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A genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screening in myeloma cells identifies regulators of immunomodulatory drug sensitivity. Liu Jiye,Song Tianyu,Zhou Wenrong,Xing Lijie,Wang Su,Ho Matthew,Peng Zhengang,Tai Yu-Tzu,Hideshima Teru,Anderson Kenneth C,Cang Yong Leukemia Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) including lenalidomide and pomalidomide bind cereblon (CRBN) and activate the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase to trigger proteasomal degradation of the essential transcription factors IKZF1 and IKZF3 and multiple myeloma (MM) cytotoxicity. We have shown that CRBN is also targeted for degradation by SCF ubiquitin ligase. In the current study, we explored the mechanisms underlying sensitivity of MM cells to IMiDs using genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening. We validate that CSN9 signalosome complex, a deactivator of Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase, inhibits SCF E3 ligase-mediated CRBN degradation, thereby conferring sensitivity to IMiDs; conversely, loss of function of CSN9 signalosome activates SCF complex, thereby enhancing degradation of CRBN and conferring IMiD resistance. Finally, we show that pretreatment with either proteasome inhibitors or NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitors can abrogate degradation and maintain levels of CRBN, thereby enhancing sensitivity to IMiDs. These studies therefore demonstrate that CSN9 signalosome complex regulates sensitivity to IMiDs by modulating CRBN expression. 10.1038/s41375-018-0205-y
Functional Genomics Identifies Metabolic Vulnerabilities in Pancreatic Cancer. Biancur Douglas E,Kapner Kevin S,Yamamoto Keisuke,Banh Robert S,Neggers Jasper E,Sohn Albert S W,Wu Warren,Manguso Robert T,Brown Adam,Root David E,Aguirre Andrew J,Kimmelman Alec C Cell metabolism Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a deadly cancer characterized by complex metabolic adaptations that promote survival in a severely hypoxic and nutrient-limited tumor microenvironment (TME). Modeling microenvironmental influences in cell culture has been challenging, and technical limitations have hampered the comprehensive study of tumor-specific metabolism in vivo. To systematically interrogate metabolic vulnerabilities in PDA, we employed parallel CRISPR-Cas9 screens using in vivo and in vitro systems. This work revealed striking overlap of in vivo metabolic dependencies with those in vitro. Moreover, we identified that intercellular nutrient sharing can mask dependencies in pooled screens, highlighting a limitation of this approach to study tumor metabolism. Furthermore, metabolic dependencies were similar between 2D and 3D culture, although 3D culture may better model vulnerabilities that influence certain oncogenic signaling pathways. Lastly, our work demonstrates the power of genetic screening approaches to define in vivo metabolic dependencies and pathways that may have therapeutic utility. 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.10.018
PHLDA2-mediated phosphatidic acid peroxidation triggers a distinct ferroptotic response during tumor suppression. Cell metabolism Although the role of ferroptosis in killing tumor cells is well established, recent studies indicate that ferroptosis inducers also sabotage anti-tumor immunity by killing neutrophils and thus unexpectedly stimulate tumor growth, raising a serious issue about whether ferroptosis effectively suppresses tumor development in vivo. Through genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screenings, we discover a pleckstrin homology-like domain family A member 2 (PHLDA2)-mediated ferroptosis pathway that is neither ACSL4-dependent nor requires common ferroptosis inducers. PHLDA2-mediated ferroptosis acts through the peroxidation of phosphatidic acid (PA) upon high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS-induced ferroptosis is critical for tumor growth in the absence of common ferroptosis inducers; strikingly, loss of PHLDA2 abrogates ROS-induced ferroptosis and promotes tumor growth but has no obvious effect in normal tissues in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mouse tumor models. These data demonstrate that PHLDA2-mediated PA peroxidation triggers a distinct ferroptosis response critical for tumor suppression and reveal that PHLDA2-mediated ferroptosis occurs naturally in vivo without any treatment from ferroptosis inducers. 10.1016/j.cmet.2024.01.006
Epigenetic-focused CRISPR/Cas9 screen identifies (absent, small, or homeotic)2-like protein (ASH2L) as a regulator of glioblastoma cell survival. Cell communication and signaling : CCS BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor with extremely poor prognosis, highlighting an urgent need for developing novel treatment options. Identifying epigenetic vulnerabilities of cancer cells can provide excellent therapeutic intervention points for various types of cancers. METHOD:In this study, we investigated epigenetic regulators of glioblastoma cell survival through CRISPR/Cas9 based genetic ablation screens using a customized sgRNA library EpiDoKOL, which targets critical functional domains of chromatin modifiers. RESULTS:Screens conducted in multiple cell lines revealed ASH2L, a histone lysine methyltransferase complex subunit, as a major regulator of glioblastoma cell viability. ASH2L depletion led to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. RNA sequencing and greenCUT&RUN together identified a set of cell cycle regulatory genes, such as TRA2B, BARD1, KIF20B, ARID4A and SMARCC1 that were downregulated upon ASH2L depletion. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed the interaction partners of ASH2L in glioblastoma cell lines as SET1/MLL family members including SETD1A, SETD1B, MLL1 and MLL2. We further showed that glioblastoma cells had a differential dependency on expression of SET1/MLL family members for survival. The growth of ASH2L-depleted glioblastoma cells was markedly slower than controls in orthotopic in vivo models. TCGA analysis showed high ASH2L expression in glioblastoma compared to low grade gliomas and immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant ASH2L expression in glioblastoma tissues, attesting to its clinical relevance. Therefore, high throughput, robust and affordable screens with focused libraries, such as EpiDoKOL, holds great promise to enable rapid discovery of novel epigenetic regulators of cancer cell survival, such as ASH2L. CONCLUSION:Together, we suggest that targeting ASH2L could serve as a new therapeutic opportunity for glioblastoma. Video Abstract. 10.1186/s12964-023-01335-6
UHRF1 is a mediator of KRAS driven oncogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma. Nature communications KRAS is a frequent driver in lung cancer. To identify KRAS-specific vulnerabilities in lung cancer, we performed RNAi screens in primary spheroids derived from a Kras mutant mouse lung cancer model and discovered an epigenetic regulator Ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1). In human lung cancer models UHRF1 knock-out selectively impaired growth and induced apoptosis only in KRAS mutant cells. Genome-wide methylation and gene expression analysis of UHRF1-depleted KRAS mutant cells revealed global DNA hypomethylation leading to upregulation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). A focused CRISPR/Cas9 screen validated several of these TSGs as mediators of UHRF1-driven tumorigenesis. In vivo, UHRF1 knock-out inhibited tumor growth of KRAS-driven mouse lung cancer models. Finally, in lung cancer patients high UHRF1 expression is anti-correlated with TSG expression and predicts worse outcomes for patients with KRAS mutant tumors. These results nominate UHRF1 as a KRAS-specific vulnerability and potential target for therapeutic intervention. 10.1038/s41467-023-39591-2
Retinol Saturase Mediates Retinoid Metabolism to Impair a Ferroptosis Defense System in Cancer Cells. Cancer research Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of regulated cell death induced by the lethal overload of lipid peroxides in cellular membranes. In recent years, modulating ferroptosis has gained attention as a potential therapeutic approach for tumor suppression. In the current study, retinol saturase (RETSAT) was identified as a significant ferroptosis mediator using a publicly accessible CRISPR/Cas9 screening dataset. RETSAT depletion protected tumor cells from lipid peroxidation and subsequent cell death triggered by various ferroptosis inducers. Furthermore, exogenous supplementation with retinoids, including retinol (the substrate of RETSAT) and its derivatives retinal and retinoic acid, also suppressed ferroptosis, whereas the product of RETSAT, 13, 14-dihydroretinol, failed to do so. As effective radical-trapping antioxidant, retinoids protected the lipid membrane from autoxidation and subsequent fragmentation, thus terminating the cascade of ferroptosis. Pseudotargeted lipidomic analysis identified an association between retinoid regulation of ferroptosis and lipid metabolism. Retinoic acid, but not 13, 14-dihydroretinoic acid, interacted with its nuclear receptor and activated transcription of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, which introduces the first double bond into saturated fatty acid and thus catalyzes the generation of monounsaturated fatty acid, a known ferroptosis suppressor. Therefore, RETSAT promotes ferroptosis by transforming retinol to 13, 14-dihydroretinol, thereby turning a strong anti-ferroptosis regulator into a relatively weak one. SIGNIFICANCE:Retinoids have ferroptosis-protective properties and can be metabolized by RETSAT to promote ferroptosis, suggesting the possibility of targeting retinoid metabolism in cancer as a treatment strategy to trigger ferroptosis. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-22-3977
CRISPR/Cas9 screens unravel miR-3689a-3p regulating sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma via suppressing CCS/SOD1-dependent mitochondrial oxidative stress. Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy AIMS:Therapeutic outcome of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is undermined by the development of drug resistance. This study aimed to identify the critical microRNA (miRNA) which is responsible for sorafenib resistance at the genomic level. METHODS:CRISPR/Cas9 screen followed by gain- and loss-of-function assays both in vitro and in vivo were applied to identify the role of miR-3689a-3p in mediating sorafenib response in HCC. The upstream and downstream molecules of miR-3689a-3p and their mechanism of action were investigated. RESULTS:CRISPR/Cas9 screening identified miR-3689a-3p was the most up-regulated miRNA in sorafenib sensitive HCC. Knockdown of miR-3689a-3p significantly increased sorafenib resistance, while its overexpression sensitized HCC response to sorafenib treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that the effect of miR-3689a-3p was related to the copper-dependent mitochondrial superoxide dismutase type 1 (SOD1) activity. Mechanistically, miR-3689a-3p targeted the 3'UTR of the intracellular copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS) and suppressed its expression. As a result, miR-3689a-3p disrupted the intracellular copper trafficking and reduced SOD1-mediated scavenge of mitochondrial oxidative stress that eventually caused HCC cell death in response to sorafenib treatment. CCS overexpression blunted sorafenib response in HCC. Clinically, miR-3689a-3p was down-regulated in HCC and predicted favorable prognosis for HCC patients. CONCLUSION:Our findings provide comprehensive evidence for miR-3689a-3p as a positive regulator and potential druggable target for improving sorafenib treatment in HCC. 10.1016/j.drup.2023.101015
CRISPR/Cas9 screening identifies a kinetochore-microtubule dependent mechanism for Aurora-A inhibitor resistance in breast cancer. Chen Ailin,Wen Shijun,Liu Fang,Zhang Zijian,Liu Meiling,Wu Yuanzhong,He Bin,Yan Min,Kang Tiebang,Lam Eric W-F,Wang Zifeng,Liu Quentin Cancer communications (London, England) BACKGROUND:Overexpression of Aurora-A (AURKA) is a feature of breast cancer and associates with adverse prognosis. The selective Aurora-A inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) has recently demonstrated promising antitumor responses as a single agent in various cancer types but its phase III clinical trial was reported as a failure since MLN8237 did not show an apparent effect in prolonging the survival of patients. Thus, identification of potential targets that could enhance the activity of MLN8237 would provide a rationale for drug combination to achieve better therapeutic outcome. METHODS:Here, we conducted a systematic synthetic lethality CRISPR/Cas9 screening of 507 kinases using MLN8237 in breast cancer cells and identified a number of targetable kinases that displayed synthetic lethality interactions with MLN8237. Then, we performed competitive growth assays, colony formation assays, cell viability assays, apoptosis assays, and xenograft murine model to evaluate the synergistic therapeutic effects of Haspin (GSG2) depletion or inhibition with MLN8237. For mechanistic studies, immunofluorescence was used to detect the state of microtubules and the localization of Aurora-B and mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK). RESULTS:Among the hits, we observed that Haspin depletion or inhibition marginally inhibited breast cancer cell growth but could substantially enhance the killing effects of MLN8237. Mechanistic studies showed that co-treatment with Aurora-A and Haspin inhibitors abolished the recruitment of Aurora-B and mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) to centromeres which were associated with excessive microtubule depolymerization, kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachment failure, and severe mitotic catastrophe. We further showed that the combination of MLN8237 and the Haspin inhibitor CHR-6494 synergistically reduced breast cancer cell viability and significantly inhibited both in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS:These findings establish Haspin as a synthetic lethal target and demonstrate CHR-6494 as a potential combinational drug for promoting the therapeutic effects of MLN8237 on breast cancer. 10.1002/cac2.12125
Combined proteomics and CRISPR‒Cas9 screens in PDX identify ADAM10 as essential for leukemia in vivo. Molecular cancer BACKGROUND:Acute leukemias represent deadly malignancies that require better treatment. As a challenge, treatment is counteracted by a microenvironment protecting dormant leukemia stem cells. METHODS:To identify responsible surface proteins, we performed deep proteome profiling on minute numbers of dormant patient-derived xenograft (PDX) leukemia stem cells isolated from mice. Candidates were functionally screened by establishing a comprehensive CRISPR‒Cas9 pipeline in PDX models in vivo. RESULTS:A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) was identified as an essential vulnerability required for the survival and growth of different types of acute leukemias in vivo, and reconstitution assays in PDX models confirmed the relevance of its sheddase activity. Of translational importance, molecular or pharmacological targeting of ADAM10 reduced PDX leukemia burden, cell homing to the murine bone marrow and stem cell frequency, and increased leukemia response to conventional chemotherapy in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:These findings identify ADAM10 as an attractive therapeutic target for the future treatment of acute leukemias. 10.1186/s12943-023-01803-0
Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening for therapeutic targets in NSCLC carrying wild-type TP53 and receptor tyrosine kinase genes. Clinical and translational medicine BACKGROUND:Targeted drugs have greatly improved the therapeutic outcome of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients compared with conventional chemotherapy, whereas about one-third of patients are so far not suitable for targeted therapy due to lack of known driver oncogenes such as a mutated receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) genes. In this study, we aimed to identify therapeutic targets for this subgroup of NSCLC patients. METHODS:We performed genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screens in two NSCLC cell lines carrying wild-type TP53 and receptor tyrosine kinase (wtTP53-RTK) genes using a GeCKO v2.0 lentiviral library (containing 123411 sgRNAs and targeting 19050 genes). MAGeCKFlute was used to analyse and identify candidate genes. Genetic perturbation and pharmacological inhibition were used to validate the result in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:The Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening identified MDM2 as a potential therapeutic target for wtTP53-RTK NSCLC. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of MDM2 reduced cell proliferation and impaired tumour growth in the xenograft model, thus confirming the finding of the CRISPR/Cas9 screening. Moreover, treatment by a selective MDM2 inhibitor RG7388 triggered both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in several NSCLC cell lines. Additionally, RG7388 and pemetrexed synergistically blocked the cell proliferation and growth of wtTP53-RTK tumours but had limited effects for other genotypes. CONCLUSIONS:We identified MDM2 as an essential gene and a potential therapeutic target in wtTP53-RTK NSCLC via a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening. For this subgroup, treatment by RG7388 alone or by its combination with pemetrexed resulted in significant tumour inhibition. 10.1002/ctm2.882
PINCER: improved CRISPR/Cas9 screening by efficient cleavage at conserved residues. Nucleic acids research CRISPR/Cas9 functional genomic screens have emerged as essential tools in drug target discovery. However, the sensitivity of available genome-wide CRISPR libraries is impaired by guides which inefficiently abrogate gene function. While Cas9 cleavage efficiency optimization and essential domain targeting have been developed as independent guide design rationales, no library has yet combined these into a single cohesive strategy to knock out gene function. Here, in a massive reanalysis of CRISPR tiling data using the most comprehensive feature database assembled, we determine which features of guides and their targets best predict activity and how to best combine them into a single guide design algorithm. We present the ProteIN ConsERvation (PINCER) genome-wide CRISPR library, which for the first time combines enzymatic efficiency optimization with conserved length protein region targeting, and also incorporates domains, coding sequence position, U6 termination (TTT), restriction sites, polymorphisms and specificity. Finally, we demonstrate superior performance of the PINCER library compared to alternative genome-wide CRISPR libraries in head-to-head validation. PINCER is available for individual gene knockout and genome-wide screening for both the human and mouse genomes. 10.1093/nar/gkaa645
The PP2A-Integrator-CDK9 axis fine-tunes transcription and can be targeted therapeutically in cancer. Cell Gene expression by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is tightly controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) at discrete checkpoints during the transcription cycle. The pausing checkpoint following transcription initiation is primarily controlled by CDK9. We discovered that CDK9-mediated, RNAPII-driven transcription is functionally opposed by a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex that is recruited to transcription sites by the Integrator complex subunit INTS6. PP2A dynamically antagonizes phosphorylation of key CDK9 substrates including DSIF and RNAPII-CTD. Loss of INTS6 results in resistance to tumor cell death mediated by CDK9 inhibition, decreased turnover of CDK9 phospho-substrates, and amplification of acute oncogenic transcriptional responses. Pharmacological PP2A activation synergizes with CDK9 inhibition to kill both leukemic and solid tumor cells, providing therapeutic benefit in vivo. These data demonstrate that fine control of gene expression relies on the balance between kinase and phosphatase activity throughout the transcription cycle, a process dysregulated in cancer that can be exploited therapeutically. 10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.022
Genome-wide CRISPR screens reveal multitiered mechanisms through which mTORC1 senses mitochondrial dysfunction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America In mammalian cells, nutrients and growth factors signal through an array of upstream proteins to regulate the mTORC1 growth control pathway. Because the full complement of these proteins has not been systematically identified, we developed a FACS-based CRISPR-Cas9 genetic screening strategy to pinpoint genes that regulate mTORC1 activity. Along with almost all known positive components of the mTORC1 pathway, we identified many genes that impact mTORC1 activity, including , , , , , and Using the genome-wide screening data, we generated a focused sublibrary containing single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) targeting hundreds of genes and carried out epistasis screens in cells lacking nutrient- and stress-responsive mTORC1 modulators, including GATOR1, AMPK, GCN2, and ATF4. From these data, we pinpointed mitochondrial function as a particularly important input into mTORC1 signaling. While it is well appreciated that mitochondria signal to mTORC1, the mechanisms are not completely clear. We find that the kinases AMPK and HRI signal, with varying kinetics, mitochondrial distress to mTORC1, and that HRI acts through the ATF4-dependent up-regulation of both Sestrin2 and Redd1. Loss of both AMPK and HRI is sufficient to render mTORC1 signaling largely resistant to mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin as well as the electron transport chain inhibitors piericidin and antimycin. Taken together, our data reveal a catalog of genes that impact the mTORC1 pathway and clarify the multifaceted ways in which mTORC1 senses mitochondrial dysfunction. 10.1073/pnas.2022120118
CRISPR screens uncover protective effect of PSTK as a regulator of chemotherapy-induced ferroptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. Chen Yiran,Li Li,Lan Jie,Cui Yang,Rao Xiaosong,Zhao Jing,Xing Tao,Ju Gaoda,Song Guangtao,Lou Jizhong,Liang Jun Molecular cancer BACKGROUND:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common forms of cancer and is associated with poor patient outcomes. The emergence of therapeutic resistance has hampered the efficacy of targeted treatments employed to treat HCC patients to date. In this study, we conducted a series of CRISPR/Cas9 screens to identify genes associated with synthetic lethality capable of improving HCC patient clinical responses. METHODS:CRISPR-based loss-of-function genetic screens were used to target 18,053 protein-coding genes in HCC cells to identify chemotherapy-related synthetic lethal genes in these cells. Synergistic effects were analyzed through in vitro and in vivo analyses, while related mechanisms were explored through RNA-seq and metabolomics analyses. Potential inhibitors of identified genetic targets were selected through high-throughput virtual screening. RESULTS:The inhibition of phosphoseryl-tRNA kinase (PSTK) was found to increase HCC cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic treatment. PSTK was associated with the suppression of chemotherapy-induced ferroptosis in HCC cells, and the depletion of PSTK resulted in the inactivation of glutathione peroxidative 4 (GPX4) and the disruption of glutathione (GSH) metabolism owing to the inhibition of selenocysteine and cysteine synthesis, thus enhancing the induction of ferroptosis upon targeted chemotherapeutic treatment. Punicalin, an agent used to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV), was identified as a possible PSTK inhibitor that exhibited synergistic efficacy when applied together with Sorafenib to treat HCC in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:These results highlight a key role for PSTK as a mediator of resistance to targeted therapeutic treatment in HCC cells that functions by suppressing ferroptotic induction. PSTK inhibitors may thus represent ideal candidates for overcoming drug resistance in HCC. 10.1186/s12943-021-01466-9
RNF31 inhibition sensitizes tumors to bystander killing by innate and adaptive immune cells. Cell reports. Medicine Tumor escape mechanisms for immunotherapy include deficiencies in antigen presentation, diminishing adaptive CD8 T cell antitumor activity. Although innate natural killer (NK) cells are triggered by loss of MHC class I, their response is often inadequate. To increase tumor susceptibility to both innate and adaptive immune elimination, we performed parallel genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens under NK and CD8 T cell pressure. We identify all components, RNF31, RBCK1, and SHARPIN, of the linear ubiquitination chain assembly complex (LUBAC). Genetic and pharmacologic ablation of RNF31, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, strongly sensitizes cancer cells to NK and CD8 T cell killing. This occurs in a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-dependent manner, causing loss of A20 and non-canonical IKK complexes from TNF receptor complex I. A small-molecule RNF31 inhibitor sensitizes colon carcinoma organoids to TNF and greatly enhances bystander killing of MHC antigen-deficient tumor cells. These results merit exploration of RNF31 inhibition as a clinical pharmacological opportunity for immunotherapy-refractory cancers. 10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100655
Genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals v-ATPase as a drug target to lower levels of ALS protein ataxin-2. Cell reports Mutations in the ataxin-2 gene (ATXN2) cause the neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). A therapeutic strategy using antisense oligonucleotides targeting ATXN2 has entered clinical trial in humans. Additional ways to decrease ataxin-2 levels could lead to cheaper or less invasive therapies and elucidate how ataxin-2 is normally regulated. Here, we perform a genome-wide fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based CRISPR-Cas9 screen in human cells and identify genes encoding components of the lysosomal vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase) as modifiers of endogenous ataxin-2 protein levels. Multiple FDA-approved small molecule v-ATPase inhibitors lower ataxin-2 protein levels in mouse and human neurons, and oral administration of at least one of these drugs-etidronate-is sufficient to decrease ataxin-2 in the brains of mice. Together, we propose v-ATPase as a drug target for ALS and SCA2 and demonstrate the value of FACS-based screens in identifying genetic-and potentially druggable-modifiers of human disease proteins. 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111508
The ADP/ATP translocase drives mitophagy independent of nucleotide exchange. Nature Mitochondrial homeostasis depends on mitophagy, the programmed degradation of mitochondria. Only a few proteins are known to participate in mitophagy. Here we develop a multidimensional CRISPR-Cas9 genetic screen, using multiple mitophagy reporter systems and pro-mitophagy triggers, and identify numerous components of parkin-dependent mitophagy. Unexpectedly, we find that the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) complex is required for mitophagy in several cell types. Whereas pharmacological inhibition of ANT-mediated ADP/ATP exchange promotes mitophagy, genetic ablation of ANT paradoxically suppresses mitophagy. Notably, ANT promotes mitophagy independently of its nucleotide translocase catalytic activity. Instead, the ANT complex is required for inhibition of the presequence translocase TIM23, which leads to stabilization of PINK1, in response to bioenergetic collapse. ANT modulates TIM23 indirectly via interaction with TIM44, which regulates peptide import through TIM23. Mice that lack ANT1 show blunted mitophagy and consequent profound accumulation of aberrant mitochondria. Disease-causing human mutations in ANT1 abrogate binding to TIM44 and TIM23 and inhibit mitophagy. Together, our findings show that ANT is an essential and fundamental mediator of mitophagy in health and disease. 10.1038/s41586-019-1667-4
Mitochondrial Reprogramming Underlies Resistance to BCL-2 Inhibition in Lymphoid Malignancies. Guièze Romain,Liu Vivian M,Rosebrock Daniel,Jourdain Alexis A,Hernández-Sánchez María,Martinez Zurita Aina,Sun Jing,Ten Hacken Elisa,Baranowski Kaitlyn,Thompson Philip A,Heo Jin-Mi,Cartun Zachary,Aygün Ozan,Iorgulescu J Bryan,Zhang Wandi,Notarangelo Giulia,Livitz Dimitri,Li Shuqiang,Davids Matthew S,Biran Anat,Fernandes Stacey M,Brown Jennifer R,Lako Ana,Ciantra Zoe B,Lawlor Matthew A,Keskin Derin B,Udeshi Namrata D,Wierda William G,Livak Kenneth J,Letai Anthony G,Neuberg Donna,Harper J Wade,Carr Steven A,Piccioni Federica,Ott Christopher J,Leshchiner Ignaty,Johannessen Cory M,Doench John,Mootha Vamsi K,Getz Gad,Wu Catherine J Cancer cell Mitochondrial apoptosis can be effectively targeted in lymphoid malignancies with the FDA-approved B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) inhibitor venetoclax, but resistance to this agent is emerging. We show that venetoclax resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is associated with complex clonal shifts. To identify determinants of resistance, we conducted parallel genome-scale screens of the BCL-2-driven OCI-Ly1 lymphoma cell line after venetoclax exposure along with integrated expression profiling and functional characterization of drug-resistant and engineered cell lines. We identified regulators of lymphoid transcription and cellular energy metabolism as drivers of venetoclax resistance in addition to the known involvement by BCL-2 family members, which were confirmed in patient samples. Our data support the implementation of combinatorial therapy with metabolic modulators to address venetoclax resistance. 10.1016/j.ccell.2019.08.005
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase contributes to phospholipid peroxidation in ferroptosis. Zou Yilong,Li Haoxin,Graham Emily T,Deik Amy A,Eaton John K,Wang Wenyu,Sandoval-Gomez Gerardo,Clish Clary B,Doench John G,Schreiber Stuart L Nature chemical biology Ferroptosis is widely involved in degenerative diseases in various tissues including kidney, liver and brain, and is a targetable vulnerability in multiple primary and therapy-resistant cancers. Accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides in cellular membranes is the hallmark and rate-limiting step of ferroptosis; however, the enzymes contributing to lipid peroxidation remain poorly characterized. Using genome-wide, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated suppressor screens, we identify cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) as necessary for ferroptotic cell death in cancer cells exhibiting inherent and induced susceptibility to ferroptosis. By genetic depletion of POR in cancer cells, we reveal that POR contributes to ferroptosis across a wide range of lineages and cell states, and in response to distinct mechanisms of ferroptosis induction. Using systematic lipidomic profiling, we further map POR's activity to the lipid peroxidation step in ferroptosis. Hence, our work suggests that POR is a key mediator of ferroptosis and potential druggable target for developing antiferroptosis therapeutics. 10.1038/s41589-020-0472-6
Genome-wide CRISPR screens identify ILF3 as a mediator of mTORC1-dependent amino acid sensing. Nature cell biology The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is an essential hub that integrates nutrient signals and coordinates metabolism to control cell growth. Amino acid signals are detected by sensor proteins and relayed to the GATOR2 and GATOR1 complexes to control mTORC1 activity. Here we perform genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screens, coupled with an assay for mTORC1 activity based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of pS6, to identify potential regulators of mTORC1-dependent amino acid sensing. We then focus on interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (ILF3), one of the candidate genes from the screen. ILF3 tethers the GATOR complexes to lysosomes to control mTORC1. Adding a lysosome-targeting sequence to the GATOR2 component WDR24 bypasses the requirement for ILF3 to modulate amino-acid-dependent mTORC1 signalling. ILF3 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in human and mouse cells, and in worms to regulate the mTORC1 pathway, control autophagy activity and modulate the ageing process. 10.1038/s41556-023-01123-x
QSER1 protects DNA methylation valleys from de novo methylation. Science (New York, N.Y.) DNA methylation is essential to mammalian development, and dysregulation can cause serious pathological conditions. Key enzymes responsible for deposition and removal of DNA methylation are known, but how they cooperate to regulate the methylation landscape remains a central question. Using a knockin DNA methylation reporter, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen in human embryonic stem cells to discover DNA methylation regulators. The top screen hit was an uncharacterized gene, , which proved to be a key guardian of bivalent promoters and poised enhancers of developmental genes, especially those residing in DNA methylation valleys (or canyons). We further demonstrate genetic and biochemical interactions of QSER1 and TET1, supporting their cooperation to safeguard transcriptional and developmental programs from DNMT3-mediated de novo methylation. 10.1126/science.abd0875
GINS4 suppresses ferroptosis by antagonizing p53 acetylation with Snail. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent oxidative, nonapoptotic form of regulated cell death caused by the destruction of redox homeostasis. Recent studies have uncovered complex cellular networks that regulate ferroptosis. GINS4 is a promoter of eukaryotic G/Scell cycle as a regulator of initiation and elongation of DNA replication, but little is known about its impact on ferroptosis. Here, we found that GINS4 was involved in the regulation of ferroptosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). CRISPR/Cas9-mediated GINS4 KO facilitated ferroptosis. Interestingly, depletion of GINS4 could effectively induce G1, G/S, S, and G/M cells to ferroptosis, especially for G2/M cells. Mechanistically, GINS4 suppressed p53 stability through activating Snail that antagonized the acetylation of p53, and p53 lysine residue 351 (K351 for human p53) was the key site for GINS4-suppressed p53-mediated ferroptosis. Together, our data demonstrate that GINS4 is a potential oncogene in LUAD that functions to destabilize p53 and then inhibits ferroptosis, providing a potential therapeutic target for LUAD. 10.1073/pnas.2219585120
CC-90009, a novel cereblon E3 ligase modulator, targets acute myeloid leukemia blasts and leukemia stem cells. Blood A number of clinically validated drugs have been developed by repurposing the CUL4-DDB1-CRBN-RBX1 (CRL4CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with molecular glue degraders to eliminate disease-driving proteins. Here, we present the identification of a first-in-class GSPT1-selective cereblon E3 ligase modulator, CC-90009. Biochemical, structural, and molecular characterization demonstrates that CC-90009 coopts the CRL4CRBN to selectively target GSPT1 for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Depletion of GSPT1 by CC-90009 rapidly induces acute myeloid leukemia (AML) apoptosis, reducing leukemia engraftment and leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in large-scale primary patient xenografting of 35 independent AML samples, including those with adverse risk features. Using a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen for effectors of CC-90009 response, we uncovered the ILF2 and ILF3 heterodimeric complex as a novel regulator of cereblon expression. Knockout of ILF2/ILF3 decreases the production of full-length cereblon protein via modulating CRBN messenger RNA alternative splicing, leading to diminished response to CC-90009. The screen also revealed that the mTOR signaling and the integrated stress response specifically regulate the response to CC-90009 in contrast to other cereblon modulators. Hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway by inactivation of TSC1 and TSC2 protected against the growth inhibitory effect of CC-90009 by reducing CC-90009-induced binding of GSPT1 to cereblon and subsequent GSPT1 degradation. On the other hand, GSPT1 degradation promoted the activation of the GCN1/GCN2/ATF4 pathway and subsequent apoptosis in AML cells. Collectively, CC-90009 activity is mediated by multiple layers of signaling networks and pathways within AML blasts and LSCs, whose elucidation gives insight into further assessment of CC-90009s clinical utility. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02848001 and #NCT04336982). 10.1182/blood.2020008676
Genome-Wide CRISPR/Cas9 Library Screening Revealed Dietary Restriction of Glutamine in Combination with Inhibition of Pyruvate Metabolism as Effective Liver Cancer Treatment. Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most lethal cancer worldwide. Glutamine is an essential, extracellular nutrient which supports HCC growth. Dietary glutamine deficiency may be a potential therapeutic approach for HCC. HCC cells overcome metabolic challenges by rewiring their metabolic pathways for rapid adaptations. The efficiency of dietary glutamine deficiency as HCC treatment is examined and the adaptation machinery under glutamine depletion in HCC cells is unraveled. Using genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout library screening, this study identifies that pyruvate dehydrogenase α (PDHA), pyruvate dehydrogenase β (PDHB), and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) in pyruvate metabolism are crucial to the adaptation of glutamine depletion in HCC cells. Knockout of either PDHA, PDHB or PC induced metabolic reprogramming of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, disrupts mitochondrial function, leading to the suppression of HCC cell proliferation under glutamine depletion. Surprisingly, dietary glutamine restriction improves therapeutic responses of HCC to PDH or PC inhibitor in mouse HCC models. Stable isotope carbon tracing confirms that PDH or PC inhibitors further disrupt the metabolic rewiring of the TCA cycle induced by dietary glutamine depletion in HCC. In summary, the results demonstrate that pyruvate metabolism acts as novel targetable metabolic vulnerabilities for HCC treatment in combination with a glutamine-deficient diet. 10.1002/advs.202202104
Lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation of NAT10 promotes cancer metastasis in an ac4C-dependent manner. Cell research Posttranslational modifications add tremendous complexity to proteomes; however, gaps remain in knowledge regarding the function and regulatory mechanism of newly discovered lysine acylation modifications. Here, we compared a panel of non-histone lysine acylation patterns in metastasis models and clinical samples, and focused on 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (Khib) due to its significant upregulation in cancer metastases. By the integration of systemic Khib proteome profiling in 20 paired primary esophageal tumor and metastatic tumor tissues with CRISPR/Cas9 functional screening, we identified N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10) as a substrate for Khib modification. We further showed that Khib modification at lysine 823 in NAT10 functionally contribute to metastasis. Mechanistically, NAT10 Khib modification enhances its interaction with deubiquitinase USP39, resulting in increased NAT10 protein stability. NAT10 in turn promotes metastasis by increasing NOTCH3 mRNA stability in an N4-acetylcytidine-dependent manner. Furthermore, we discovered a lead compound #7586-3507 that inhibited NAT10 Khib modification and showed efficacy in tumor models in vivo at a low concentration. Together, our findings bridge newly identified lysine acylation modifications with RNA modifications, thus providing novel insights into epigenetic regulation in human cancer. We propose that pharmacological inhibition of NAT10 K823 Khib modification constitutes a potential anti-metastasis strategy. 10.1038/s41422-023-00793-4
Phosphorylated NFS1 weakens oxaliplatin-based chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer by preventing PANoptosis. Signal transduction and targeted therapy Metabolic enzymes have an indispensable role in metabolic reprogramming, and their aberrant expression or activity has been associated with chemosensitivity. Hence, targeting metabolic enzymes remains an attractive approach for treating tumors. However, the influence and regulation of cysteine desulfurase (NFS1), a rate-limiting enzyme in iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis, in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain elusive. Here, using an in vivo metabolic enzyme gene-based clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 library screen, we revealed that loss of NFS1 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of CRC cells to oxaliplatin. In vitro and in vivo results showed that NFS1 deficiency synergizing with oxaliplatin triggered PANoptosis (apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis) by increasing the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, oxaliplatin-based oxidative stress enhanced the phosphorylation level of serine residues of NFS1, which prevented PANoptosis in an S293 phosphorylation-dependent manner during oxaliplatin treatment. In addition, high expression of NFS1, transcriptionally regulated by MYC, was found in tumor tissues and was associated with poor survival and hyposensitivity to chemotherapy in patients with CRC. Overall, the findings of this study provided insights into the underlying mechanisms of NFS1 in oxaliplatin sensitivity and identified NFS1 inhibition as a promising strategy for improving the outcome of platinum-based chemotherapy in the treatment of CRC. 10.1038/s41392-022-00889-0
CRISPR/Cas9 Screens Reveal that Hexokinase 2 Enhances Cancer Stemness and Tumorigenicity by Activating the ACSL4-Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Pathway. Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) Metabolic reprogramming is often observed in carcinogenesis, but little is known about the aberrant metabolic genes involved in the tumorigenicity and maintenance of stemness in cancer cells. Sixty-seven oncogenic metabolism-related genes in liver cancer by in vivo CRISPR/Cas9 screening are identified. Among them, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), aldolase fructose-bisphosphate A (ALDOA), fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), and hexokinase 2 (HK2) are strongly associated with stem cell properties. HK2 further facilitates the maintenance and self-renewal of liver cancer stem cells. Moreover, HK2 enhances the accumulation of acetyl-CoA and epigenetically activates the transcription of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4), leading to an increase in fatty acid β-oxidation activity. Blocking HK2 or ACSL4 effectively inhibits liver cancer growth, and GalNac-siHK2 administration specifically targets the growth of orthotopic tumor xenografts. These results suggest a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver cancer. 10.1002/advs.202105126
PKCβII phosphorylates ACSL4 to amplify lipid peroxidation to induce ferroptosis. Nature cell biology The accumulation of lipid peroxides is recognized as a determinant of the occurrence of ferroptosis. However, the sensors and amplifying process of lipid peroxidation linked to ferroptosis remain obscure. Here we identify PKCβII as a critical contributor of ferroptosis through independent genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 and kinase inhibitor library screening. Our results show that PKCβII senses the initial lipid peroxides and amplifies lipid peroxidation linked to ferroptosis through phosphorylation and activation of ACSL4. Lipidomics analysis shows that activated ACSL4 catalyses polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing lipid biosynthesis and promotes the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, leading to ferroptosis. Attenuation of the PKCβII-ACSL4 pathway effectively blocks ferroptosis in vitro and impairs ferroptosis-associated cancer immunotherapy in vivo. Our results identify PKCβII as a sensor of lipid peroxidation, and the lipid peroxidation-PKCβII-ACSL4 positive-feedback axis may provide potential targets for ferroptosis-associated disease treatment. 10.1038/s41556-021-00818-3
Genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screen of Wnt/β-catenin signaling identifies therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer. Science advances Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a key driver of colorectal cancer (CRC) growth and of great therapeutic importance. In this study, we performed comprehensive CRISPR screens to interrogate the regulatory network of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in CRC cells. We found marked discrepancies between the artificial TOP reporter activity and β-catenin-mediated endogenous transcription and redundant roles of T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor transcription factors in transducing β-catenin signaling. Compiled functional genomic screens and network analysis revealed unique epigenetic regulators of β-catenin transcriptional output, including the histone lysine methyltransferase 2A oncoprotein (KMT2A/Mll1). Using an integrative epigenomic and transcriptional profiling approach, we show that KMT2A loss diminishes the binding of β-catenin to consensus DNA motifs and the transcription of β-catenin targets in CRC. These results suggest that KMT2A may be a promising target for CRCs and highlight the broader potential for exploiting epigenetic modulation as a therapeutic strategy for β-catenin-driven malignancies. 10.1126/sciadv.abf2567
CRISPR/Cas9-based genome-wide screening for deubiquitinase subfamily identifies USP1 regulating MAST1-driven cisplatin-resistance in cancer cells. Theranostics Cisplatin is one of the frontline anticancer agents. However, development of cisplatin-resistance limits the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin-based treatment. The expression of microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase 1 (MAST1) is a primary factor driving cisplatin-resistance in cancers by rewiring the MEK pathway. However, the mechanisms responsible for MAST1 regulation in conferring drug resistance is unknown. We implemented a CRISPR/Cas9-based, genome-wide, dual screening system to identify deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) that govern cisplatin resistance and regulate MAST1 protein level. We analyzed K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitination of MAST1 protein and mapped the interacting domain between USP1 and MAST1 by immunoprecipitation assay. The deubiquitinating effect of USP1 on MAST1 protein was validated using rescue experiments, deubiquitination assay, immunoprecipitation assays, and half-life analysis. Furthermore, USP1-knockout A549 lung cancer cells were generated to validate the deubiquitinating activity of USP1 on MAST1 abundance. The USP1-MAST1 correlation was evaluated using bioinformatics tool and in different human clinical tissues. The potential role of USP1 in regulating MAST1-mediated cisplatin resistance was confirmed using a series of and experiments. Finally, the clinical relevance of the USP1-MAST1 axis was validated by application of small-molecule inhibitors in a lung cancer xenograft model in NSG mice. The CRISPR/Cas9-based dual screening system identified USP1 as a novel deubiquitinase that interacts, stabilizes, and extends the half-life of MAST1 by preventing its K48-linked polyubiquitination. The expression analysis across human clinical tissues revealed a positive correlation between USP1 and MAST1. USP1 promotes MAST1-mediated MEK1 activation as an underlying mechanism that contributes to cisplatin-resistance in cancers. Loss of USP1 led to attenuation of MAST1-mediated cisplatin-resistance both and . The combined pharmacological inhibition of USP1 and MAST1 using small-molecule inhibitors further abrogated MAST1 level and synergistically enhanced cisplatin efficacy in a mouse xenograft model. Overall, our study highlights the role of USP1 in the development of cisplatin resistance and uncovers the regulatory mechanism of MAST1-mediated cisplatin resistance in cancers. Co-treatment with USP1 and MAST1 inhibitors abrogated tumor growth and synergistically enhanced cisplatin efficacy, suggesting a novel alternative combinatorial therapeutic strategy that could further improve MAST1-based therapy in patients with cisplatin-resistant tumors. 10.7150/thno.72826
TRIM28 promotes the escape of gastric cancer cells from immune surveillance by increasing PD-L1 abundance. Signal transduction and targeted therapy Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) offers a new opportunity for treatment for gastric cancer (G.C.). Understanding the upstream regulation of immune checkpoints is crucial to further improve the efficacy of ICB therapy. Herein, using the CRISPR-Cas9-based genome-wide screening, we identified TRIM28 as one of the most significant regulators of PD-L1, a checkpoint protein, in G.C. cells. Mechanistically, TRIM28 directly binds to and stabilizes PD-L1 by inhibiting PD-L1 ubiquitination and promoting PD-L1 SUMOylation. Furthermore, TRIM28 facilitates K63 polyubiquitination of TBK1, activating TBK1-IRF1 and TBK1-mTOR pathways, resulting in enhanced PD-L1 transcription. It was found that TRIM28 was positively correlated with PD-L1 in G.C. cells. Moreover, high TRIM28 expression suggests poor survival in a cohort of 466 patients with G.C., and this observation is consistent while analyzing data from publicly available databases. Ectopic TRIM28 expression facilitated tumor growth, increased PD-L1 expression, and suppressed T cell activation in mice. Administration of the PD-L1 or TBK1 inhibitor significantly alleviated the TRIM28-induced tumor progression. Furthermore, combining the TBK1 inhibitor with CTLA4 immune checkpoint blockade has synergistic effects on G.C., and provides a novel strategy for G.C. therapy. 10.1038/s41392-023-01450-3
A CRISPR-Cas9 delivery system for in vivo screening of genes in the immune system. Nature communications Therapies that target the function of immune cells have significant clinical efficacy in diseases such as cancer and autoimmunity. Although functional genomics has accelerated therapeutic target discovery in cancer, its use in primary immune cells is limited because vector delivery is inefficient and can perturb cell states. Here we describe CHIME: CHimeric IMmune Editing, a CRISPR-Cas9 bone marrow delivery system to rapidly evaluate gene function in innate and adaptive immune cells in vivo without ex vivo manipulation of these mature lineages. This approach enables efficient deletion of genes of interest in major immune lineages without altering their development or function. We use this approach to perform an in vivo pooled genetic screen and identify Ptpn2 as a negative regulator of CD8 T cell-mediated responses to LCMV Clone 13 viral infection. These findings indicate that this genetic platform can enable rapid target discovery through pooled screening in immune cells in vivo. 10.1038/s41467-019-09656-2
CRISPR/Cas9: a powerful tool in colorectal cancer research. Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant cancers worldwide and seriously threatens human health. The clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associate nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is an adaptive immune system of bacteria or archaea. Since its introduction, research into various aspects of treatment approaches for CRC has been accelerated, including investigation of the oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), drug resistance genes, target genes, mouse model construction, and especially in genome-wide library screening. Furthermore, the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be utilized for gene therapy for CRC, specifically involving in the molecular targeted drug delivery or targeted knockout in vivo. In this review, we elucidate the mechanism of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and its comprehensive applications in CRC. Additionally, we discussed the issue of off-target effects associated with CRISPR/Cas9, which serves to restrict its practical application. Future research on CRC should in-depth and systematically utilize the CRISPR/Cas9 system thereby achieving clinical practice. 10.1186/s13046-023-02901-z
SMARCAL1 is a dual regulator of innate immune signaling and PD-L1 expression that promotes tumor immune evasion. Cell Genomic instability can trigger cancer-intrinsic innate immune responses that promote tumor rejection. However, cancer cells often evade these responses by overexpressing immune checkpoint regulators, such as PD-L1. Here, we identify the SNF2-family DNA translocase SMARCAL1 as a factor that favors tumor immune evasion by a dual mechanism involving both the suppression of innate immune signaling and the induction of PD-L1-mediated immune checkpoint responses. Mechanistically, SMARCAL1 limits endogenous DNA damage, thereby suppressing cGAS-STING-dependent signaling during cancer cell growth. Simultaneously, it cooperates with the AP-1 family member JUN to maintain chromatin accessibility at a PD-L1 transcriptional regulatory element, thereby promoting PD-L1 expression in cancer cells. SMARCAL1 loss hinders the ability of tumor cells to induce PD-L1 in response to genomic instability, enhances anti-tumor immune responses and sensitizes tumors to immune checkpoint blockade in a mouse melanoma model. Collectively, these studies uncover SMARCAL1 as a promising target for cancer immunotherapy. 10.1016/j.cell.2024.01.008
Effect of CRISPR/Cas9-Edited PD-1/PD-L1 on Tumor Immunity and Immunotherapy. Frontiers in immunology Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated nuclease9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene editing technology implements precise programming of the human genome through RNA guidance. At present, it has been widely used in the construction of animal tumor models, the study of drug resistance regulation mechanisms, epigenetic control and innovation in cancer treatment. Tumor immunotherapy restores the normal antitumor immune response by restarting and maintaining the tumor-immune cycle. CRISPR/Cas9 technology has occupied a central position in further optimizing anti-programmed cell death 1(PD-1) tumor immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in exploring the regulatory mechanism of tumor immune PD-1 and programmed death ligand 1(PD-L1) based on CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its clinical application in different cancer types. In addition, CRISPR genome-wide screening identifies new drug targets and biomarkers to identify potentially sensitive populations for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy and maximize antitumor effects. Finally, the strong potential and challenges of CRISPR/Cas9 for future clinical applications are discussed. 10.3389/fimmu.2022.848327
Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 Screen Identifies Host Factors Essential for Influenza Virus Replication. Han Julianna,Perez Jasmine T,Chen Cindy,Li Yan,Benitez Asiel,Kandasamy Matheswaran,Lee Yoontae,Andrade Jorge,tenOever Benjamin,Manicassamy Balaji Cell reports The emergence of influenza A viruses (IAVs) from zoonotic reservoirs poses a great threat to human health. As seasonal vaccines are ineffective against zoonotic strains, and newly transmitted viruses can quickly acquire drug resistance, there remains a need for host-directed therapeutics against IAVs. Here, we performed a genome-scale CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screen in human lung epithelial cells with a human isolate of an avian H5N1 strain. Several genes involved in sialic acid biosynthesis and related glycosylation pathways were highly enriched post-H5N1 selection, including SLC35A1, a sialic acid transporter essential for IAV receptor expression and thus viral entry. Importantly, we have identified capicua (CIC) as a negative regulator of cell-intrinsic immunity, as loss of CIC resulted in heightened antiviral responses and restricted replication of multiple viruses. Therefore, our study demonstrates that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be utilized for the discovery of host factors critical for the replication of intracellular pathogens. 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.03.045
Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening reveals ubiquitous T cell cancer targeting via the monomorphic MHC class I-related protein MR1. Nature immunology Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-independent, T cell-mediated targeting of cancer cells would allow immune destruction of malignancies in all individuals. Here, we use genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening to establish that a T cell receptor (TCR) recognized and killed most human cancer types via the monomorphic MHC class I-related protein, MR1, while remaining inert to noncancerous cells. Unlike mucosal-associated invariant T cells, recognition of target cells by the TCR was independent of bacterial loading. Furthermore, concentration-dependent addition of vitamin B-related metabolite ligands of MR1 reduced TCR recognition of cancer cells, suggesting that recognition occurred via sensing of the cancer metabolome. An MR1-restricted T cell clone mediated in vivo regression of leukemia and conferred enhanced survival of NSG mice. TCR transfer to T cells of patients enabled killing of autologous and nonautologous melanoma. These findings offer opportunities for HLA-independent, pan-cancer, pan-population immunotherapies. 10.1038/s41590-019-0578-8
Application of the CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing technique in basic research, diagnosis, and therapy of cancer. Zhang Huimin,Qin Chunhong,An Changming,Zheng Xiwang,Wen Shuxin,Chen Wenjie,Liu Xianfang,Lv Zhenghua,Yang Pingchang,Xu Wei,Gao Wei,Wu Yongyan Molecular cancer The 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna for the development of the Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated nuclease9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene editing technology that provided new tools for precise gene editing. It is possible to target any genomic locus virtually using only a complex nuclease protein with short RNA as a site-specific endonuclease. Since cancer is caused by genomic changes in tumor cells, CRISPR/Cas9 can be used in the field of cancer research to edit genomes for exploration of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and development. In recent years, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been increasingly used in cancer research and treatment and remarkable results have been achieved. In this review, we introduced the mechanism and development of the CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing system. Furthermore, we summarized current applications of this technique for basic research, diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Moreover, the potential applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in new emerging hotspots of oncology research were discussed, and the challenges and future directions were highlighted. 10.1186/s12943-021-01431-6
Genome-wide CRISPR screens of T cell exhaustion identify chromatin remodeling factors that limit T cell persistence. Cancer cell T cell exhaustion limits antitumor immunity, but the molecular determinants of this process remain poorly understood. Using a chronic stimulation assay, we performed genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screens to systematically discover regulators of T cell exhaustion, which identified an enrichment of epigenetic factors. In vivo CRISPR screens in murine and human tumor models demonstrated that perturbation of the INO80 and BAF chromatin remodeling complexes improved T cell persistence in tumors. In vivo Perturb-seq revealed distinct transcriptional roles of each complex and that depletion of canonical BAF complex members, including Arid1a, resulted in the maintenance of an effector program and downregulation of exhaustion-related genes in tumor-infiltrating T cells. Finally, Arid1a depletion limited the acquisition of exhaustion-associated chromatin accessibility and led to improved antitumor immunity. In summary, we provide an atlas of the genetic regulators of T cell exhaustion and demonstrate that modulation of epigenetic state can improve T cell responses in cancer immunotherapy. 10.1016/j.ccell.2022.06.001
CRISPR/Cas9-Engineered Universal CD19/CD22 Dual-Targeted CAR-T Cell Therapy for Relapsed/Refractory B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Hu Yongxian,Zhou Yali,Zhang Mingming,Ge Wengang,Li Yi,Yang Li,Wei Guoqing,Han Lu,Wang Hao,Yu Shuhui,Chen Yi,Wang Yanbin,He Xiaohong,Zhang Xingwang,Gao Ming,Yang Jingjing,Li Xiuju,Ren Jiangtao,Huang He Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Autologous chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is an effective treatment for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r ALL). However, certain characteristics of autologous CAR-T cells can delay treatment availability. Relapse caused by antigen escape after single-targeted CAR-T therapy is another issue. Therefore, we aim to develop CRISPR-edited universal off-the-shelf CD19/CD22 dual-targeted CAR-T cells as a novel therapy for r/r ALL. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In this open-label dose-escalation phase I study, universal CD19/CD22-targeting CAR-T cells (CTA101) with a CRISPR/Cas9-disrupted region and gene to avoid host immune-mediated rejection were infused in patients with r/r ALL. Safety, efficacy, and CTA101 cellular kinetics were evaluated. RESULTS:CRISPR/Cas9 technology mediated highly efficient, high-fidelity gene editing and production of universal CAR-T cells. No gene editing-associated genotoxicity or chromosomal translocation was observed. Six patients received CTA101 infusions at doses of 1 (3 patients) and 3 (3 patients) × 10 CAR T cells/kg body weight. Cytokine release syndrome occurred in all patients. No dose-limiting toxicity, GvHD, neurotoxicity, or genome editing-associated adverse events have occurred to date. The complete remission (CR) rate was 83.3% on day 28 after CTA101 infusion. With a median follow-up of 4.3 months, 3 of the 5 patients who achieved CR or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CR/CRi) remained minimal residual disease (MRD) negative. CONCLUSIONS:CRISPR/Cas9-engineered universal CD19/CD22 CAR-T cells exhibited a manageable safety profile and prominent antileukemia activity. Universal dual-targeted CAR-T cell therapy may offer an alternative therapy for patients with r/r ALL. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3863
CRISPR/Cas9 for cancer research and therapy. Zhan Tianzuo,Rindtorff Niklas,Betge Johannes,Ebert Matthias P,Boutros Michael Seminars in cancer biology CRISPR/Cas9 has become a powerful method for making changes to the genome of many organisms. First discovered in bacteria as part of an adaptive immune system, CRISPR/Cas9 and modified versions have found a widespread use to engineer genomes and to activate or to repress the expression of genes. As such, CRISPR/Cas9 promises to accelerate cancer research by providing an efficient technology to dissect mechanisms of tumorigenesis, identify targets for drug development, and possibly arm cells for cell-based therapies. Here, we review current applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for cancer research and therapy. We describe novel Cas9 variants and how they are used in functional genomics to discover novel cancer-specific vulnerabilities. Furthermore, we highlight the impact of CRISPR/Cas9 in generating organoid and mouse models of cancer. Finally, we provide an overview of the first clinical trials that apply CRISPR/Cas9 as a therapeutic approach against cancer. 10.1016/j.semcancer.2018.04.001
CHSY1 promotes CD8 T cell exhaustion through activation of succinate metabolism pathway leading to colorectal cancer liver metastasis based on CRISPR/Cas9 screening. Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR BACKGROUND:The most common site of metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC) is the liver and liver metastases occur in more than 50% of patients during diagnosis or treatment. The occurrence of metastasis depends on a series of events known as the invasive-metastasis cascade. Currently, the underlying genes and pathways regulating metastasis initiation in the liver microenvironment are unknown. METHODS:We performed systematic CRISPR/Cas9 screening using an in vivo mouse model of CRC liver metastasis to identify key regulators of CRC metastasis. We present the full results of this screen,which included a list of genes that promote or repress CRC liver colonization. By silencing these genes individually, we found that chondroitin sulfate synthase 1 (CHSY1) may be involved in CRC metastasis. We verified the function of CHSY1 and its involvement in liver metastasis of CRC through in vivo and in vitro experiments. RESULT:The results of TCGA and CRISPR/Cas9 showed that CHSY1 was overexpressed in CRC primary and liver metastasis tissues and indicated a worse clinical prognosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed that CHSY1 facilitated the liver metastasis of CRC and CHSY1 induced CD8 T cell exhaustion and upregulated PD-L1 expression. The metabolomic analysis indicated that CHSY1 promoted CD8 T cell exhaustion by activating the succinate metabolism pathway leading to liver metastasis of CRC. Artemisinin as a CHSY1 inhibitor reduced liver metastasis and enhanced the effect of anti-PD1 in CRC. PLGA-loaded Artemisinin and ICG probe reduced liver metastasis and increased the efficiency of anti-PD1 treatment in CRC. CONCLUSION:CHSY1 could promote CD8 T cell exhaustion through activation of the succinate metabolic and PI3K/AKT/HIF1A pathway, leading to CRC liver metastasis. The combination of CHSY1 knockdown and anti-PD1 contributes to synergistic resistance to CRC liver metastasis. Artemisinin significantly inhibits CHSY1 activity and in combination with anti-PD1 could synergistically treat CRC liver metastases. This study provides new targets and specific strategies for the treatment of CRC liver metastases, bringing new hope and benefits to patients. 10.1186/s13046-023-02803-0
High-throughput functional genomics using CRISPR-Cas9. Nature reviews. Genetics Forward genetic screens are powerful tools for the discovery and functional annotation of genetic elements. Recently, the RNA-guided CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-associated Cas9 nuclease has been combined with genome-scale guide RNA libraries for unbiased, phenotypic screening. In this Review, we describe recent advances using Cas9 for genome-scale screens, including knockout approaches that inactivate genomic loci and strategies that modulate transcriptional activity. We discuss practical aspects of screen design, provide comparisons with RNA interference (RNAi) screening, and outline future applications and challenges. 10.1038/nrg3899
Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening identifies a targetable MEST-PURA interaction in cancer metastasis. EBioMedicine BACKGROUND:Metastasis is one of the most lethal hallmarks of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), yet the mechanisms remain unclear due to a lack of reliable experimental models and systematic identification of key drivers. There is urgent need to develop useful therapies for this lethal disease. METHODS:A genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening, in combination with gene profiling of highly invasive and metastatic ESCC sublines, as well as PDX models, was performed to identify key regulators of cancer metastasis. The Gain- and loss-of-function experiments were taken to examine gene function. Protein interactome, RNA-seq, and whole genome methylation sequencing were used to investigate gene regulation and molecular mechanisms. Clinical significance was analyzed in tumor tissue microarray and TCGA databases. Homology modeling, modified ELISA, surface plasmon resonance and functional assays were performed to identify lead compound which targets MEST to suppress cancer metastasis. FINDINGS:High MEST expression was associated with poor patient survival and promoted cancer invasion and metastasis in ESCC. Mechanistically, MEST activates SRCIN1/RASAL1-ERK-snail signaling by interacting with PURA. miR-449a was identified as a direct regulator of MEST, and hypermethylation of its promoter led to MEST upregulation, whereas systemically delivered miR-449a mimic could suppress tumor metastasis without overt toxicity. Furthermore, molecular docking and computational screening in a small-molecule library of 1,500,000 compounds and functional assays showed that G699-0288 targets the MEST-PURA interaction and significantly inhibits cancer metastasis. INTERPRETATION:We identified the MEST-PURA-SRCIN1/RASAL1-ERK-snail signaling cascade as an important mechanism underlying cancer metastasis. Blockade of MEST-PURA interaction has therapeutic potential in management of cancer metastasis. FUNDING:This work was supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFC2501000, 2021YFC2501900, 2017YFA0505100); National Natural Science Foundation of China (31961160727, 82073196, 81973339, 81803551); NSFC/RGC Joint Research Scheme (N_HKU727/19); Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2021A1515011158, 2021A0505030035); Key Laboratory of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes of China (2021KSYS009). 10.1016/j.ebiom.2023.104587
Discovery of cancer drug targets by CRISPR-Cas9 screening of protein domains. Nature biotechnology CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology holds great promise for discovering therapeutic targets in cancer and other diseases. Current screening strategies target CRISPR-Cas9-induced mutations to the 5' exons of candidate genes, but this approach often produces in-frame variants that retain functionality, which can obscure even strong genetic dependencies. Here we overcome this limitation by targeting CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis to exons encoding functional protein domains. This generates a higher proportion of null mutations and substantially increases the potency of negative selection. We also show that the magnitude of negative selection can be used to infer the functional importance of individual protein domains of interest. A screen of 192 chromatin regulatory domains in murine acute myeloid leukemia cells identifies six known drug targets and 19 additional dependencies. A broader application of this approach may allow comprehensive identification of protein domains that sustain cancer cells and are suitable for drug targeting. 10.1038/nbt.3235
Pooled In Vitro and In Vivo CRISPR-Cas9 Screening Identifies Tumor Suppressors in Human Colon Organoids. Michels Birgitta E,Mosa Mohammed H,Streibl Barbara I,Zhan Tianzuo,Menche Constantin,Abou-El-Ardat Khalil,Darvishi Tahmineh,Członka Ewelina,Wagner Sebastian,Winter Jan,Medyouf Hind,Boutros Michael,Farin Henner F Cell stem cell Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by prominent genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity between patients. To facilitate high-throughput genetic testing and functional identification of tumor drivers, we developed a platform for pooled CRISPR-Cas9 screening in human colon organoids. Using transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) resistance as a paradigm to establish sensitivity and scalability in vitro, we identified optimal conditions and strict guide RNA (gRNA) requirements for screening in 3D organoids. We then screened a pan-cancer tumor suppressor gene (TSG) library in pre-malignant organoids with APC;KRAS mutations, which were xenografted to study clonal advantages in context of a complex tumor microenvironment. We identified TGFBR2 as the most prevalent TSG, followed by known and previously uncharacterized mediators of CRC growth. gRNAs were validated in a secondary screen using unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) to adjust for clonal drift and to distinguish clone size and abundance. Together, these findings highlight a powerful organoid-based platform for pooled CRISPR-Cas9 screening for patient-specific functional genomics. 10.1016/j.stem.2020.04.003
Current applications and future perspective of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in cancer. Wang Si-Wei,Gao Chao,Zheng Yi-Min,Yi Li,Lu Jia-Cheng,Huang Xiao-Yong,Cai Jia-Bin,Zhang Peng-Fei,Cui Yue-Hong,Ke Ai-Wu Molecular cancer Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system provides adaptive immunity against plasmids and phages in prokaryotes. This system inspires the development of a powerful genome engineering tool, the CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing system. Due to its high efficiency and precision, the CRISPR/Cas9 technique has been employed to explore the functions of cancer-related genes, establish tumor-bearing animal models and probe drug targets, vastly increasing our understanding of cancer genomics. Here, we review current status of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology in oncological research. We first explain the basic principles of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and introduce several new CRISPR-based gene editing modes. We next detail the rapid progress of CRISPR screening in revealing tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance mechanisms. In addition, we introduce CRISPR/Cas9 system delivery vectors and finally demonstrate the potential of CRISPR/Cas9 engineering to enhance the effect of adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) and reduce adverse reactions. 10.1186/s12943-022-01518-8
Genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout and transcriptional activation screening. Joung Julia,Konermann Silvana,Gootenberg Jonathan S,Abudayyeh Omar O,Platt Randall J,Brigham Mark D,Sanjana Neville E,Zhang Feng Nature protocols Forward genetic screens are powerful tools for the unbiased discovery and functional characterization of specific genetic elements associated with a phenotype of interest. Recently, the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 from the microbial CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) immune system has been adapted for genome-scale screening by combining Cas9 with pooled guide RNA libraries. Here we describe a protocol for genome-scale knockout and transcriptional activation screening using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Custom- or ready-made guide RNA libraries are constructed and packaged into lentiviral vectors for delivery into cells for screening. As each screen is unique, we provide guidelines for determining screening parameters and maintaining sufficient coverage. To validate candidate genes identified by the screen, we further describe strategies for confirming the screening phenotype, as well as genetic perturbation, through analysis of indel rate and transcriptional activation. Beginning with library design, a genome-scale screen can be completed in 9-15 weeks, followed by 4-5 weeks of validation. 10.1038/nprot.2017.016
CRISPR/Cas9 Gene-Editing in Cancer Immunotherapy: Promoting the Present Revolution in Cancer Therapy and Exploring More. Ou Xuejin,Ma Qizhi,Yin Wei,Ma Xuelei,He Zhiyao Frontiers in cell and developmental biology In recent years, immunotherapy has showed fantastic promise in pioneering and accelerating the field of cancer therapy and embraces unprecedented breakthroughs in clinical practice. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system, as a versatile gene-editing technology, lays a robust foundation to efficiently innovate cancer research and cancer therapy. Here, we summarize recent approaches based on CRISPR/Cas9 system for construction of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells and T cell receptor T (TCR-T) cells. Besides, we review the applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in inhibiting immune checkpoint signaling pathways and highlight the feasibility of CRISPR/Cas9 based engineering strategies to screen novel cancer immunotherapy targets. Conclusively, we discuss the perspectives, potential challenges and possible solutions in this vivid growing field. 10.3389/fcell.2021.674467
The landscape of CRISPR/Cas9 for inborn errors of metabolism. Molecular genetics and metabolism Since its discovery as a genome editing tool, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has opened new horizons in the diagnosis, research, and treatment of genetic diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 can rewrite the genome at any region with outstanding precision to modify it and further instructions for gene expression. Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEM) are a group of more than 1500 diseases produced by mutations in genes encoding for proteins that participate in metabolic pathways. IEM involves small molecules, energetic deficits, or complex molecules diseases, which may be susceptible to be treated with this novel tool. In recent years, potential therapeutic approaches have been attempted, and new models have been developed using CRISPR/Cas9. In this review, we summarize the most relevant findings in the scientific literature about the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9 in IEM and discuss the future use of CRISPR/Cas9 to modify epigenetic markers, which seem to play a critical role in the context of IEM. The current delivery strategies of CRISPR/Cas9 are also discussed. 10.1016/j.ymgme.2022.106968
CRISPR-Cas9: A New Addition to the Drug Metabolism and Disposition Tool Box. Karlgren M,Simoff I,Keiser M,Oswald S,Artursson P Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9), i.e., CRISPR-Cas9, has been extensively used as a gene-editing technology during recent years. Unlike earlier technologies for gene editing or gene knockdown, such as zinc finger nucleases and RNA interference, CRISPR-Cas9 is comparably easy to use, affordable, and versatile. Recently, CRISPR-Cas9 has been applied in studies of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and for ADME model generation. To date, about 50 papers have been published describing in vitro or in vivo CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of and -related genes. Twenty of these papers describe gene editing of clinically relevant genes, such as ATP-binding cassette drug transporters and cytochrome P450 drug-metabolizing enzymes. With CRISPR-Cas9, the ADME tool box has been substantially expanded. This new technology allows us to develop better and more predictive in vitro and in vivo ADME models and map previously underexplored genes and gene families. In this mini-review, we give an overview of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology and summarize recent applications of CRISPR-Cas9 within the ADME field. We also speculate about future applications of CRISPR-Cas9 in ADME research. 10.1124/dmd.118.082842
CRISPR/Cas9: a powerful tool for identification of new targets for cancer treatment. Liu Bin,Saber Ali,Haisma Hidde J Drug discovery today Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated nuclease 9 (Cas9), as a powerful genome-editing tool, has revolutionized genetic engineering. It is widely used to investigate the molecular basis of different cancer types. In this review, we present an overview of recent studies in which CRISPR/Cas9 has been used for the identification of potential molecular targets. Based on the collected data, we suggest here that CRISPR/Cas9 is an effective system to distinguish between mutant and wild-type alleles in cancer. We show that several new potential therapeutic targets, such as CD38, CXCR2, MASTL, and RBX2, as well as several noncoding (nc)RNAs have been identified using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We also discuss the obstacles and challenges that we face for using CRISPR/Cas9 as a therapeutic. 10.1016/j.drudis.2019.02.011
CRISPR/Cas9-mediated correction of human genetic disease. Men Ke,Duan Xingmei,He Zhiyao,Yang Yang,Yao Shaohua,Wei Yuquan Science China. Life sciences The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system (CRISPR/Cas9) provides a powerful tool for targeted genetic editing. Directed by programmable sequence-specific RNAs, this system introduces cleavage and double-stranded breaks at target sites precisely. Compared to previously developed targeted nucleases, the CRISPR/Cas9 system demonstrates several promising advantages, including simplicity, high specificity, and efficiency. Several broad genome-editing studies with the CRISPR/Cas9 system in different species in vivo and ex vivo have indicated its strong potential, raising hopes for therapeutic genome editing in clinical settings. Taking advantage of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homology directed repair (HDR)-mediated DNA repair, several studies have recently reported the use of CRISPR/Cas9 to successfully correct disease-causing alleles ranging from single base mutations to large insertions. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent preclinical studies involving the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated correction of human genetic diseases. 10.1007/s11427-017-9032-4
CRISPR/Cas9: A tool for immunological research. European journal of immunology The CRISPR/Cas9-system was originally identified as part of the adaptive immune system in bacteria and has since been adapted for the genetic manipulation of eukaryotic cells. The technique is of particular value for biomedical sciences, as it enables the genetic manipulation of cell lines and primary cells as well as whole organisms with unprecedented ease and efficiency. Furthermore, the CRISPR/Cas9-technology has the potential for future therapeutic applications in the clinic. Here, we discuss the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for the genetic modification of haematopoietic cells and the generation of mouse models for immunological research. Additionally, we explain how the technique can be applied as a screening-tool to identify genes involved in different immunological processes. Moreover, we will talk about recent extensions of using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, such as a transcriptional activator or repressor. Finally, we discuss the first clinical trials that use CRISPR/Cas9 and discuss potential future applications. 10.1002/eji.201747131
CRISPR/Cas9 system: recent applications in immuno-oncology and cancer immunotherapy. Experimental hematology & oncology Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) is essentially an adaptive immunity weapon in prokaryotes against foreign DNA. This system inspires the development of genome-editing technology in eukaryotes. In biomedicine research, CRISPR has offered a powerful platform to establish tumor-bearing models and screen potential targets in the immuno-oncology field, broadening our insights into cancer genomics. In translational medicine, the versatile CRISPR/Cas9 system exhibits immense potential to break the current limitations of cancer immunotherapy, thereby expanding the feasibility of adoptive cell therapy (ACT) in treating solid tumors. Herein, we first explain the principles of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology and introduce CRISPR as a tool in tumor modeling. We next focus on the CRISPR screening for target discovery that reveals tumorigenesis, immune evasion, and drug resistance mechanisms. Moreover, we discuss the recent breakthroughs of genetically modified ACT using CRISPR/Cas9. Finally, we present potential challenges and perspectives in basic research and clinical translation of CRISPR/Cas9. This review provides a comprehensive overview of CRISPR/Cas9 applications that advance our insights into tumor-immune interaction and lay the foundation to optimize cancer immunotherapy. 10.1186/s40164-023-00457-4
CRISPR-Cas9: A fascinating journey from bacterial immune system to human gene editing. Progress in molecular biology and translational science Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system has been discovered as an adaptive-immune system in prokaryotes. Microbes like bacteria and archaea use CRISPR-Cas9 as a part of their defense mechanism to ward off the virus and cleave their DNA. Over the past decades, researchers have identified that this simple CRISPR-Cas9 system of bacteria can be utilized to cut any DNA. It is also possible to make precise editing in the genome of almost any organism. This discovery has revolutionized the CRISPR-Cas9 tools and made it one of the most precise gene editing technology known till date. The simple, versatile and programmable nature of CRISPR-Cas9 system 5wthat contains a single guide RNA and Cas9 enzyme, made it an attractive choice for genome editing application. Scientists in the field of molecular biology, genetics and medicine extensively use this transformative technology to study gene regulation and also for treatment of several incurable genetic diseases. Today, CRISPR-Cas9 is the most powerful breakthrough of the century for its immense potential to modulate gene expression in living cells and its application to medicine and human health. Recently, ethical challenges associated with the application of this technology to human health become a hot debate in the scientific community. In this chapter the brief history of development of CRISPR-Cas9 tools and its immense application potential have been discussed. 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2021.01.001