that deficiency of C4A (not due to a 2 bp insertion in exon 29), but not C4B or C2, may be a risk factor for acquiring SLE in south west Han Chinese; this results in increased risk of renal disorder, serositis, and anti-dsDNA antibodies in patients with SLE. Racial differences seem to be relevant in susceptibility to SLE
Immunolocalization and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and neuropilins (NRPs) on keratinocytes in human epidermis.
Man Xiao-Yong,Yang Xiao-Hong,Cai Sui-Qing,Yao Yong-Gang,Zheng Min
Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in normal and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF receptors (VEGFRs, including VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3) and neuropilins (NRPs, including NRP-1 and NRP-2) are high-affinity receptors for VEGF and are typically considered to be specific for endothelial cells. Here we showed expression of VEGFRs and NRPs on cultured epidermal keratinocytes at both mRNA and protein levels. We further localized these receptors by immunofluorescence (IF) staining in the epidermis of surgical skin specimens. We found positive staining for VEGFRs and NRPs in all layers of the epidermis except for the stratum corneum. VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 are primarily expressed on the cytoplasmic membrane of basal cells and the adjacent spinosum keratinocytes. All layers of the epidermis except for the horny cell layer demonstrated a uniform pattern of VEGFR-3, NRP-1, and NRP-2. Sections staining for NRP-1 and NRP-2 also showed diffuse intense fluorescence and were localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm of keratinocytes. In another panel of experiments, keratinocytes were treated with different concentrations of VEGF, with or without VEGFR-2 neutralizing antibody in culture. VEGF enhanced the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes, and these effects were partially inhibited by pretreatment with VEGFR-2 neutralizing antibody. Adhesion of keratinocytes to type IV collagen-coated culture plates was decreased by VEGF treatment, but this reduction could be completely reversed by pretreatment with VEGFR-2 neutralizing antibody. Taken together, our results suggest that the expression of VEGFRs and NRPs on keratinocytes may constitute important regulators for its activity and may possibly be responsible for the autocrine signaling in the epidermis.
Expression of VEGFR-2 on HaCaT cells is regulated by VEGF and plays an active role in mediating VEGF induced effects.
Yang Xiao-Hong,Man Xiao-Yong,Cai Sui-Qing,Yao Yong-Gang,Bu Zhang-Yu,Zheng Min
Biochemical and biophysical research communications
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR-2 play important roles in mitogenesis and chemotaxis of endothelial cells. In normal human skin, VEGF is expressed and secreted by epidermal keratinocytes. Emerging data suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF targets other cell types besides the dermal endothelial cells. We have recently showed that keratinocytes from human normal skin expressed all five known VEGF receptors and co-receptors (neuropilin 1 and 2). To define the functional significance of VEGFR-2 in epidermis, we examined its role in a keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT cells, in response to VEGF treatment. Expression of VEGFR-2 on HaCaT cells was confirmed at both RNA and protein levels and was regulated by VEGF165 treatment. Treatment of HaCaT cells with VEGF165 induced tyrosine-autophosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and phosphorylation of PLC-gamma and p44/42 MAPK in a time-dependent manner. Preincubation with a neutralizing antibody for VEGFR-2 (MAB3571) completely abrogated these phosphorylation effects. Furthermore, VEGF165 stimulated proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells, and this effect was significantly blocked by a pretreatment with MAB3571. Neutralizing VEGFR-2 in HaCaT cells increased cell adhesion during culture. Our results suggest that VEGFR-2 expressed on HaCaT cells plays a crucial role in VEGF-mediated regulation of cell activity.
[Advances in pathogenesis of psoriasis].
Man Xiao-yong,Zheng Min
Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
OBJECTIVE:The pathogenesis of psoriasis recently made great advancement due to the introduction of transgenic mouse model. K14-VEGF transgenic mouse showed many of the cellular and molecular features of psoriasis, including angiogenesis in dermis, altered epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Psoriasis of early onset and severe disease showed significantly increased frequency of the +405CC genotype and the C allele. Transgenic mice with keratinocytes expressing active Stat3 (K5. Stat3C mice) developed a skin phenotype closely resembling psoriasis. Stat 3 may link activated keratinocytes and immunocytes required for development of psoriasis. More recently, a novel mouse model with epidermal specific double-knockout of the c-Jun and JunB genes showed developments of psoriasis-like skin phenotype and arthritic lesions. All these data provided more profound understanding in pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis.
[Advancements in expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in skin diseases].
Yang Xiao-Hong,Man Xiao-Yong,Zheng Min
Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exerts its biological functions by its specific VEGF receptors (VEGFR), which includes VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, neuropilin-1, and neuropilin-2. These VEGFR distributes in endothelial cells, and are also expressed in normal skin, inflammatory skin diseases, and skin cancers. The VEGF-VEGFR signaling pathway may be a new key target in the management of the skin diseases.
Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors on keratinocytes in psoriasis: regulated by calcium independent of VEGF.
Man Xiao-Yong,Yang Xiao-Hong,Cai Sui-Qing,Bu Zhang-Yu,Zheng Min
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and angiogenesis. Recently, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs, including VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3) were found to be expressed in normal human epidermis and associated with proliferation and migration of keratinocytes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of VEGFRs on psoriatic keratinocytes and the roles of calcium and VEGF in regulating VEGFR expression. Skin samples from 17 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 11 normal controls were included. The expression of VEGFRs in psoriatic keratinocytes at mRNA and protein levels was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Localization of the VEGFRs in skin lesions was determined by immuno-fluorescent method. Since keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation rely on calcium concentrations, and VEGF is overexpressed in psoriatic epidermis, we further investigated the roles of calcium and VEGF in regulating the expression of VEGFRs. Overexpression of VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 in psoriatic epidermis was demonstrated both at mRNA and protein levels in vitro. VEGFRs were strongly labeled in non-lesional, perilesional and lesional psoriatic keratinocytes in all viable epidermal stratums in vivo. Furthermore, both exogenous VEGF165 and calcium enhanced the expression of VEGFRs. Calcium also enhanced the expression of VEGF in non-lesional psoriatic keratinocytes, while targeted blockade of VEGF activity by bevacizumab could not inhibit calcium-induced up-regulation of protein levels of VEGFRs. We conclude from these results that VEGFRs are overexpressed in lesional psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes. Both calcium and VEGF regulate VEGFRs expression in psoriatic epidermis. More importantly, calcium is a potential regulator for VEGFR independent of VEGF.
Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in human epidermal appendages: a comparison study by immunofluorescence.
Man X-Y,Yang X-H,Cai S-Q,Bu Z-Y,Wu X-J,Lu Z-F,Zheng M
Clinical and experimental dermatology
BACKGROUND:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes angiogenesis and plays important roles in neovascularization and development of tissues. VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) are high-affinity receptors for VEGF and are originally considered specific to endothelial cells. We have previously shown that keratinocytes from human normal skin express VEGFRs. This poses the question of whether these receptors are also expressed by epidermal appendages, as epidermal appendages are lined with epithelial cells. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the expression of VEGFR-2 compare with VEGF in epidermal appendages, including hair follicles, eccrine sweat glands and sebaceous glands. METHODS:Monoclonal antibodies to VEGF and VEGFR-2 were used for immunohistochemical examination of cryostat-cut sections of normal human skin specimens from 11 donors undergoing cosmetic surgery. RESULTS:Immunoreactivities for VEGF and VEGFR-2 principally showed parallel intense expression in anagen hair follicle (including outer root sheat, inner root sheath, dermal papillae epidermal matrix), sebaceous glands (ductal and secretory portions) and eccrine sweat glands (ductal and secretory portions), respectively. In particular, abundant expression of VEGF was found in the follicular basement membrane zone surrounding the bulb matrix and in the ductal and secretory portions of eccrine sweat glands. CONCLUSION:A potential VEGF/VEGFR-2 autocrine pathway may be defined by the coexpression of VEGF and VEGFR-2 in human skin epidermal appendages.
[Autocrine effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on the proliferation of HaCaT cells].
YANG Xiao-hong,MAN Xiao-yong,CAI Sui-qing,LI Chun-ming,ZHOU Jiong,ZHENG Min
Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
OBJECTIVE:To determine the autocrine effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on epidermal keratinocytes HaCaT cells. METHODS:Cultured HaCaT cells were treated with various concentrations of VEGF(165) (0,1,5,10,25,50,100 ng/ml) or Avastin (0,0.063,0.125,0.25,0.50,1.0,2.0 mg/ml) in vitro. HaCaT cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay and the cell migration was measured by migration assay. The effect of VEGF(165) (10 ng/ml) on phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was detected in HaCaT cells pretreated or not pretreated with Avastin (0.5 mg/ml). RESULTS:VEGF enhanced the proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, while Avastin inhibited the effects of VEGF also in a dose-dependent manner. VEGF(165) (10 ng/ml) induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in HaCaT cells,but which was blocked by Avastin (0.5 mg/ml). CONCLUSION:VEGF enhanced the proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, while Avastin inhibited the effects of VEGF also in a dose-dependent manner. VEGF(165) (10 ng/ml) induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in HaCaT cells,but which was blocked by Avastin (0.5 mg/ml).
[Fetal bovine serum enhances expression of PEDF in epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts].
MAN Xiao-yong,YAO Yong-gang,YANG Xiao-hong,CAI Sui-qing,ZHENG Min
Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in normal epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. METHODS:Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were incubated with 10% FBS. PEDF protein level in the cells was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. RESULTS:PEDF was localized mostly in the cytoplasm,while some in the nuclei. The distribution of PEDF in cytoplasm was in a granular pattern. 10% FBS increased the expression of PEDF both in keratinocytes and fibroblasts,but histamine and Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) did not interfere the distribution of PEDF in cells. CONCLUSION:10% FBS can upregulate expression of PEDF in epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts.
Pigment epithelium-derived factor plays an inhibitory role in proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells.
Li Chun-Ming,Li Wei,Man Xiao-Yong,Zhou Jiong,Chen Jia-Qi,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min
Molecular biology reports
The normal vasculature is maintained by a balance between angiogenic factors and anti-angiogenic factors. Recent studies have shown that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) can induce differentiation and inhibit angiogenesis of tumors. This study was designed to investigate the expression of PEDF and its roles in proliferation, adhesion and migration of HaCaT cells, a human keratinocyte cell line. Our results have shown that PEDF is expressed in HaCaT cells at both mRNA and protein levels determined by RT-PCR and Western blot, separately. PEDF signal mainly localizes in the cytoplasm of HaCaT cell, as determined by immunofluorescence. Furthermore, expression of PEDF is decreased by 50 ng/ml of VEGF(165). Proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells are decreased by PEDF, while adhesion of HaCaT cells is upregulated approximately by 29%. PEDF also induce the S phase accumulation of HaCaT cells. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, not JNK and p38, is decreased by PEDF. These results indicate that PEDF may play an inhibitory role on growth and migration of HaCaT cells through dephosphorylation of ERK1/2.
CD109, a TGF-β co-receptor, attenuates extracellular matrix production in scleroderma skin fibroblasts.
Man Xiao-Yong,Finnson Kenneth W,Baron Murray,Philip Anie
Arthritis research & therapy
INTRODUCTION:Scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex connective tissue disease characterized by fibrosis of skin and internal organs. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of SSc fibrosis. We have previously identified CD109 as a novel TGF-β co-receptor that inhibits TGF-β signaling. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of CD109 in regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) production in human SSc skin fibroblasts. METHODS:CD109 expression was determined in skin tissue and cultured skin fibroblasts of SSc patients and normal healthy subjects, using immunofluorescence, western blot and RT-PCR. The effect of CD109 on ECM synthesis was determined by blocking CD109 expression using CD109-specific siRNA or addition of recombinant CD109 protein, and analyzing the expression of ECM components by western blot. RESULTS:The expression of CD109 proteinis markedly increased in SSc skin tissue in vivo and in SSc skin fibroblasts in vitro as compared to their normal counterparts. Importantly, both SSc and normal skin fibroblasts transfected with CD109-specific siRNA display increased fibronectin, collagen type I and CCN2 protein levels and enhanced Smad2/3 phosphorylation compared with control siRNA transfectants. Furthermore, addition of recombinant CD109 protein decreases TGF-β1-induced fibronectin, collagen type I and CCN2 levels in SSc and normal fibroblasts. CONCLUSION:The upregulation of CD109 protein in SSc may represent an adaptation or consequence of aberrant TGF-β signaling in SSc. Our finding that CD109 is able to decrease excessive ECM production in SSc fibroblasts suggest that this molecule has potential therapeutic value for the treatment of SSc.
VEGF upregulates VEGF receptor-2 on human outer root sheath cells and stimulates proliferation through ERK pathway.
Li Wei,Lu Zhong-Fa,Man Xiao-Yong,Li Chun-Ming,Zhou Jiong,Chen Jia-Qi,Yang Xiao-Hong,Wu Xian-Jie,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min
Molecular biology reports
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. The biological effects of VEGF are mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases. VEGF receptor-2, the primary receptor for VEGF, is thought to mediate most functional effects. In this study, we examined the expression and roles of VEGF receptor-2 on human outer root sheath cells (ORS). The expression of VEGFR-2 was determined at mRNA and protein levels by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Localization of VEGFR-2 in ORS cells was detected by immunofluorescence. The effect of VEGF on ORS cell proliferation was determined by MTT assays. Our data showed the expression of VEGFR-2 on ORS cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Immunostaining for VEGFR-2 demonstrated strong signal on cultured ORS cells. Exogenous VEGF(165) stimulated proliferation of ORS cells and upregulated expression of VEGFR-2 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, VEGF(165) induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, PLC-γ1, PKC-α, MEK, and p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2) in a time-dependent manner. Taken together, human ORS cells express functional VEGF receptor-2 and exogenous VEGF(165) upregulates expression of VEGFR-2 and stimulates proliferation of ORS cells via VEGFR-2 mediated ERK signaling pathway.
VEGF induces proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells through VEGFR-2-mediated activation of ERK.
Li Wei,Man Xiao-Yong,Li Chun-Ming,Chen Jia-Qi,Zhou Jiong,Cai Sui-Qing,Lu Zhong-Fa,Zheng Min
Experimental cell research
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the strongest regulators of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), the primary receptor for VEGF, is thought to mediate major functional effects of VEGF. Previously, we have localized both VEGF and VEGFR-2 in human hair follicles. In this study, we further defined the expression and roles of VEGFR-2 on human hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) cells. The expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis separately, and localization of VEGFR-2 was defined by immunofluorescence. The effect of VEGF on DP cells was analyzed by MTT assays and specific inhibitors. Finally, the role of VEGF involved in the signaling pathways was investigated by Western blot. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells. Immunostaining for VEGFR-2 showed strong signal on cultured human DP cells in vitro. Exogenous VEGF(165) stimulated proliferation of DP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this stimulation was blocked by a VEGFR-2 neutralizing antibody (MAB3571) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). VEGF(165)-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was abolished by MAB3571 and PD98059, while the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and AKT were not changed by VEGF(165). Taken together, VEGFR-2 is expressed on primary human hair follicle DP cells and VEGF induces proliferation of DP cells through VEGFR-2/ERK pathway, but not p38, JNK or AKT signaling.
Impaired nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors: novel findings from psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes.
Man Xiao-Yong,Li Wei,Chen Jia-Qi,Zhou Jiong,Landeck Lilla,Zhang Kai-Hong,Mu Zhen,Li Chun-Ming,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
Psoriasis is a chronic proliferative skin disease and is usually treated with topical glucocorticoids, which act through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a component of the physiological systems essential for immune responses, differentiation, and homeostasis. To investigate the possible role of GR in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, normal and psoriatic lesional skin were recruited. Firstly, the immunolocalization of GR in the skin and cultured epidermal keratinocytes were determined by immunofluorescence. In normal skin and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes, intracellular GR is localized in the nuclei, while in psoriatic skin and cultured keratinocytes, GR is in the cytoplasm. Next, we investigated possible factors associated with the cytoplasmic distribution. We found that VEGF and IFN-γ led to impaired nuclear translocation of GR through p53 and microtubule-inhibitor, vincristine, and inhibited nuclear uptake of GR in normal keratinocytes. In addition to dexamethasone, interleukin (IL)-13 was also able to transfer GR into nuclei of psoriatic keratinocytes. Furthermore, discontinuation of dexamethasone induced cytoplasmic retention of GR in normal keratinocytes. In contrast, energy depletion of normal epidermal keratinocytes did not change the nuclear distribution of GR. To confirm our findings in vivo, an imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin mouse model was included. IL-13 ameliorated (but vincristine exacerbated) the skin lesions on the mouse. Taken together, our findings define that impaired nuclear translocation of GR is associated with VEGF, IFN-γ, p53, and microtubule. Therapeutic strategies designed to accumulate GR in the nucleus, such as IL-13, may be beneficial for the therapy of psoriasis.
Regulation of involucrin in psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes: the roles of ERK1/2 and GSK-3β.
Chen Jia-Qi,Man Xiao-Yong,Li Wei,Zhou Jiong,Landeck Lilla,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min
Cell biochemistry and biophysics
Psoriasis, a common inflammatory skin disease, is characterized by epidermal hyperplasia, abnormal differentiation, angiogenesis, immune activation, and inflammation. Involucrin is an early terminal differentiation marker of epidermal keratinocytes. In this study, we determined the immunolocalization of involucrin in psoriatic lesions and normal skin of individuals without psoriasis by means of immunofluorescence (IF) assay. Furthermore, the regulation of involucrin by interleukin (IL)-13, IL-17A, endothelin (ET)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ was investigated by Western blot. Extracellular regulate protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and glycogen syntheses kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitors were also included to define the roles of these signals in the production of involucrin in both psoriatic and normal keratinocytes. In psoriatic lesional skin, involucrin was detected in the stratum spinosum, but not in the basal or the cornified layer. In normal skin, involucrin was restricted to the granular layer and the upper stratum spinosum. IL-13, IL-17A, ET-1, TNF-α, and IFN-γ up-regulate expression of involucrin in both psoriatic and normal keratinocytes. However, this effect was abolished by ERK1/2 and GSK-3β inhibitors. In conclusion, involucrin is up-regulated in psoriatic keratinocytes. IL-13, IL-17A, ET-1, TNF-α, and IFN-γ could increase involucrin protein levels in psoriatic and normal keratinocytes. The ERK1/2 and GSK-3β signaling pathways may play positive roles in regulating epidermal differentiation as observed in psoriasis.
Expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor in human cutaneous appendages.
Li C-M,Li W,Man X-Y,Liu Z-G,Zheng M
Clinical and experimental dermatology
BACKGROUND:Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a 50-kDa glycoprotein and a member of the serine protease inhibitor gene family, is well known as a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. However, the expression of PEDF in human cutaneous appendages has not yet been determined. AIM:To investigate the expression of PEDF in human cutaneous appendages. METHODS:Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of PEDF in human cutaneous appendages. Reverse transcriptase PCR, western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression of PEDF on cells of the outer root sheath (ORS). A wound-healing assay was used to determine the effect of different concentrations of PEDF on the migration of ORS cells. RESULTS:PEDF was expressed in the hair follicle (including epidermal matrix, inner root sheath, ORS and fibrous root sheath), sebaceous glands and eccrine sweat glands. Both protein and RNA expression of PEDF was detected, and expression was localized to both cytoplasm and nucleus of ORS cells. Both interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17 at 25 ng/mL upregulated the expression of PEDF of ORS cells, with IL-4 having the greater effect. PEDF 50 ng/mL decreased migration of ORS cells. CONCLUSIONS:PEDF is expressed in human cutaneous appendages and may play a modulatory role in the physiology of ORS cells.
Generalized pure cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease: a link between inflammation and cancer not associated with mitochondrial DNA and SLC29A3 gene mutation?
Zheng Min,Bi Rui,Li Wei,Landeck Lilla,Chen Jia-Qi,Lao Li-Min,Cai Sui-Qing,Yao Yong-Gang,Man Xiao-Yong
Recently, we described a case of generalized pure cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease in a 43-year-old Asian man in JAMA. The lesions distributed on nearly all of the skin of the whole body, except for mucous sites. Molecular, immunophenotypic, and sequencing analyses seem to define it as a histiocytic-mesenchymal transition and intermediate proliferative histiocytosis not associated with mtDNA large deletion and pathogenic mutation, as well as the SLC29A3 gene mutation.
Targeting VEGF/VEGFR in the treatment of psoriasis.
Li Wei,Man Xiao-Yong,Chen Jia-Qi,Zhou Jiong,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min
Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disorder characterized by cutaneous inflammation and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. In the past decade, a number of novel effective biological agents have been developed to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis. However, these drugs have potential serious side effects, particularly the development of infectious diseases. Therefore there is still a need for new therapies with better efficacy and less adverse effects. Angiogenesis is implicated in various pathological conditions including psoriasis. Direct targeting of angiogenesis becomes a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of psoriasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the most critical angiogenic factor, is thought to play important roles during the pathogenesis of psoriasis and may be a promising target for treating psoriasis. Therefore, we proposed that targeting VEGF/VEGFRs could lead to new treatments for psoriasis.
Involvement of pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 in psoriasis, seborrheic keratosis, and skin tumors.
Cai Sui-Qing,Dou Ting-Ting,Li Wei,Li Shu-Qing,Chen Jia-Qi,Zhou Jiong,Zheng Min,Man Xiao-Yong
Accumulating evidence suggests that pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is a potential biomarker for cancer malignancy and a cell-cycle regulatory protein. This investigation was performed to address the subcellular localization of PTTG1 and its possible involvement in proliferative skin diseases. In vitro primary-cultured keratinocytes and skin samples from psoriasis, seborrheic keratosis (SK), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were investigated by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. In normal skin, PTTG1 is localized predominantly in 10% of basal keratinocytes, while 30-40% in basal and suprabasal psoriatic keratinocytes. PTTG1 mRNA in psoriatic epidermis is about 5-fold more than that in normal one (P<0.01). PTTG1 is localized in cytoplasm in primary-cultured normal and psoriatic keratinocytes, and PTTG1 in HaCaT cells is distributed throughout the cytoplasm of metaphase cells. PTTG1 is seen at both G2 and M phases, and highest PTTG1 expression correlates with highest cyclin B1 expression and highest degree of nuclear pleomorphism at M phase. The positive rate of PTTG1 in SK, BCC, and SCC is about 10%, 20%, and more than 80%, respectively. PTTG1 siRNA, which knocks down the expression of PTTG1, reduced the invasive capacity of A431 cells. In conclusion, PTTG1 is a marker for proliferative skin diseases associated with cell cycle regulation and may aid in detection of aggressive cancers.
Role of endothelin-1 in the skin fibrosis of systemic sclerosis.
Jing J,Dou T T,Yang J Q,Chen X B,Cao H L,Min M,Cai S Q,Zheng M,Man X Y
European cytokine network
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) acts as a key regulator of vasoconstriction and fibrosis. Many previous studies have focused on the role of ET-1 in scleroderma (systemic sclerosis, SSc). We investigated the effects of ET-1 on the production of extracellular matrix in SSc and normal skin fibroblasts. Primary cultured dermal fibroblasts from SSc patients and healthy controls were treated with ET-1 (25 ng/mL) for 0 min, 15 min, 1 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Our results showed that, in SSc fibroblasts, ET-1 upregulated collagen type I, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and pAkt in a time-dependent manner within 72 h; in normal fibroblasts, 25 ng/mL ET-1 stimulation correlated with high levels of CTGF, PAI-1 and pAkt. The secretion of fibronectin (FN), collagen type I, and PAI-1 is markedly increased in the supernatant of both SSc fibroblasts and normal fibroblasts. Furthermore, ET-1 phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3 in normal fibroblasts, but not in SSc fibroblasts. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ET-1 may induce fibrosis in dermal fibroblasts through Akt signals.
Analysis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes.
Man Xiao-Yong,Chen Xi-Bei,Li Wei,Landeck Lilla,Dou Ting-Ting,Chen Jia-Qi,Zhou Jiong,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min
Psoriasis is similar to endpoints of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process of epithelial cells transformed into fibroblast-like cells. The molecular epithelial and mesenchymal markers were analysed in psoriatic keratinocytes. No obvious alteration of epithelial markers E-cadherin (E-cad), keratin 10 (K10), K14 and K16 was detected in psoriatic keratinocytes. However, significantly increased expression of Vim, FN, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and Slug was seen. IL-17A and IL-13 at 50 ng ml(-1) strongly decreased expression of K10, Vim and FN. TGF-β1 at 50 ng ml(-1) promoted the production of N-cad, Vim, FN and PAI-1. Slug was decreased by dexamethasone (Dex), but E-cad was upregulated by Dex. Silencing of ERK partially increased E-cad and K16, but remarkably inhibited K14, FN, Vim, β-catenin, Slug and α5 integrin. Moreover, inhibition of Rho and GSK3 by their inhibitors Y27632 and SB216763, respectively, strongly raised E-cad, β-catenin and Slug. Dex decreased Y27632-mediated increase of β-catenin. Dex at 2.0 µM inhibited SB216763-regulated E-cad, β-catenin and slug. In conclusion, EMT in psoriatic keratinocytes may be defined as an intermediate phenotype of type 2 EMT. ERK, Rho and GSK3 play active roles in the process of EMT in psoriatic keratinocytes.
Inhibition of the hedgehog pathway leads to antifibrotic effects in dermal fibrosis.
Cao Hua-Li,Zhou Jiong,Chen Xi-Bei,Landeck Lilla,Yang Jian-Qiang,Chen Jia-Qi,Li Wei,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min,Man Xiao-Yong
Dermal fibrosis is characterized by the activation of the matrix-producing 'positive' myofibroblasts, and the relentless production and deposition of extracellular matrix. The hedgehog pathway has recently been demonstrated to work in a pro-fibrotic manner in systemic sclerosis (SSc). A negative regulator of the hedgehog pathway (Hh), the suppressor of fused (Sufu), was shown to be involved in the activation of fibrotic diseases. However, the exact role of Sufu in fibrosis has not been investigated so far. In our study, we aimed to define the role of sufu in the process of fibrosis using dermal fibroblasts of healthy donors that were cultured in vitro. Cyclopamine, a Smo antagonist, and Sufu lentivector were used to treat or transfect cells. The expression of fibrosis markers and ERK1/2, Smad2, and GSK3β at the protein level was determined by Western blot. Fibroblast migration was measured by in vitro wound healing assay. Bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis mouse model was introduced to assess the effect of cyclopamine on dermal fibrosis in vivo. We found that cyclopamine significantly upregulated the expression of Sufu. Both cyclopamine and Sufu lentivector reduced migration and myofibroblast differentiation of human dermal fibroblasts at a statistically significant level. Furthermore, cyclopamine reversed dermal fibrosis induced by TGF-β1. Cyclopamine and the overexpression of Sufu inhibited the phosphorylation of GSK-3β and restrained the migration of fibroblasts. Dermal fibrosis was inhibited by intraperitoneal injection of cyclopamine in a mouse model of scleroderma. Our findings suggest that cyclopamine and Sufu-overexpression may effectively inhibit the endogenous as well as the TGF-β1-induced activation of fibroblasts through subsequent activation of GSK-3β. Sufu agonists may be a promising approach in the development of antifibrotic medications for dermal fibrosis and systemic sclerosis.
Role of keratin 24 in human epidermal keratinocytes.
Min Min,Chen Xi-Bei,Wang Ping,Landeck Lilla,Chen Jia-Qi,Li Wei,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min,Man Xiao-Yong
Keratin 24 (K24) is a new kind of keratin genes, which encodes a novel keratin protein, K24 that bears high similarity to the type I keratins and displays a unique expression profile. However, the role of K24 is incompletely understood. In our study, we investigated the localization of K24 within the epidermis and possible functions. Keratin 24 was found to be modestly overexpressed in senescent keratinocytes and was mainly restricted to the upper stratum spinosum of epidermis. The protein was required for terminal differentiation upon CaCl2-induced differentiation. In vitro results showed that increased K24 in keratinocytes dramatically changed the differentiation of primary keratinocytes. It also inhibited cell survival by G1/S phase cell cycle arrest and induced senescence, autophagy and apoptosis of keratinocytes. In addition, K24 activated PKCδ signal pathway involving in cellular survival. In summary, K24 may be suggested as a potential differentiation marker and anti-proliferative factor in the epidermis.
Rottlerin as a therapeutic approach in psoriasis: Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies.
Min Min,Yan Bing-Xi,Wang Ping,Landeck Lilla,Chen Jia-Qi,Li Wei,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min,Man Xiao-Yong
Rottlerin is a natural polyphenolic compound that was initially indicated as a PKCδ inhibitor. However, it was recently revealed that it may target a number of molecules and have biological effects on various cell types and is considered as a possible agent for tumor and cell proliferative diseases. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disorder with undefined etiology and is characterized by abnormal cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Therefore, this paper investigates the regulatory effects of rottlerin on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) and imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasiform (IPI) lesions. In vitro results showed that rottlerin inhibited cell proliferation in NHEKs through growth arrest and NFκB inhibition. It may also induce apoptosis in an autophagy-dependent pathway. We found that rottlerin inhibited human microvascular endothelial cells tube formation on matrigel. Rottlerin also decreased the cell senescence of keratinocytes and intracellular ROS generation, which indicated its antioxidant effect. We also showed that rottlerin affects the expression of keratinocyte proliferation biomarkers. In 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA)-induced keratinocytes, rottlerin significantly inhibited the expression of the induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes. An animal experiment provided the corresponding evidence based on this evidence in vitro, by using IPI model, we found that rottlerin could relieve the psoriasiform of BALB/c mice by inhibiting keratinocyte proliferation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and vascular proliferation. In conclusion, our results suggest that rottlerin may prove useful in the development of therapeutic agents against psoriasis. However, the deep mechanism still requires further study.
Comparative expression of PEDF and VEGF in human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts: from normal skin to psoriasis.
Yan Bing-Xi,Zheng Yu-Xin,Li Wei,Chen Jia-Qi,Zhou Jiong,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min,Man Xiao-Yong
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) have been shown to keep angiogenesis activation and inhibition in balance in normal and pathological conditions. In this study, we examined the expression of VEGF and PEDF in keratinocytes and fibroblasts from normal and psoriatic skin to evaluate their potential roles and interactions in the development of psoriasis. The expression of VEGF and PEDF was detected in normal and psoriatic skin ex vivo and in co-cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro, and increased in keratinocytes and fibroblasts from psoriatic skin compared with those cells from normal skin. Our results suggest that PEDF act as a multipotent factor in the skin and the imbalance of PEDF and VEGF may be responsible for the transformation from normal skin to psoriasis.
Decrease of galectin-3 in keratinocytes: A potential diagnostic marker and a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
Shi Zhen-Rui,Tan Guo-Zhen,Cao Cui-Xiang,Han Yan-Fang,Meng Zhen,Man Xiao-Yong,Jiang Ze-Xin,Zhang Yu-Ping,Dang Ning-Ning,Wei Kai-Hua,Bu Ding-Fang,Liu Fu-Tong,Wang Liangchun
Journal of autoimmunity
Psoriasis-specific proteins dysregulated in keratinocytes and involved in the pathophysiological process of psoriasis remains elusive. We report here that epidermal galectin-3 expression is significantly downregulated in lesional skin, but not in non-lesional skin in psoriasis patients, nor in a group of diseases known as psoriasiform dermatitis clinically and histologically similar to psoriasis. The deficiency of epidermal galectin-3 is sufficient to promote development of psoriatic lesions, as evidenced by more severe skin inflammation in galectin-3 knockout (gal3) mice, compared to wild-type mice, after imiquimod treatment, and in skin from gal3 mice grafted onto wildtype mice. The development of psoriatic-like lesions is attributable to 1) the spontaneously tuning up of psoriasis signatures in keratinocytes through JNK pathway; and 2) neutrophil accumulation caused by the enhanced leukocyte-recruiting capacity associated with overexpression of S100A7-9 and CXCL-1, 8 in keratinocytes with impaired galectin-3 expression. Psoriasis-like skin inflammation is significantly improved in gal-3 mice both by inhibition of neutrophils accumulation with a selective CXCR2 antagonist of SB225002, and by intracutaneous injection of recombinant galectin-3. Overall, these findings offer promising galectin-3-related diagnostic and therapeutic resolutions of psoriasis.
The role of Sprouty1 in the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of epidermal keratinocytes.
Wang Ping,Zhou Yuan,Yang Jian-Qiang,Landeck Lilla,Min Min,Chen Xi-Bei,Chen Jia-Qi,Li Wei,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min,Man Xiao-Yong
OBJECTIVES:Sprouty (SPRY) 1 is one of the SPRY proteins that inhibits signalling from various growth factors pathways and has also been known as a tumour suppressor in various malignancies. However, no study elucidates the role of SPRY1 in the skin. Our study was conducted to determine the function of SPRY1 in human keratinocytes and the epidermis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In vitro primary cultured epidermal keratinocytes were used to investigate the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of these cells. We also established overexpression of SPRY1 in vitro and K14-SPRY1 transgenic mice. RESULTS:SPRY1 was mainly located in the cytoplasm of the epidermal keratinocytes from the granular epidermal layer of the skin and cultured cells. Overexpressed SPRY1 in keratinocytes resulted in up-regulation of P21, P27 and down-regulation of cyclin B1; decrease in MMP3 and integrin α6. SPRY1-overexpressed primary keratinocytes exhibited a lower proliferation and migration capability and higher rates of apoptosis. Epidermis of SPRY1-TG mice represented delayed wound healing. Proteomics analysis and GO enrichment showed DEPs of SPRY1 TG mice epidermis is significantly enriched in immune- and inflammatory-associated biological process. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, SPRY1 expression was inversely correlated with cell proliferation, migration and promote cell apoptosis of keratinocytes. SPRY1 maybe a negative feedback regulator in normal human epidermal keratinocytes and cutaneous inflammatory responses. Our study raised the possibility that enhancing expression of SPRY1 may have the potential to promote anti-inflammatory effects.
Exosomal microRNA profiles from serum and cerebrospinal fluid in neurosyphilis.
Chen Huan,Zhou Yuan,Wang Zhao-Yuan,Yan Bing-Xi,Zhou Wei-Fang,Wang Ting-Ting,Zheng Min,Man Xiao-Yong
Sexually transmitted infections
OBJECTIVE:Changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are associated with different neurological diseases. Since alternations of miRNAs in neurosyphilis are insufficiently investigated, we analysed miRNAs in the CSF of patients suffering from neurosyphilis. METHODS:Exosomes were isolated from serum and CSF. Levels of 44 miRNAs were determined using quantitative real-time PCR-based miRNA array. RESULTS:In patients with neurosyphilis (NSP), miR-590-5p, miR-570-3p and miR-570-5p were upregulated in the CSF and serum, when compared with patients with syphilis without neurosyphilis (SP). miR-590-5p and miR-570-3p were significantly upregulated (p<0.001). The expression of miR-21-5p was upregulated only in the CSF of NSP. Significant downregulation was observed for miR-93-3p in the CSF and serum of NSP. No statistical difference was found in the expression of miR-7-5p, miR-1307-5p, miR-203a-3p, miR-16, miR-23b-3p and miR-27b-5p in the CSF and serum of NSP and SP. CONCLUSION:For the first time, regulation profiles in miRNA in the CSF and serum were analysed in NSP. We found significant differences in upregulation and downregulation. Therefore, miRNAs may be potential biomarkers for the presence of neurosyphilis.
Suppressor of Fused Inhibits Skin Wound Healing.
Yang Bei-Bei,Zheng Yu-Xin,Yan Bing-Xi,Cao Hua-Li,Landeck Lilla,Chen Jia-Qi,Li Wei,Min Min,Wang Ping,Cai Sui-Qing,Zheng Min,Man Xiao-Yong
Advances in wound care
To investigate the effect of suppressor of fused (Sufu) on epidermal and dermal cellular properties and in wound healing. Transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human Sufu (hSufu) in the epidermis were applied to investigate the effects of Sufu on epidermal and dermal cellular properties and in wound healing. Histological staining revealed a reduction of epidermal and dermal thickness and an increase of hypodermal adipose tissue in homozygous K14-hSufu TG mice when compared with wild-type (WT) controls. TG mice exhibited significantly delayed skin wound healing. Moreover, the migratory and proliferative capabilities of cultured keratinocytes were decreased in K14-hSufuTG mice. Transforming growth factor-β treatment increased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin more in WT than in TG fibroblasts. Sufu overexpression significantly decreased the expression of β-catenin, glioma transcription factor 1 (Gli1), and matrix metalloproteinase-3 in wounds of K14-hSufu TG mice when compared with controls, probably indicating a delaying effect of Sufu on wound healing via blocking the hedgehog (Hh)/Gli and Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Our results indicate a new property of Sufu in the process of skin wound healing. It provides an important basis for Sufu as a potential target for skin wound healing. Our findings suggest that Sufu overexpression in the epidermis impairs wound healing via dampening the Hh/Gli and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These data provide an important basis for further analyses of Sufu in skin wound healing.