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Predictors of coronary artery calcification and its association with cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease. Renal failure OBJECTIVE:To investigate the predictors of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and its association with cardiovascular events (CVE) in patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHOD:Two hundred ninety CKD patients in our nephrology department were enrolled from 2018 to May 2019. The levels of matrix Gla protein (MGP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in 131 CKD patients of all. CAC was evaluated computed tomography (CT). The covariate factors were analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis. We conducted the visits to explore the prevalence of CVE in 276 CKD patients, and covariate factors were analyzed by Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS:The prevalence of CAC was up to 57.93%. We found that age, diabetes mellitus, hyperphosphatemia, dialysis duration, and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were positively associated with CAC in all patients. In 131 patients, we demonstrated that higher IL-6 and lower MGP levels were associated with CAC. A Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that moderate to severe CAC was correlated with an increased risk for CVE [Hazard Ratio (HR): 7.250; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.192-16.470], and a higher MGP level was associated with a reduced risk for CVE (HR: 0.340; 95% CI: 0.124-0.933). CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of CAC in patients with CKD is a significant issue. Older age, hyperphosphatemia, dialysis duration, diabetes mellitus, IL-6, and the NLR are associated with CAC. In addition, higher MGP levels represent protective factor for CAC. Moderate to severe CAC, and lower MGP levels are associated with an increased risk for CVE. : AGEs: Advanced glycosylation end products; CAC: Coronary artery calcification; CACS: Coronary artery calcification score; Ca: Calcium; CI: confidence interval; CKD: Chronic kidney disease; CVE: Cardiovascular events; CT: Computed tomography; ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Hb: hemoglobin; HR: Hazard ratio; hs-CRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; IL-6: Interleukin 6; iPTH: Intact parathyroid hormone; Mg: Magnesium; MGP: Matrix Gla protein; NF-κB: nuclear factor-kappa gene binding; NRL: Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio; Runx2: Runt-related transcription factor 2; RRT: Renal replacement therapy; P: Phosphorus; Scr: Serum creatinine; TNF--alpha: Tumor necrosis factor--alpha; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglyceride; VSMC: vascular smooth muscle cel. 10.1080/0886022X.2021.1953529
Prevalence and outcomes of proton pump inhibitor associated hypomagnesemia in chronic kidney disease. Hughes John,Y Y Chiu Diana,Kalra Phillip A,Green Darren PloS one BACKGROUND:Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most widely prescribed medications across the world. PPIs have been associated with significant electrolyte abnormalities including hypomagnesaemia. We explored the prevalence of PPI associated hypomagnesaemia (PPIH) in different Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stages, in different PPI agents, and the impact of PPIH on survival in CKD. METHODS:This was a subgroup analysis of the Salford Kidney Study, a prospective, observational, longitudinal study of non-dialysis CKD patients. Patients with outpatient magnesium samples obtained between 2002 and 2013 were included in the analysis. The prevalence hypomagnesaemia based on mean values over 12 months as well as 'ever' hypomagnesaemia were investigated. RESULTS:1,230 patients were included in this analysis, mean age 64.3± 32.3 years and mean eGFR 29.2±15.8 ml/min/1.73m2. Mean serum magnesium in those on PPI was significantly lower than those not on PPI overall (0.85±0.10 mmolL-1 versus 0.79±0.12 mmolL-1 respectively, p<0.001). This finding was maintained at all CKD stages. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for mean hypomagnesaemia in PPI use was 1.12 (95% CI 1.06-1.18) p = <0. 'Ever hypomagnesaemia' had an OR of 1.12 (95% CI 1.07-1.16) p = <0.001. The expected rise in serum magnesium with declining eGFR was not observed in those on a PPI but was seen in those not on PPI. There was no difference in serum magnesium between PPI drugs. Thiazide diuretics were also associated with hypomagnesaemia independent of PPI use. Cox regression analysis demonstrated no reduction in survival in patients with PPI associated hypomagnesaemia. CONCLUSION:No specific PPI drugs show a favourable profile in regards of risk for hypomagnesaemia in CKD. Avoiding concurrent use of PPI and thiazide may be of value in patients with hypomagnesaemia. 10.1371/journal.pone.0197400
Proteinuria-associated renal magnesium wasting leads to hypomagnesemia: a common electrolyte abnormality in chronic kidney disease. Oka Tatsufumi,Hamano Takayuki,Sakaguchi Yusuke,Yamaguchi Satoshi,Kubota Keiichi,Senda Masamitsu,Yonemoto Sayoko,Shimada Karin,Matsumoto Ayumi,Hashimoto Nobuhiro,Mori Daisuke,Monden Chikako,Takahashi Atsushi,Obi Yoshitsugu,Yamamoto Ryohei,Takabatake Yoshitsugu,Kaimori Jun-Ya,Moriyama Toshiki,Horio Masaru,Matsui Isao,Isaka Yoshitaka Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association BACKGROUND:Hypomagnesemia (Hypo-Mg) predicts mortality and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. However, in CKD, its prevalence, kidney-intrinsic risk factors, and the effectiveness of oral magnesium (Mg) therapy on serum Mg levels is uncertain. METHODS:In a cross-sectional study enrolling pre-dialysis outpatients with CKD, the prevalence of electrolyte abnormalities (Mg, sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus) was compared. In an open-label randomized controlled trial (RCT), we randomly assigned CKD patients to either the magnesium oxide (MgO) or control arm. The outcome was serum Mg levels at 1 year. RESULTS:In 5126 patients, Hypo-Mg was the most common electrolyte abnormality (14.7%) with similar prevalence across stages of CKD. Positive proteinuria was a risk factor of Hypo-Mg (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.0). However, stratifying the analyses by diabetes mellitus (DM), it was not significant in DM (Pinteraction = 0.04). We enrolled 114 patients in the RCT. Baseline analyses showed that higher proteinuria was associated with higher fractional excretion of Mg. This relationship between proteinuria and renal Mg wasting was mediated by urinary tubular markers in mediation analyses. In the MgO arm, higher proteinuria or tubular markers predicted a significantly lower 1-year increase in serum Mg. In patients with a urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (uPCR) <0.3 g/gCre, serum Mg at 1 year was 2.4 and 2.0 mg/dL in the MgO and control arms, respectively (P < 0.001), with no significant between-group difference in patients whose uPCR was ≥0.3 g/gCre (Pinteraction=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Proteinuria leads to renal Mg wasting through tubular injuries, which explains the high prevalence of Hypo-Mg in CKD. 10.1093/ndt/gfy119
Effects of magnesium supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness and metabolic profiles in diabetic haemodialysis patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Talari Hamid Reza,Zakizade Mehrafrouz,Soleimani Alireza,Bahmani Fereshteh,Ghaderi Amir,Mirhosseini Naghmeh,Eslahi Masoumeh,Babadi Mahtab,Mansournia Mohammad Ali,Asemi Zatollah The British journal of nutrition This study evaluated the effects of Mg administration on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), glycaemic control and markers of cardio-metabolic risk in diabetic haemodialysis (HD) patients. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in fifty-four diabetic HD patients. Participants were randomly divided into two groups to take either 250 mg/d Mg as magnesium oxide (n 27) or placebo (n 27) for 24 weeks. Mg supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in mean (P&lt;0·001) and maximum levels of left CIMT (P=0·02) and mean levels of right CIMT (P=0·004) compared with the placebo. In addition, taking Mg supplements significantly reduced serum insulin levels (β=-9·42 pmol/l; 95% CI -14·94, -3·90; P=0·001), homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (β=-0·56; 95 % CI -0·89, -0·24; P=0·001) and HbA1c (β=-0·74 %; 95 % CI -1·10, -0·39; P&lt;0·001) and significantly increased the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (β=0·008; 95 % CI 0·002, 0·01; P=0·002) compared with the placebo. In addition, Mg administration led to a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (β=-0·30 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·56, -0·04; P=0·02), LDL-cholesterol (β=-0·29 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·52, -0·05; P=0·01), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (P&lt;0·001) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) (P=0·04) and a significant rise in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels (P&lt;0·001) compared with the placebo. Overall, we found that taking Mg for 24 weeks by diabetic HD patients significantly improved mean and maximum levels of left and mean levels of right CIMT, insulin metabolism, HbA1c, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, hs-CRP, TAC and MDA levels. 10.1017/S0007114519000163
Magnesium exposure increases hip fracture risks in patients with chronic kidney disease: a population-based nested case-control study. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA This population-based study demonstrates a strong link between Mg-containing antacid exposure and hip fracture risk in nondialysis CKD and dialysis patients. As an Mg-containing antacid, MgO is also commonly used as a stool softener, which can be effortlessly replaced by other laxatives in CKD patients to maintain bone health. PURPOSE:Bone fracture is a severe complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, leading to disability and reduced survival. In CKD patients, blood magnesium (Mg) concentrations are usually above the normal range due to reduced kidney excretion of Mg. The present study examines the association between Mg-containing antacid exposure and the risk of hip fracture of CKD patients. METHODS:In this nationwide nested case-control study, we enrolled 44,062 CKD patients with hip fracture and 44,062 CKD matched controls, among which the mean age was 77.1 years old, and 87.9% was nondialysis CKD. RESULTS:As compared to non-users, Mg-containing antacid users were significantly more likely to experience hip fracture (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.41; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that such risk exists in both nondialysis CKD patients and long-term dialysis patients. In contrast, aluminum or calcium-containing-antacid use did not reveal such association. Next, we examined the influence of Mg-containing antacid dosage on hip fracture risk, the adjusted ORs in the first quartile (Q1), Q2, Q3, and Q4 were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.25; p < 0.001), 1.35 (95% CI, 1.30 to 1.41; p < 0.001), 1.49 (95% CI, 1.43 to 1.56; p < 0.001), and 1.54 (95% CI, 1.47 to 1.61; p < 0.001), respectively, showing that such risk exists regardless of the antacid dosage. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the best cutoff value of the exposed Mg dose to discriminate the hip fracture is 532 mEq during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION:This population-based study demonstrates a strong link between Mg-containing antacid exposure and the hip fracture risk in both nondialysis CKD and dialysis patients. 10.1007/s00198-022-06301-5
High magnesium dialysate does not improve intradialytic hemodynamics or abrogate myocardial stunning. Jefferies Helen J,Lemoine Sandrine,McIntyre Christopher W Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis BACKGROUND:Hemodialysis (HD) induces myocardial stunning and is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Intradialytic hypotension is a modifiable determinant of myocardial stunning. Magnesium (Mg) is reported to be valuable in maintaining intradialytic blood pressure, which potentially would protect against demand myocardial ischemia. This study aimed to compare high vs. low dialysate Mg effects on intradialytic hemodynamics and HD-induced myocardial stunning. METHODS:Twenty stable prevalent HD patients entered a randomized cross-over trial of low (0.5 mmol/L) vs. high (1.0 mmol/L) dialysate Mg. Patients were studied after 2 weeks of standard HD with each Mg concentration. Serial echocardiography assessed myocardial stunning, measured by left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMAs). Continuous intradialytic hemodynamics were measured noninvasively using thoracic bioimpedance. FINDINGS:Median predialysis serum Mg was higher with high dialysate Mg (1.45[1.29-1.55] vs. 1.03[0.98-1.1] mmol/L, P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in maximum intradialytic reduction in systolic BP. There was no significant difference in stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac output. Overall ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) (as a sensitive marker of contractile function) was higher before dialysis in high Mg group, but there was no difference in GLS at peak stress. However, we showed a significant correlation between Mg changes and GLS changes, r = -0.47, P = 0.02. There was no difference in mean number of peak stress RWMAs per patient (4.0 ± 2.2 vs. 4.3 ± 2.9, P = 0.5). Ultrafiltration volume, a critical determinant of stunning, was not different between high and low dialysate Mg studies (1.35[0-3.3] vs. 1.5[0-2.8], P = 0.49). DISCUSSION:Manipulation of magnesium by altering dialysate magnesium concentration does not influence intradialytic hemodynamic response or HD-induced myocardial stunning in the short term. However, decreasing Mg changes appears to decrease GLS changes. 10.1111/hdi.12863
High serum magnesium levels are associated with favorable prognoses in diabetic hemodialysis patients, retrospective observational study. Ogawa Chie,Tsuchiya Ken,Maeda Kunimi PloS one BACKGROUND:Recent studies have found hypomagnesemia is linked to a heightened risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, the level of serum magnesium (s-Mg) necessary for promoting overall health in these patients and the effects of s-Mg in diabetes HD patients remains to be clarified. METHODS:HD outpatients (n = 148 under, age ≤ 70 y) were followed over a 6-y period. They were divided into four groups according to their average s-Mg during the first year (L; low level, H; high level) and if they had DM or not (non-DM). The endpoint was mortality and hospitalization for decline of Activities of Daily Living (death/hospitalization). A receiver operating characteristics curve was used in diagnostic tests to identify s-Mg associated with this endpoint. Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test, and a Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate prognoses. Fisher's exact test and multiple regressions examined the causes of the endpoints between the four groups and the factors predictive of s-Mg. RESULTS:s-Mg at 2.7 mg/dL was associated with death/hospitalization. The 5-y survival rate was 38.1%, 86.7%, 73.2% and 87.5%, in the DM/Mg(L), DM/Mg(H), non-DM/Mg(L) and non-DM/Mg(H) groups, respectively (P < 0.001). The Cox proportional hazards model showed significantly lower risk in other groups compared with that in the DM/Mg(L) group [DM/Mg(H); hazard ratio (HR): 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-0.97, P = 0.046, non-DM/Mg(L); HR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.15-0.68, P = 0.003, non-DM/Mg(H); HR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06-0.44, P < 0.001]. The frequency of the different causes of the endpoints for each group was not significant; s-Mg only associated with age in the DM group. CONCLUSIONS:s-Mg greater than 2.7 mg/dL associated with a favorable prognosis in HD patients with DM, suggesting that s-Mg is a factor independent of diabetes. 10.1371/journal.pone.0238763
Serum magnesium and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients: a 5-year prospective cohort study. Ye Hongjian,Cao Peiyi,Zhang Xiaodan,Lin Jianxiong,Guo Qunying,Mao Haiping,Yu Xueqing,Yang Xiao The British journal of nutrition The aim of this study was to explore the association between serum Mg and cardiovascular mortality in the peritoneal dialysis (PD) population. This prospective cohort study included prevalent PD patients from a single centre. The primary outcome of this study was cardiovascular mortality. Serum Mg was assessed at baseline. A total of 402 patients (57 % male; mean age 49·3±14·9 years) were included. After a median of 49·9 months (interquartile range: 25·9-68·3) of follow-up, sixty-two patients (25·4 %) died of CVD. After adjustment for conventional confounders in multivariate Cox regression models, being in the lower quartile for serum Mg level was independently associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality, with hazards ratios of 2·28 (95 % CI 1·04, 5·01), 1·41 (95 % CI 0·63, 3·16) and 1·62 (95 % CI 0·75, 3·51) for the lowest, second and third quartiles, respectively. A similar trend was observed when all-cause mortality was used as the study endpoint. Further analysis showed that the relationships between lower serum Mg and higher risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were present only in the female subgroup, and not among male patients. The test for interaction indicated that the associations between lower serum Mg and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality differed by sex (P=0·008 and P=0·011, respectively). In conclusion, lower serum Mg was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the PD population, especially among female patients. 10.1017/S0007114518001599
Association of Serum Magnesium with Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: a Multicentre Retrospective Study. Biological trace element research Serum magnesium is involved in the process of blood coagulation, and low serum magnesium is associated with haemorrhagic diseases. No studies have explored the relationship between serum magnesium and gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). This study aimed to explore the association between serum magnesium and GIB in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This was a multicentre retrospective cohort study. The primary endpoint was GIB. According to the baseline serum magnesium level of 0.7 mmol/L, patients were divided into two groups: the hypomagnesaemia group and the nonhypomagnesaemia group. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to investigate the association between hypomagnesaemia and GIB. A total of 654 PD patients from four Chinese peritoneal dialysis centres were recruited from February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2020. During the follow-up, 47 patients experienced GIB. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that there was a significant difference in the risk of GIB between the two groups (log-rank = 11.82, P < 0.001). The multivariable Cox regression model showed that the risk of GIB was higher in the hypomagnesaemia group than the nonhypomagnesaemia group after adjustment for demographic variables and laboratory indicators (HR = 3.007, 95% CI 1.488-6.079, P = 0.002). A baseline lower serum magnesium level was associated with a higher risk of GIB in PD patients. 10.1007/s12011-022-03391-4
Hypomagnesemia Is a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease- and Noncardiovascular Disease-Related Mortality in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients. Zhang Fengping,Wu Xianfeng,Wen Yueqiang,Zhan Xiaojiang,Peng Fen Fen,Wang Xiaoyang,Qian Zhou,Feng Xiaoran Blood purification PURPOSE:Recent research has shown that hypomagnesemia is associated with increased all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, the relationship between the long-term prognosis of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the study is not yet clear. This study will analyze the effects of hypomagnesemia on all-cause, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and non-CVD mortality in PD patients. METHOD:In a retrospective cohort study, 1,004 samples were selected from 7 PD centers in China. Based on the baseline blood magnesium level at the beginning of stable dialysis, all patients were classified into blood magnesium <0.7 mmol/L group, 0.7-1.2 mmol/L group, and >1.2 mmol/L group (the end event was death). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the difference in cumulative survival rate; the Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze the risk factors of all-cause, CVD, and non-CVD death causes. RESULTS:Cox multiple regression analysis results (reference comparison of 0.7-1.2 mmol/L group): patients with serum magnesium <0.7 mmol/L have a higher risk ratio of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.580, 95% CI: 1.222-2.042, p = 0.001), and it is also obvious after correction by multiple models (HR = 1.578, 95% CI: 1.196-2.083, p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis of the causes of death was as follows: CVD risk (HR = 1.628, 95% CI: 1.114-2.379, p = 0.012) and non-CVD risk (HR = 1.521, 95% CI: 1.011-2.288, p = 0.044). Further analysis of the causes of infection-related death in non-CVD is also significant (HR = 1.919, 95% CI: 1.131-3.1257, p = 0.016). On the other hand, the serum magnesium>1.2 mmol/L group had lower all-cause mortality after correction (HR = 0.687, 95% CI: 0.480-0.985, p = 0.041), and subgroup analysis of the cause of death had no statistical significance (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Hypomagnesemia (serum magnesium <0.7 mmol/L) during stable dialysis in PD patients is a risk factor for CVD- and non-CVD-related mortality, especially infection-related death causes. 10.1159/000514148
Hypomagnesaemia in haemodialysis is associated with increased mortality risk: its relationship with dialysis fluid. Pérez-García Rafael,Jaldo María Teresa,Puerta Marta,Ortega Mayra,Corchete Elena,de Sequera Patricia,Martín-Navarro Juan Antonio,Albalate Marta,Alcázar Roberto Nefrologia Hypomagnesaemia in haemodialysis (HD) is associated with increased mortality risk: its relationship with dialysis fluid (DF). INTRODUCTION:Low concentrations of magnesium (Mg) in blood have been linked to the development of diabetes, hypertension, arrhythmias, vascular calcifications and an increased risk of death in the general population and in haemodialysis patients. The composition of the dialysis fluid in terms of its magnesium concentration is one of the main determinants of magnesium in haemodialysis patients. OBJECTIVE:To study magnesium concentrations in haemodialysis patients, their predictive mortality rate and what factors are associated with hypomagnesaemia and mortality in haemodialysis. METHODS:Retrospective study of a cohort of prevalent haemodialysis patients followed up for two years. Serum magnesium was measured every six months. The analysis used the initial and average magnesium values for each patient, comparing patients with magnesium below the mean (2.1mg/dl) with those with magnesium above the mean. During the follow-up, three types of dialysis fluid were used: type 1, magnesium 0.5 mmol/l; type 3, magnesium 0.37 mmol/l (both with acetate); and type 2, magnesium 0.5 mmol/l with citrate. RESULTS:We included 137 haemodialysis patients in the study, of which 72 were male and 65 were female, with a mean age of 67 (15) [26-95] years old. Of this group, 57 patients were diabetic, 70 were on online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) and 67 were on high-flow haemodialysis (HF-HD). The mean magnesium of the 93 patients with dialysis fluid type 1 was 2.18 (0.37) mg/dl. In the 27 patients with dialysis fluid type 3 it was 2.02 (0.42) mg/dl. And in the 17 with dialysis fluid type 2 it was 1.84 (0.24) mg/dl (p=.01). There was a pronounced direct relationship between Mg and P and albumin. After a mean follow-up of 16.6 (8.9) [3-24] months, 77 remained active, 24 had died and 36 had been transplanted or transferred. Patients with magnesium above than 2.1mg/dl had a longer survival (p=.008). The survival of patients with the three types of dialysis fluid did not differ significantly (Log-Rank, p=.424). Corrected for blood magnesium, patients with dialysis fluid with citrate have better survival (p=.009). The COX regression analysis shows how age, serum albumin, magnesium, dialysis technique and type of dialysis fluid have an independent predictive mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS:Low serum magnesium levels have a greater association with an increased risk of mortality compared to high levels. The type of dialysis fluid affects the magnesium concentration and the risk of death. 10.1016/j.nefro.2020.04.013
Increased hemoglobin concentration and related factors in maintenance hemodialysis patients in Anhui, China. Medicine To investigate the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and related factors among maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients in Anhui province in 2020, so as to compare with the results in 2014. The cases of 3025 MHD patients were investigated in 27 hemodialysis centers of Anhui province from January 2020 to December 2020. The data of age, sex, primary disease, dialysis age, dialysis mode, drug use and laboratory tests were collected and analyzed. Compared with the survey in 2014, the average Hb level of MHD patients in Anhui province was increased (107.41 ± 20.40 g/L vs 100.2 ± 28.1 g/L), the anemia prevalence was decreased (65.9% vs 82.4%), and the percentage of patients with standard Hb level was increased significantly (47.1% vs 32.9%). Compared with low-Hb patients (Hb < 110 g/L), patients with Hb ≥ 110 g/L had lower age, higher proportion of males, longer dialysis age, higher levels of serum Alb, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and lower high-density lipoprotein (P < .05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis results showed that male, longer duration of dialysis therapy, treatment with iron, higher triglyceride and albumin were protective factors of anemia, but older age was independent risk factors. The anemia treatment in MHD patients in Anhui province was significantly improved. Male, long dialysis age, use of iron, high serum albumin and triglyceride levels may be protective factors for Hb reaching standard level, and old age may be an independent risk factor. 10.1097/MD.0000000000031397
Association between serum magnesium levels and abdominal aorta calcification in patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease stage 5. Ito Mayumi,Yamaguchi Makoto,Katsuno Takayuki,Nobata Hironobu,Iwagaitsu Shiho,Sugiyama Hirokazu,Kinashi Hiroshi,Banno Shogo,Ando Masahiko,Kubo Yoko,Ishimoto Takuji,Ito Yasuhiko PloS one BACKGROUND:Several studies have revealed the relationship between serum magnesium levels and vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease patients. Despite excellent predictability of abdominal aorta calcification for cardiovascular disease events, the relationship between serum magnesium levels and abdominal aorta calcification, as evaluated by quantitative methods, in pre-dialysis patients remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the abdominal aorta calcification volume using computerized tomography and its association with serum magnesium levels in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease stage 5 patients. METHODS:This single-center cross-sectional study included 100 consecutive patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease stage 5 between January 2016 and May 2020 at Aichi Medical University Hospital, Japan. The relationships between serum magnesium levels and the abdominal aorta calcification volume were assessed using multiple linear regression models after adjusting for clinically relevant factors. We also assessed clinical factors that affect serum magnesium levels. RESULTS:The mean serum magnesium level was 2.0 mg/dL (interquartile range, 1.8 to 2.3). Multivariate analyses revealed that a higher serum magnesium level (stand. β = -0.245, p = 0.010) was significantly associated with a reduced abdominal aorta calcification volume, and that a history of cardiovascular disease (stand. β = 0.3792, p < 0.001) and older age (stand. β = 0.278, p = 0.007) were significantly associated with an increased abdominal aorta calcification volume. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that the use of proton pump inhibitor or potassium-competitive acid blocker was significantly associated with lower serum magnesium levels (stand. β = -0.246, p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS:The present study revealed that the higher Mg level was significantly associated with lower volume of abdominal aorta calcification in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease stage 5 patients. Further studies should be undertaken to determine the appropriate magnesium level to suppress vascular calcification. 10.1371/journal.pone.0253592
Altered Mineral Metabolism and Disequilibrium Between Calcification Promoters and Inhibitors in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients. Wang Chia-Liang,Lin Kuan-Pin,Hsu Guoo-Shyng W,Liu Kai-Li,Guo Chih-Hung Biological trace element research Patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis (HD) are known to have abnormal blood concentrations of antioxidant minerals; concurrent oxidative stress can contribute to increased vascular calcification. This study aims to evaluate the associations between circulating antioxidant minerals and clinical biomarkers of vascular calcification in HD patients. Blood biochemical parameters, antioxidant minerals (selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and magnesium (Mg)), and several promoters and inhibitors of calcification (matrix Gla protein (MGP), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 and -2)) were determined in HD patients (n = 62) and age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (n = 30). Compared with healthy subjects, HD patients had significantly lower plasma concentrations of Se and Zn, increased Cu and Mg, and higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers (Cu/Zn ratios, malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and C-reactive protein (CRP)). We observed that HD patients had significantly lower concentrations of MGP and higher levels of FGF-23, MMP-2 and -9, TIMP-1 and -2, and MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios. We also observed significant relationships between the concentrations of these minerals and calcification biomarkers in HD patients. These results suggest that changes in the homeostasis of antioxidant minerals (Se, Zn, Cu, and Mg) may contribute to the effects of oxidative stress and inflammatory status, thereby participating in the mechanism for accelerated vascular calcification in patients undergoing long-term HD. 10.1007/s12011-019-01685-8
Association of hypomagnesemia with cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. International Journal of Cardiology. Hypertension OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to review the current evidence on the effects of Mg deficiency on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension, since Mg is a potent vasodilator and modulates vasomotor tone, blood pressure and peripheral blood flow. Several factors could contribute to its deficiency and when it occurs, is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, heart failure (HF), and cardiac arrhythmias. METHODS:In order to get a better to get an updated perspective of the current status of Mg deficiency and its implications in CVD, hypertension, and cardiac arrhythmias, a focused Medline search of the English language literature was conducted between 2014 and 2018 and 30 pertinent papers were retrieved. RESULTS:The analysis of data showed that Mg deficiency is difficult to occur, under normal circumstances, because it is plentiful in green leafy vegetables, cereals, nuts, and the drinking water. However, Mg deficiency can occur under special circumstances such as hypertension and HF treated with large doses of diuretics, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) treated with hemodialysis, and patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with proton pump inhibitors. When hypomagnesemia occurs, it is associated with serious cardiac arrhythmias and aggravation of hypertension. CONCLUSION:The analysis of data suggests that Mg deficiency doe occur and it is associated with an increased incidence of CVD, HF, serious cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension. Retaining normal Mg levels will prevent the onset of these diseases. 10.1016/j.ijchy.2019.100005
Magnesium sulphate in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (MAGMAT): a randomised, double-blind, superiority trial. Intensive care medicine PURPOSE:Studies have suggested benefits from magnesium sulphate in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). We aimed to measure the effects of magnesium sulphate supplementation on TTP recovery. METHODS:In this multicenter, randomised, double-blind, controlled, superiority study, we enrolled adults with a clinical diagnosis of TTP. Patients were randomly allocated to receive magnesium sulphate (6 g intravenously followed by a continuous infusion of 6 g/24 h for 3 days) or placebo, in addition to the standard treatment. The primary outcome was the median time to platelet normalisation (defined as a platelet count ≥ 150 G/L). Efficacy and safety were assessed by intention-to-treat. RESULTS:Overall, we enrolled 74 participants, including one who withdrew his/her consent. Seventy-three patients were further analyzed, 35 (48%) allocated to magnesium sulphate and 38 (52%) to placebo. The median time to platelet normalisation was 4 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 3-4) in the magnesium sulphate group and 4 days (95% CI 3-5) in the placebo group. The cause-specific hazard ratio of response was 0.93 (95% CI 0.58-1.48, p = 0.75). The number of patients with ≥ 1 serious adverse reactions was similar in the two groups. By day 90, four patients in the magnesium sulphate group and two patients in the placebo group had died (p = 0.42). The most frequent adverse event was low blood pressure occurring in 34% in the magnesium sulphate group and 29% in the placebo group (p = 0.80). CONCLUSION:Among patients with TTP, the addition of magnesium sulphate to the standard of care did not result in a significant improvement in time to platelet normalisation. 10.1007/s00134-023-07178-6
Uremic restless legs syndrome (RLS) and sleep quality in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis: potential role of homocysteine and parathyroid hormone. Gade Katrin,Blaschke Sabine,Rodenbeck Andrea,Becker Andreas,Anderson-Schmidt Heike,Cohrs Stefan Kidney & blood pressure research BACKGROUND:The aetiology of uremic restless legs syndrome (RLS) remains unclear. Our research investigated whether an elevated plasma concentration of the excitatory amino acid homocysteine might be associated with RLS occurrence in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on hemodialysis. METHODS:Total plasma homocysteine as well as creatinine, urea, folate, parathyroid hormone, hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, and albumin levels were compared between 26 RLS-affected (RLSpos) and 26 non-affected (RLSneg) patients on chronic hemodialysis. We further compared subjective sleep quality between RLSpos and RLSneg patients using the Pittsburgh-Sleep-Quality-Index and investigated possible relationships between laboratory parameters and sleep quality. RESULTS:Taking individual albumin concentrations into account, a significant positive correlation between total plasma homocysteine and RLS occurrence was observed (r= 0.246; p=0.045). Sleep quality was significantly more reduced in RLSpos compared to RLSneg patients and RLS severity correlated positively with impairment of sleep quality. Bad sleep quality in all patients was associated with higher concentrations of parathyroid hormone. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest a possible aetiological role of homocysteine in uremic RLS. They confirm that uremic RLS is an important factor causing sleep impairment in patients on hemodialysis. Higher parathyroid hormone levels might also be associated with bad sleep quality in these patients. 10.1159/000355727
The effect of increasing dialysate magnesium on calciprotein particles, inflammation and bone markers: post hoc analysis from a randomized controlled clinical trial. Bressendorff Iain,Hansen Ditte,Pasch Andreas,Holt Stephen G,Schou Morten,Brandi Lisbet,Smith Edward R Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association BACKGROUND:The formation of calciprotein particles (CPPs) may be an important component of the humoral defences against ectopic calcification. Although magnesium (Mg) has been shown to delay the transition of amorphous calcium-/phosphate-containing primary CPP (CPP-1) to crystalline apatite-containing secondary CPP (CPP-2) ex vivo, effects on the endogenous CPP pool are unknown. METHODS:We used post hoc analyses from a randomized double-blind parallel-group controlled clinical trial of 28 days treatment with high dialysate Mg of 2.0 mEq/L versus standard dialysate Mg of 1.0 mEq/L in 57 subjects undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease. CPP load, markers of systemic inflammation and bone turnover were measured at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS:After 28 days of treatment with high dialysate Mg, serum total CPP (-52%), CPP-1 (-42%) and CPP-2 (-68%) were lower in the high Mg group (all P < 0.001) but were unchanged in the standard dialysate Mg group. Tumour necrosis factor-α (-20%) and interleukin-6 (-22%) were also reduced with high dialysate Mg treatment (both P < 0.01). High dialysate Mg resulted in higher levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a marker of bone formation) (+17%) but lower levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5 b (a marker of bone resorption; -33%) (both P < 0.01). Inflammatory cytokines and bone turnover markers were unchanged in the standard dialysate Mg group over the same period. CONCLUSIONS:In this exploratory analysis, increasing dialysate Mg was associated with reduced CPP load and systemic inflammation and divergent changes in markers of bone formation and resorption. 10.1093/ndt/gfz234
Influencing factors of serum magnesium in CKD5 patients: A multicenter study in southern China. Frontiers in public health Introduction:Magnesium (Mg) disturbances are related to cardiac, bone, and renal patient mortality. In this study, we compared biochemical markers in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and explored the influencing factors of serum Mg in stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD5) patients. Material and methods:All 598 patients with CKD5 from three medical centers in South China were recruited into this prospective cohort study from March 1, 2018, to January 31, 2021. Our study recorded the clinical characteristics and laboratory data of the patients. Results:Hemodialysis patients (0.99 ± 0.19 mmol/L) had a higher mean serum Mg level than PD patients (0.86 ± 0.20 mmol/L; < 0.01). Regression analysis showed that only corrected calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), Ca/Mg, Ca × P, albumin (Alb), total protein and creatine (Cr) predicted Mg levels in CKD5 patients ( < 0.01). Ca/Mg predicts hypomagnesemia with 78% sensitivity and 85% specificity in CKD5 patients. The AUC value corresponding to Ca/Mg was 0.88. Conclusions:This multicenter study in southern China showed that for all CKD5 patients, corrected Ca and Alb had a significant positive effect on serum Mg, while Ca/Mg had a significant negative effect on serum Mg. In 123 HD patients, Ca × P was positively associated with Mg while Ca/Mg and P were negatively associated with Mg. In 398 PD patients, Ca × P, Alb, and total protein were positively associated with Mg while Ca/Mg and P were negatively associated with Mg. In 77 non-dialysis patients, corrected Ca, Cr, and total protein were positively associated with Mg while Ca/Mg was negatively associated with Mg. Furthermore, Ca/Mg might be another useful technique to monitor blood Mg levels in CKD5 patients. Clinical trial registration:ChiCTR1800014557. 10.3389/fpubh.2022.1047602
Correlation of serum magnesium with dyslipidemia in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Ansari Muhammad Rafique,Maheshwari Narinder,Shaikh Muzaffar A,Laghari Muhammad Shahzad, ,Lal Kumar,Ahmed Kamran Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia This study was performed to determine the correlation between serum magnesium (Mg) and dyslipidemia in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). This hospital-based cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Department of Nephro-Urology, Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan, from April 2008 to June 2008. Fifty patients with end-stage kidney disease on MHD treatment (33 males and 17 females) were studied. The mean duration on HD was 7.58 ± 2.05 years, with frequency being two to three sessions/week, and each session lasted for four hours. After obtaining informed written consent, the general information of each patient was recorded on a proforma. After overnight fasting, blood samples was drawn from the arterio-venous fistula for lipid profile, lipoprotein, serum Mg, serum creatinine, blood urea, serum calcium and serum phosphorus. Dyslipidemia was defined as presence of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels more then 95 th percentile for age and gender or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels less then 35 mg/dL. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. The mean age of the study patients was 45.68 ± 13.97 years. There was a significant positive correlation between serum Mg and serum lipoprotein-a (LP-a) (r = 0.40, P < 0.007), serum HDL (r = 0.31, P < 0.01) and serum TG (r = 0.35, P < 0.005). There was no significant correlation between serum Mg and serum LDL-c and serum TC. The serum TG and LP-a levels were significantly increased while HDL-c was significantly lower in MHD patients. The serum TC, LDL-c and very low-density lipoprotein-c were not significantly elevated. We conclude that patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing MHD show positive correlation between serum Mg and serum HDL, LP-a and TG. The abnormalities of lipid metabolism, such as hyper-triglyceridemia, elevated LP-a and low HDL-c, could contribute to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in these patients.
Magnesium in Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Care? van de Wal-Visscher Esther R,Kooman Jeroen P,van der Sande Frank M Blood purification BACKGROUND:Magnesium (Mg) is an essential cation for multiple processes in the body. The kidney plays a major role in regulating the Mg balance. In a healthy individual, total-body Mg content is kept constant by interactions among intestine, bones and the kidneys. SUMMARY:In case of chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal regulatory mechanisms may be insufficient to balance intestinal Mg absorption. Usually Mg remains normal; however, when glomerular filtration rate declines, changes in serum Mg are observed. Patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis are largely dependent on the dialysate Mg concentration for maintaining serum Mg and Mg homeostasis. A low Mg is associated with several complications such as hypertension, and vascular calcification, and also associated with an increased risk for both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-CVD mortality. Severe hypermagnesaemia is known to cause cardiac conduction defects, neuromuscular effects and muscle weakness; a slightly elevated Mg has been suggested to be beneficial in patients with end-stage renal disease. Key Messages: The role of both low and high Mg, in general, but especially in relation to CKD and dialysis patients is discussed. 10.1159/000485212
Serum Magnesium Abnormality and Influencing Factors of Serum Magnesium Level in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Single-Center Study in Northern China. Tsai Shihming,Zhao Huiping,Wu Bei,Zuo Li,Wang Mei Blood purification BACKGROUND/AIMS:Both hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, bone diseases, and mortality in dialysis patients. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of and influencing factors for abnormal serum Mg levels in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). METHODS:A cross-sectional study in Peking University People's Hospital recorded the demographic information, clinical characteristics, and laboratory data. Data were assessed and compared with the results from 2 other studies in China. RESULTS:Of 180 enrolled PD patients, the primary diseases were glomerulonephritis (38.3%) and diabetic nephropathy (38.3%). Mean serum Mg concentration was 1.02 ± 0.16 mmol/L; 67% had normal serum Mg concentrations, and 33% had hypermagnesemia. CONCLUSIONS:Hypermagnesemia is likely to occur in patients with higher serum phosphate, lower intact parathyroid hormone, and lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. Serum Mg level distributions in PD patients vary throughout China, may have different potential causes (such as geographical location and dietary habits) and should be further studied. 10.1159/000485315
Hypomagnesemia and cause-specific mortality in hemodialysis patients: 5-year follow-up analysis. Selim Gjulsen N,Spasovski Goce,Tozija Liljana,Georgievska-Ismail Ljubica,Zafirova-Ivanovska Beti,Masin-Spasovska Jelka,Rambabova-Busletic Irena,Petronijevic Zvezdana,Dzekova-Vidimliski Pavlina,Ristovska Vesna,Pusevski Vladimir,Stojceva-Taneva Olivera The International journal of artificial organs INTRODUCTION:The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the association between serum magnesium (Mg) and mortality, in particular the cause-specific mortality of Mg and other risk factors in hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS:We studied a cohort of 185 HD patients receiving thrice-weekly HD treatment, on a dialysate Mg concentration of 0.5 mmol/L. We stratified 3 patient groups according to the level of Mg: lower (<1.1 mmol/L), intermediate-reference (1.1 to <1.3 mmol/L), and higher (Mg >1.3 mm/L). RESULTS:During the 5-year follow-up, 60 patients died, with cardiovascular (CV) disease as the predominant cause (73.3%). Hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause and CV mortality were 2.55 and 2.67 in the lower versus intermediate Mg group, but there was no significant association between the higher and intermediate Mg group. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that Mg <1.1 versus 1.1-1.30 mml/L with HR 2.34, was a significant univariate predictor for increased mortality in addition to the Hb <110 g/L, Alb <40 g/L, C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥10 mg/L and brain natriuretic peptide >1,200 pg/mL. However, in the multivariate analysis only CRP ≥10 mg/L with HR 3.89 was a significant predictor of mortality. Subgroup analyses showed that among patients with CRP >10 mg/L, HR for all-cause and CV mortality of the lower versus intermediate Mg group were 1.96 and 2.39, respectively, not reaching significance for the higher versus intermediate Mg group. Conversely, there was no association between Mg level and all-cause and CV mortality within these 3 groups among patients with CRP <10 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS:Lower serum Mg level was significantly associated with an increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in HD patients, especially in inflamed patients. 10.5301/ijao.5000611
Role of magnesium in the risk of intradialytic hypotension among maintenance hemodialysis patients. Geng Xuemei,Yu Jinbo,Xu Jiarui,Jin Shi,Shao Wenqi,Wang Yimei,Guo Man,Cao Xuesen,Zou Jianzhou,Xu Xialian,Ding Xiaoqiang Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis INTRODUCTION:Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a common complication in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis (HD). It has been documented that several factors contribute to IDH. However, the relationship between serum electrolytes and the occurrence of IDH remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the role of serum magnesium (Mg) for the risk of IDH in maintenance HD patients. METHODS:The retrospective study included adults starting HD before January 2009 in the blood purification center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, and treated thrice weekly with standard bicarbonate dialysate by low-flux HD. Patients' characteristics including age and sex, laboratory test results were collected. IDH was defined according to kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines as a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) by ≥20 mmHg or a decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) by ≥10 mmHg associated with clinical symptoms during HD. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to explore independent risk factors for IDH. FINDINGS:Among 423 patients recruited, 175 patients (41.4%) suffered from IDH. Compared with those with non-IDH, patients with IDH presented higher predialysis serum Mg levels. Univariate correlation analysis showed that predialysis serum Mg level was negatively correlated with SBP at 3 hours, 4 hours after dialysis (3 hours SBP r = -0.134 P = 0.006, 4 hours SBP r = -0.142 P = 0.003) and was positively correlated with the differences of blood pressure (BP) (SBP and MAP) (△SBP r = 0.195 P < 0.001, △MAP r = 0.155, P = 0.001). After adjustment for predialysis blood urea nitrogen, platelet distribution width, cardiac troponin T, fasting blood glucose, β2-microglobulin, and predialysis MAP, multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that predialysis serum Mg level was one of the independent risk factors for IDH (odds ratio [95% confidence interval-CI]: 7.154 (1.568-32.637); P = 0.011). In addition, Mg levels of 1.15 mmol/L or higher were associated with a high incidence of IDH. DISCUSSION:Our findings suggested that higher predialysis serum Mg level was one of the independent risk factors for IDH among maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients). 10.1111/hdi.12833
Magnesium in chronic kidney disease: challenges and opportunities. Kanbay Mehmet,Goldsmith David,Uyar Mehtap Erkmen,Turgut Faruk,Covic Adrian Blood purification Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease, which is partly explained by the fact that 40-70% of patients receiving dialysis have significant coronary artery disease. Recent clinical studies have shown that lower serum magnesium (Mg) levels are associated with vascular calcification and cardiovascular mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). On the other hand, hypermagnesemia inhibits parathyroid hormone secretion, which is considered an important independent risk factor for vascular calcification, left ventricular hypertrophy and mortality in ESRD patients. Finally, increasing evidence points towards a link between Mg and cardiovascular disease, even in subjects without chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this review was to critically review the current literature examining the effects of plasma Mg levels on cardiovascular disease and parathyroid hormone homeostasis in ESRD, and renal transplant patients. 10.1159/000276665
Inadvertently high dialysate magnesium causing weakness and nausea in hemodialysis patients. Chakurkar Vipul V,Gade Pritam S,Godbole Anil V,Wadia Farrokh F,Lobo Valentine A Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis As maintenance hemodialysis patients are exposed to large quantities of dialysis water, any contamination of it might be reflected in plasma levels. We present a series of cases due to such a contamination. Six maintenance hemodialysis patients dialyzing at the same peripheral hemodialysis facility presented to us over a short period of time with symptoms mimicking inadequate dialysis. Their blood urea and creatinine levels were not very high, but all the patients had hypermagnesemia [serum Mg levels = 1.8 (±0.3) mmol/L]. Except for one patient who had cardiac arrest at presentation, all patients improved after undergoing hemodialysis at our center [serum Mg at discharge = 0.86 (±0.01) mmol/L]. The origin of hypermagnesemia was traced to dialysis water contamination with magnesium due to inadequate maintenance of the water treatment system. Corrective measures improved the quality of water, and no further cases were reported from that center. Proper maintenance and periodic checks of the quality of water are central to the outcomes of maintenance hemodialysis patients. 10.1111/hdi.12763
Association between serum magnesium and anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. Biyik Zeynep,Yavuz Yasemin Coskun,Altintepe Lütfullah International urology and nephrology PURPOSE:An inverse association was shown between serum magnesium levels and anemia in the general population. However, limited information is available about the association between serum magnesium level and anemia in the patient population with chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the relationship between hypomagnesemia and anemia in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3-5. METHODS:This cross-sectional retrospective study included 213 chronic kidney disease patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/min and below. Laboratory and demographic data of outpatients were collected in January 2018-January 2019. Patients with a magnesium level below 1.9 mg/dL were accepted as the hypomagnesemia group. RESULTS:Serum magnesium level of 62 (29.1%) of these patients were below 1.9 mg/dL. Compared with normomagnesemic patients, hypomagnesemic patients had lower mean hemoglobin values (11.3 g/dL vs. 12.7 g/dL, P < 0.001), proton-pump inhibitor usage rates were significantly higher (33.9% vs. 17.2%, P = 0.008) and the median urine protein/creatinine ratio was found to be significantly higher (1017.5 mg/gCr vs. 536 mg/gCr, P = 0.045). In the multivariate analysis, the use of hemoglobin (OR 0.634; 95% CI 0.505-0.795; P < 0.001) and proton-pump inhibitor (OR 2.670; 95% CI 1.113-6.318; P = 0.025) were independent predictors of hypomagnesemia. CONCLUSIONS:Hypomagnesemia is a common electrolyte disorder in pre-dialysis CKD patients. In this patient group, anemia is independently associated with hypomagnesemia. 10.1007/s11255-020-02525-8
Significant positive relationship between serum magnesium and muscle quality in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Okazaki Hisanori,Ishimura Eiji,Okuno Senji,Norimine Kyoko,Yamakawa Kenjiro,Yamakawa Tomoyuki,Shoji Shigeichi,Nishizawa Yoshiki,Inaba Masaaki Magnesium research BACKGROUND/AIMS:Serum magnesium (Mg) levels have been associated with muscle performance in the general population. We hypothesized that serum Mg would be associated with muscle quality in hemodialysis patients. METHODS:A total of 310 patients were examined (age: 58 ± 12 years, hemodialysis duration: 6.4 ± 6.0 years, 60.6% men, and 36.1% diabetics). Arm lean mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) on the dominant side. Arm muscle quality was defined as the ratio of the handgrip strength to the arm lean mass of the same side (kg/kg). RESULTS:Serum Mg was 1.15 ± 0.16 mmol/L (2.8 ± 0.4 mg/dL), being higher than the reference range of normal subjects. There was a significant negative correlation between muscle quality and age (r = -0.326, p<0.0001) and duration of hemodialysis (r = -0.253, p<0.0001). The muscle quality of the diabetics was significantly lower than that of the non-diabetics (p<0.001). There was a significant, positive correlation between muscle quality and serum Mg (r = 0.118, p<0.05), but not serum calcium or phosphate. In multiple regression analysis, age, gender, hemodialysis duration, diabetes, and serum Mg (β = 0.129, p<0.05) were significantly and independently associated with muscle quality (R(2) = 0.298, p<0.0001). CONCLUSION:These results demonstrated that a lower serum Mg concentration was significantly associated with poor muscle quality in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanism by which lower serum Mg affects muscle quality. 10.1684/mrh.2014.0352
Higher Serum Magnesium Is a Survival Advantage in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients. Blood purification INTRODUCTION:Elevated serum magnesium is common and associated with survival in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients by observational studies. However, the results of these studies were underpowered and inconclusive. This work was designed to explore the predictive value of serum magnesium on the mortality of patients with MHD. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed mortality rates in 267 patients with MHD. The collected parameters included anthropometrics and laboratory parameters. Serum magnesium included baseline serum magnesium (BS-Mg) and average serum magnesium (AS-Mg). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were applied to identify the predictive value of serum magnesium on patient mortality. RESULTS:During the 64-month follow-up period, 121 (45.3%) all-cause and 75 (28.1%) cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths were recorded. The predictability of death of AS-Mg yielded results similar to those of serum albumin, secondary only to age, and superior to those of the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), BS-Mg, by ROC curves. There were significant differences in all-cause and CVD mortality between the four groups (by quartile). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses revealed that the lowest 25th percentile had the poorest prognosis for both all-cause mortality (p < 0.001) and CVD mortality (p = 0.011). Finally, multivariate Cox proportional hazards models showed that increased age, increased Hs-CRP, decreased serum albumin, and AS-Mg were independent predictors of all-cause and CVD mortality. The hazard ratios of AS-Mg (per 0.01 mmol/L) were 0.925 (95% confidence interval, 0.884-0.968, p = 0.001) for all-cause mortality and 0.976 (95% confidence interval, 0.954-0.999, p = 0.040) for CVD mortality. CONCLUSION:AS-Mg was a good indicator for assessing all-cause and CVD mortality in patients with MHD in China. Higher serum magnesium had a survival advantage. Further studies with larger sample sizes should be needed to clarify the best reference value for maximizing the beneficial effects of magnesium. 10.1159/000528383
Continuous Observation of Serum Total Magnesium Level in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis. Yang Wenfang,Wang Erli,Chen Wenxiu,Chen Chunming,Chen Shanying Blood purification BACKGROUND:Magnesium is an indispensable cation and plays an important physiological role in the body. Most previous studies focused on the single measurement of serum magnesium in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, scant studies focused on continuous observations of serum magnesium levels. OBJECTIVE:To provide continuous observations of serum magnesium levels in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). The levels of magnesium in patients initiating hemodialysis are also recorded and analyzed in the present study. METHODS:In this retrospective study, we serially investigated the measurements of serum total magnesium in MHD patients and patients initiating hemodialysis. Our data were followed up for one year. We provided real-time update on the levels of serum magnesium in patients on hemodialysis. RESULTS:On January 1, 2019, a total of 356 end-stage renal disease patients were receiving hemodialysis in our hospital. On December 31, 2019, the number had increased to 383. We found that serum total magnesium levels were in the normal range before initiating hemodialysis. With the initiation of hemodialysis, the levels of serum total magnesium increased. In patients on MHD, hypermagnesemia was very common. Hypomagnesemia was rare when 0.5 mmol/L magnesium dialysate was used. We did not find proton pump inhibitor associated hypomagnesemia. CONCLUSION:We find that serum total magnesium levels are in the normal range before initiating hemodialysis. However, in patients on MHD, hypermagnesemia is common when 0.5 mmol/L magnesium dialysate is used. Hypomagnesemia is very rare. Hypomagnesemia in patients on MHD is an indicator of poor condition. 10.1159/000509788
Forecast post-dialysis blood pressure in hemodialysis patients with intradialytic hypertension. Zou Lu-Xi,Sun Ling Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993) : Intradialytic hypertension (IDH) is emerging as an important issue in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This study aimed to discuss potential factors related to IDH and build forecasting models for post-dialysis blood pressure (BP) in MHD patients with IDH. : A total of 266 MHD patients were enrolled, included 133 (50%) patients with IDH and 133 patients without IDH. The BP and pulse were determined and recorded over six consecutive dialysis treatments. Forecasting models were established by simple and multiple linear regressions. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to estimate the association between the values of SBP at pre-HD, intra-HD and post-HD. : Lower levels of hemoglobin, albumin, folic acid and magnesium, higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, ferritin, and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents resistance index (ERI) were detected in the IDH patients. The IDH patients also had lower dry weight, ejection fraction of left ventricular (LVEF), higher interdialytic weight gain (IDWG, % post-HD body weight), and ventricular cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) than non-IDH patients. A linear relationship was revealed between intradialytic SBP in IDH patients, indicating that the pre-HD and intra-HD SBP were correlated with post-HD SBP. Furthermore, simple and multiple linear regression models were built to forecast the values of post-HD SBP in IDH patients. : The chronic inflammation, poor IDWG control, LV diastolic dysfunction, as well as low serum folic acid and magnesium might be associated with increasing prevalence of IDH in MHD patients. Forecasting models for post-HD SBP could help to control hypertension during HD treatments. 10.1080/10641963.2018.1523916
Is low blood magnesium level associated with hemodialysis headache? Goksel Basak Karakurum,Torun Dilek,Karaca Sibel,Karatas Mehmet,Tan Meliha,Sezgin Nurzen,Benli Sibel,Sezer Siren,Ozdemir Nurhan Headache OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, demographic, clinical features, and possible risk factors for hemodialysis headache (HDH). BACKGROUND:HDH has been recognized for many years, but the pathophysiology of this condition is not known. High arterial blood pressure, decreased serum osmolality, sodium washout, and high blood urea nitrogen level are reported risk factors for HDH. Low serum magnesium (Mg) level is known to cause some types of headache, including migraine (menstrual migraine in particular), tension-type headaches, and cluster and posttraumatic headaches. Low Mg has also been reported in HDH patients. METHODS:A total of 250 hemodialysis (HD) patients were questioned about problems with headache. Of these, 75 were diagnosed with HDH according to the revised International Headache Society criteria for 2003. Eighty age- and sex-matched HD patients without HDH were selected as a control group. For each HDH and control subject, arterial diastolic and systolic blood pressure, body weight, and serum levels of sodium, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and Mg were measured before and after one HD session. Urea reduction rate and ultrafiltration were determined. Serum levels of phosphorus, calcium, albumin, and parathormone were measured only before the session. Findings in the HDH and control group were statistically compared. RESULTS:As noted, 75 (30%) of the total 250 HD patients surveyed were diagnosed with HDH. The mean headache duration in this group was 5.17 +/- 5 hours. Vertex location, bilateral headache, dull nature, and moderate severity were the most prevalent features of HDH. There were no statistically significant differences between the HDH and control groups with respect to causes of end-stage renal disease. There were no significant differences between the HDH and control groups with respect to predialysis values for blood urea nitrogen, body weight, and arterial blood pressure (P > .05), and the same was true for comparisons of the postdialysis values for these parameters. The mean predialysis sodium level in the HDH group was higher than in the control group (P= .003). Both the mean predialysis and mean postdialysis Mg levels in the HDH group were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group (P= .05 and P= .02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that low blood Mg level and high blood sodium level may be risk factors for HDH. Magnesium supplementation may help patients with HDH whose serum Mg levels are found to be low. 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2006.00295.x
Hypomagnesemia and Mortality in Incident Hemodialysis Patients. Li Lin,Streja Elani,Rhee Connie M,Mehrotra Rajnish,Soohoo Melissa,Brunelli Steven M,Kovesdy Csaba P,Kalantar-Zadeh Kamyar American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation BACKGROUND:In the general population, low serum magnesium levels are associated with poor outcomes and death. While limited data suggest that low baseline magnesium levels may be associated with higher mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients, the impact of changes in magnesium levels over time is unknown. STUDY DESIGN:We examined the association of time-varying serum magnesium levels with all-cause mortality using multivariable time-varying survival models adjusted for clinical characteristics and other time-varying laboratory measures. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:9,359 maintenance HD patients treated in a large dialysis organization between 2007 and 2011. PREDICTOR:Time-varying serum magnesium levels across 5 magnesium increments (<1.8, 1.8-<2.0, 2.0-<2.2, 2.2-<2.4, and ≥2.4mg/dL). OUTCOME:All-cause mortality. RESULTS:2,636 individuals died over 5 years. Time-varying serum magnesium levels < 2.0mg/dL were associated with higher mortality after adjustment for demographics and comorbid conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, and malignancies (reference: magnesium, 2.2-<2.4mg/dL): adjusted HRs for serum magnesium level < 1.8 and 1.8 to <2.0mg/dL were 1.39 (95% CI, 1.23-1.58; P<0.001) and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.06-1.36; P=0.004), respectively. Some associations were attenuated to the null after incremental adjustment for laboratory test results, particularly serum albumin. However, among patients with serum albumin measurements, low albumin level (<3.5g/dL) and magnesium level < 2.0mg/dL were associated with an additional death risk (adjusted HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.31; P=0.004), whereas patients with high serum albumin levels (≥3.5g/dL) exhibited low death risk (adjusted HRs of 0.53 and 0.53 [P≤0.001] for magnesium < 2.0 and ≥2.0mg/dL, respectively; reference: albumin < 3.5g/dL and magnesium ≥ 2.0mg/dL). LIMITATIONS:Causality cannot be determined, and residual confounding cannot be excluded given the observational study design. CONCLUSIONS:Lower serum magnesium levels are associated with higher mortality in HD patients, including those with hypoalbuminemia. Interventional studies are warranted to examine whether correction of hypomagnesemia ameliorates adverse outcomes in this population. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.05.024
The relationship between serum magnesium levels and mortality in non-diabetic hemodialysis patients: A 10-year follow-up study. Shimohata Homare,Yamashita Marina,Ohgi Kentaro,Tsujimoto Ryuji,Maruyama Hiroshi,Takayasu Mamiko,Hirayama Kouichi,Kobayashi Masaki Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis Introduction Recently, although there are many reports showing that serum magnesium concentration is a predictor of mortality in dialysis patients, the observation periods of those reports were of short duration, typically around 12 months. Thus, we investigated this relationship over a longer follow-up period. Methods This retrospective, observational study included a total of 83 non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. The follow-up period was 120 months. Patients were divided into two groups, those with serum magnesium ≥2.5 mg/dL (Mg ≥2.5 mg/dL group) and serum magnesium <2.5 mg/dL (Mg <2.5 mg/dL group), and Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards analysis were conducted. In addition to the above analysis, single and multiple regression analysis were performed at baseline to reveal the relationship between serum magnesium and clinical parameters. Findings During the follow-up period, 31 out of 83 patients died. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significantly higher incidence of death in the Mg <2.5 mg/dL group (log-rank test 4.951, P = 0.026). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed a 62% decreased risk of mortality in the Mg ≥2.5 mg/dL group compared to the Mg <2.5 mg/dL group after adjustment for several confounding factors. Simple correlation coefficient analysis showed positive correlations of serum magnesium levels with serum creatinine, phosphorus, high-density lipoprotein, ankle-brachial index and KT/V, and a negative correlation with age. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the ankle-brachial index was the only parameter that had a positive and significant correlation with the serum magnesium level. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that higher serum magnesium levels were associated with improved survival in non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. 10.1111/hdi.12759
The Relationship between Magnesium and Endothelial Function in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Hemodialysis. Lee Shina,Ryu Jung Hwa,Kim Seung Jung,Ryu Dong Ryeol,Kang Duk Hee,Choi Kyu Bok Yonsei medical journal PURPOSE:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients tend to have higher serum magnesium values than healthy population due to their positive balance of magnesium in kidney. Recent studies found that magnesium level is positively correlated with endothelial function. Therefore, this study was conducted to define the relationship between magnesium level and endothelial dysfunction in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis (HD). MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 27 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Iontophoresis with laser-Doppler flowmetry, flow mediated dilation (FMD), and carotid intima-media thickness were measured. Patients' average serum magnesium levels were measured over previous three months, including the examination month. Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and multivariate regression model were used to define the association between magnesium and endothelial function. RESULTS:In the univariate analysis, higher magnesium levels were associated with better endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) of the FMD in ESRD patients on HD (r=0.516, p=0.007). When the participants were divided into two groups according to the median magnesium level (3.47 mg/dL), there was a significant difference in EDV of FMD (less than 3.47 mg/dL, 2.8±1.7%; more than 3.47 mg/dL, 5.1±2.0%, p=0.004). In multivariate analysis, magnesium and albumin were identified as independent factors for FMD (β=1.794, p=0.030 for serum magnesium; β=3.642, p=0.012 for albumin). CONCLUSION:This study demonstrated that higher serum magnesium level may be associated with better endothelial function in ESRD patients on HD. In the future, a large, prospective study is needed to elucidate optimal range of serum magnesium levels in ESRD on HD patients. 10.3349/ymj.2016.57.6.1446
Serum Magnesium and Sudden Death in European Hemodialysis Patients. de Roij van Zuijdewijn Camiel L M,Grooteman Muriel P C,Bots Michiel L,Blankestijn Peter J,Steppan Sonja,Büchel Janine,Groenwold Rolf H H,Brandenburg Vincent,van den Dorpel Marinus A,Ter Wee Piet M,Nubé Menso J,Vervloet Marc G PloS one Despite suggestions that higher serum magnesium (Mg) levels are associated with improved outcome, the association with mortality in European hemodialysis (HD) patients has only scarcely been investigated. Furthermore, data on the association between serum Mg and sudden death in this patient group is limited. Therefore, we evaluated Mg in a post-hoc analysis using pooled data from the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST, NCT00205556), a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the survival risk in dialysis patients on hemodiafiltration (HDF) compared to HD with a mean follow-up of 3.1 years. Serum Mg was measured at baseline and 6, 12, 24 and 36 months thereafter. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for confounders using inverse probability weighting, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of baseline serum Mg on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality and sudden death. A generalized linear mixed model was used to investigate Mg levels over time. Out of 714 randomized patients, a representative subset of 365 (51%) were analyzed in the present study. For every increase in baseline serum Mg of 0.1 mmol/L, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-94), the HR for cardiovascular mortality 0.73 (95% CI 0.62-0.85) and for sudden death 0.76 (95% CI 0.62-0.93). These findings did not alter after extensive correction for potential confounders, including treatment modality. Importantly, no interaction was found between serum phosphate and serum Mg. Baseline serum Mg was not related to non-cardiovascular mortality. Mg decreased slightly but statistically significant over time (Δ -0.011 mmol/L/year, 95% CI -0.017 to -0.009, p = 0.03). In short, serum Mg has a strong, independent association with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and sudden death in European HD patients. Serum Mg levels decrease slightly over time. 10.1371/journal.pone.0143104
Baseline Serum Magnesium Level and Its Variability in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: Associations with Mortality. Wu Lingping,Cai Kedan,Luo Qun,Wang Lailiang,Hong Yue Kidney & blood pressure research BACKGROUND/AIMS:The study aimed at investigating the impact of serum magnesium (Mg) baseline level and its variability on mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. METHODS:Eligible patients receiving regular MHD at Ningbo No. 2 Hospital between January 2009 and August 2016 were enrolled and follow-ups were conducted afterwards until death or transplantation. General information, laboratory results, and outcomes of subjects were collected. The relationship between baseline serum Mg level, its coefficient of variation (CV), and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality were assessed, respectively. Subjects were divided into groups in 2 manners: by serum Mg level (lower Mg group: serum Mg <1.00 mmol/L, higher Mg group: serum Mg ≥1.00 mmol/L) and by serum Mg CV (high variation group: CV ≥0.149 mmol/L, middle variation group: 0.114 mmol/L ≤ CV < 0.149 mmol/L, and low variation group: CV <0.114 mmol/L). RESULTS:169 MHD patients were recruited in the study, with mean serum Mg 1.00 ± 0.18 mmol/L, average age 60.20 ± 15.64 years, and median dialysis duration 37.00 (18.30, 77.97) months. During the follow-up, 69 (40.83%) patients died, 24 (34.78%) of which died due to cardiovascular disease. Comparing the two groups, patients in the lower Mg group had a higher all-cause mortality (50.00 vs. 29.33%, p = 0.007). The multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that lower Mg level was an independent factor for all-cause mortality as well as cardiovascular mortality (HR = 13.268, 95% CI 6.234-28.237, p < 0.001; HR = 12.702, 95% CI 3.737-43.174, p < 0.001, respectively). However, there were no significant statistical differences of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among these three groups concerning Mg variation. And in the univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, serum magnesium CV was not the independent factor for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS:The lower baseline serum magnesium level was associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in MHD patients. However, the variability of magnesium level was not independently associated with the risk of death and further studies need to be conducted. 10.1159/000498957
Serum Magnesium Levels and Mortality in Japanese Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients. Tamura Tomomi,Unagami Kohei,Okazaki Masayuki,Komatsu Mizuki,Nitta Kosaku Blood purification BACKGROUND/AIMS:Although hypomagnesemia was found to be a risk for cardiovascular diseases in the general population, the relationship between serum magnesium (Mg) levels and prognosis of patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) has not been extensively studied. This study sought to determine the relationship of serum Mg levels with aortic arch calcification (AoAC) and mortality in Japanese MHD patients. METHODS:We measured serum Mg levels in a cohort of 392 patients on MHD, classified the patients into 3 groups according to these levels, and followed their course for 4 years. AoAC was assessed using chest-X-rays. RESULTS:During follow-up, there were 117 deaths. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that the high serum Mg group tended to have better survival rates than the low and middle serum Mg groups but this did not reach statistical significance. We also found that patients in the high serum Mg group had better nutritional status associated with higher serum albumin, triglyceride, and phosphate levels and had a significantly lower serum C-reactive protein level. In total, 83 patients (59.3%) in the high serum Mg group had been prescribed Mg oxide (MgO). CONCLUSIONS:Hypermagnesemia tended to be associated with better survival and a higher prescription rate of MgO. Interventional studies are needed to clarify whether Mg supplementation is beneficial for improving patient prognosis. 10.1159/000496659
Daily magnesium intake and hypermagnesemia in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. Wyskida Katarzyna,Witkowicz Joanna,Chudek Jerzy,Więcek Andrzej Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate daily magnesium intake and the relation to its serum concentration in hemodialysis (HD) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). DESIGN:This is a prospective, open-label, cross-sectional clinical study analyzing daily magnesium intake based on nutritional questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 101 HD patients with CKD were screened for hypermagnesemia. All patients with serum magnesium >1.5 mmol/L were asked to fill in the standard 3-day nutritional questionnaire. The control group consisted of twice as many randomly selected HD patients with serum magnesium concentration <1.5 mmol/L and 20 subjects with normal kidney function on usual diet. RESULTS:Mean (±standard deviation) serum magnesium concentration in HD patients was 1.32 ± 0.18 mmol/L. Hypermagnesemia >1.5 mmol/L was found in 17 (16.8%) patients. There was no one case of severe hypermagnesemia (>2.0 mmol/L). The daily intake of magnesium was higher by 31.7% in the group with serum magnesium >1.5 mmol/L. Hypermagnesemia was observed in patients ingesting >281 mg of magnesium daily. In univariate analysis, there was a strong positive correlation between magnesium intake and serum concentration in the whole group (r = 0.870, P < .001). No correlation between Kt/V or residual diuresis and serum magnesium concentration was found. CONCLUSIONS:Magnesium consumption is the most important determinant of serum magnesium concentration in HD patients with CKD. Magnesium-containing phosphate binders can be considered in the therapy of hyperphosphatemia in HD patients without hypermagnesemia. 10.1053/j.jrn.2011.03.001
Hemodialysis-related headache. Sav Murat Yusuf,Sav Tansu,Senocak Elif,Sav Nadide Melike Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis Headache is one of the most frequently encountered neurological symptoms during hemodialysis. According to International Classification of Headache criteria dialysis-related headache was defined as the headache occurring during hemodialysis with no specific characteristic. It resolves spontaneously within 72 hours after the hemodialysis session ends. There are few studies in the literature investigating the clinical features of dialysis headache. The pathophysiology of hemodialysis-related headache is not known, but various triggering factors have been identified, including changes in blood pressure, serum sodium and magnesium levels during hemodialysis sessions, caffeine deprivation and stress. The aim of this article is to evaluate and analyze features of headache in patients undergoing hemodialysis. 10.1111/hdi.12171
Association between Serum Magnesium and Erythropoietin Responsiveness in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study. Yu Ling,Song Jinghong,Lu Xiangxue,Zu Yuan,Li Han,Wang Shixiang Kidney & blood pressure research BACKGROUND/AIMS:As shown in the China Health and Nutrition Survey, serum magnesium is associated with anemia. However, the roles of magnesium in anemia and erythropoietin (EPO) responsiveness remain unclear in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This study aims to investigate the level of serum magnesium and its relationship with EPO responsiveness in MHD patients. METHODS:A total of 307 MHD patients were recruited for this survey. Laboratory data and anthropometrics were collected. EPO responsiveness was evaluated by the erythropoietin resistance index (ERI). The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to serum magnesium concentrations (group A, the lowest tertile; group B, the middle tertiles; and group C, the highest tertile). Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the factors that may be associated with EPO responsiveness. RESULTS:The mean serum magnesium level was significantly higher than normal levels in MHD patients, while no hypomagnesemia was observed. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, intact parathyroid hormone, serum albumin, and magnesium levels were correlated with a high ERI. The OR of a high ERI was found to be 2.57 (95% CI 1.330-4.975, p = 0.005) for group A and 1.66 (95% CI 0.878--3.140, p > 0.05) for group B compared with the OR for group C. CONCLUSION:Serum magnesium levels were higher than normal levels in MHD patients. A high serum magnesium level was correlated with good EPO responsiveness and was therefore suggested to be a protective factor for EPO hyporesponsiveness. 10.1159/000500921
Impact of serum magnesium and bone mineral density on systemic fractures in chronic hemodialysis patients. Hori Mayuko,Yasuda Kaoru,Takahashi Hiroshi,Yamazaki Chikao,Morozumi Kunio,Maruyama Shoichi PloS one INTRODUCTION:Bone mineral density (BMD) measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to predict fractures, but its clinical utility has not been fully established in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Magnesium is an essential trace element. Although magnesium is associated with the risk of fractures in non-CKD populations, the relationship is unknown in CKD patients. METHODS:BMD and serum magnesium levels were measured in 358 stable outpatients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis therapy. The primary outcome was fragility fracture. Patients were divided into groups according to the median level of magnesium and the normal threshold value of lumbar spine BMD. RESULTS:During the median follow-up period of 36 months, 36 (10.0%) fractures occurred. The cumulative incidence rates of fractures were 17.6% and 5.2% [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-5.17, P = 0.030] in the lower (<2.6 mg/dL) and higher (≥2.6 mg/dL) magnesium (Mg) groups, respectively, and 21.2% and 7.3% (aHR 2.59, 95% CI 1.09-6.16, P = 0.027) in the low- and high-BMD groups, respectively. The lower-Mg and low-BMD group had a 9.21-fold higher risk of fractures (95% CI; 2.35-47.00; P = 0.0010) than the higher-Mg and high-BMD group. Furthermore, adding both magnesium levels and lumbar spine BMD levels to the established risk factors significantly improved the prediction of fractures (C-index: 0.784 to 0.830, p = 0.041). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:The combination of serum magnesium and lumbar spine BMD can be used for fracture risk stratification and synergistically improves the prediction of fractures in CKD patients. 10.1371/journal.pone.0251912
Factors associated with serum magnesium and vascular stiffness in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Yorifuji Mai,Kuragano Takahiro,Kawada Sayuri,Fukao Wataru,Toyoda Kazuhiro,Nakanishi Takeshi Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis INTRODUCTION:We evaluated the associated factors of serum magnesium in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Furthermore, we evaluated the relationship between low serum magnesium and arteriosclerosis in these patients. METHODS:In 129 patients on MHD, we evaluated the blood levels of magnesium, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (IMT). FINDINGS:In MHD patients, the serum level of magnesium was significantly correlated with age, calcium, TNF-α, albumin, and ba-PWV but not with ABI or IMT. In the multiple regression analysis, albumin (P = 0.0001, β = 0.31) and calcium (P = 0.029, β = 0.18) were selected as significant predictors of the magnesium level in MHD patients. Furthermore, the serum level of magnesium, as well as systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0001, β = 0.32) and age (P = 0.005, β = 0.25), were selected as significant (P = 0.012, β = -0.22) predictors of ba-PWV in MHD patients. DISCUSSION:In MHD patients, the serum magnesium level was associated with the serum levels of calcium and albumin. Furthermore, a low serum magnesium level in MHD patients was associated with the index of vascular stiffness. 10.1111/hdi.12625
Total serum and intraerythrocyte magnesium concentrations in hemodialysis patients using different dialysate solutions. Kusic Jovana,Markovic Rodoljub,Andjelkovic Apostolovic Marija,Dragovic Gordana Magnesium research Beside routinely used 0.5 mmol/L dialysate-magnesium, higher dialysate-magnesium (1.0 mmol/L) was recently introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different dialysate-magnesium on serum and intraerythrocyte levels of magnesium (Mg) before and after dialysis. The study included 43 patients receiving chronic hemodialysis, divided into two groups based on dialysate-magnesium (0.5 or 1.0 mmol/L) used prior to study initiation and during 12 months of follow-up. Blood samples were taken at the mid-week dialysis; total serum Mg was measured colorimetrically and intraerythrocyte Mg by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Hypermagnesiemia-associated complications were observed for 12 months. Total serum Mg was 1.14 ± 0.19 mmol/L before and 0.95 ± 0.16 mmol/L after dialysis in patients using lower dialysate-Mg (p < 0.001), whereas it was 1.47 ± 0.25 mmol/L before and 1.49 ± 0.18 mmol/L after dialysis in patients using higher dialysate-Mg (p = 0.926). Intraerythrocyte Mg was 1.98 ± 0.34 mmol/L before and 1.97 ± 0.28 mmol/L after dialysis in the lower dialysate-Mg group (p = 0.939), while it was 2.09 ± 0.37 mmol/L before and 2.19 ± 0.48 mmol/L after dialysis in the higher dialysate group (p = 0.067). After 12 months total serum Mg decreased in both the groups, remaining lower in 0.5 mmol/L dialysate-Mg group. No hypermagnesiemia-related symptoms occur during 12 months of follow-up in both the groups. In patients using lower dialysate-Mg total serum Mg remains within the reference range and shows postdialytic decline, while in higher dialysate-Mg group it exceeded reference range before and after dialysis without significant intradialytic change. The intraerythrocyte values remain within reference range with both dialysates used. No clinical signs and symptoms of hypermagnesiemia occur during longer administration of higher dialysate-magnesium despite high total serum Mg level. 10.1684/mrh.2020.0466
Magnesium Balance in Chronic and End-Stage Kidney Disease. Oliveira Ben,Cunningham John,Walsh Stephen B Advances in chronic kidney disease This article explores the effects of CKD and end-stage kidney disease on magnesium balance. In CKD, there is decreased glomerular filtration of magnesium. Decreased tubular reabsorption can compensate to a degree, but once CKD stage 4 is reached there is a tendency toward hypermagnesemia. In dialysis, magnesium balance is dependent on the constituents of the dialysate that the blood is exposed to. The concentration of dialysate magnesium is just one of the factors that need to be considered. During transplantation, there are particular effects of immunosuppressants that can affect the magnesium balance and need to be considered by the clinician. 10.1053/j.ackd.2018.01.004
Serum Magnesium and Mortality in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients. Yu Ling,Li Han,Wang Shi-Xiang Blood purification BACKGROUND AND AIM:The study aimed to investigate the potential contributing effect of serum magnesium on mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. METHODS:The patients receiving regular MHD in March 2013 were involved. Baseline data including clinical data, anthropometrics and biochemical measurement were collected. After being followed for 36 months, the time of death and reason were recorded. RESULTS:One hundred and thirty-five MHD patients were enrolled in the study and analyzed, with mean serum magnesium of 1.11 ± 0.15 mmol/l. The level of serum magnesium in 64 patients was normal (47.4%), and it was elevated in 71 of the 135 patients (52.6%). And none of MHD patients had hypomagnesemia. The levels of serum albumin (Alb), urea nitrogen, creatinine (Cr), uric acid and phosphorus were significantly higher, but high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and lipoprotein A were significantly lower in hypermagnesemia group compared to the normal serum magnesium group (p < 0.05). Serum Alb, serum Cr, serum phosphorus and Hs-CRP were related factors of hypermagnesemia by multivariate logistic regression analysis (p < 0.05). During the 36 months of follow-up, 27 patients died (20.0%), of whom 55.6% died of cardiovascular (CV) events. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that cumulative incidence of CV mortality were significantly higher in the normal serum magnesium group than in the hypermagnesemia group (p = 0.027); however, there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Serum magnesium was elevated, which was related with nutrition and inflammation markers including serum Alb, serum Cr, serum phosphorus and Hs-CRP. Lower serum magnesium is a risk factor of CV mortality in MHD patients. Intervention studies are needed to clarify whether magnesium supplementation is beneficial for improving patient prognosis, when MHD patients had inflammatory and malnutrition. 10.1159/000451052
Magnesium and Risk of Hip Fracture among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.
Dietary magnesium supplementation prevents and reverses vascular and soft tissue calcifications in uremic rats. Diaz-Tocados Juan M,Peralta-Ramirez Alan,Rodríguez-Ortiz María E,Raya Ana I,Lopez Ignacio,Pineda Carmen,Herencia Carmen,Montes de Oca Addy,Vergara Noemi,Steppan Sonja,Pendon-Ruiz de Mier M Victoria,Buendía Paula,Carmona Andrés,Carracedo Julia,Alcalá-Díaz Juan F,Frazao Joao,Martínez-Moreno Julio M,Canalejo Antonio,Felsenfeld Arnold,Rodriguez Mariano,Aguilera-Tejero Escolástico,Almadén Yolanda,Muñoz-Castañeda Juan R Kidney international Although magnesium has been shown to prevent vascular calcification in vitro, controlled in vivo studies in uremic animal models are limited. To determine whether dietary magnesium supplementation protects against the development of vascular calcification, 5/6 nephrectomized Wistar rats were fed diets with different magnesium content increasing from 0.1 to 1.1%. In one study we analyzed bone specimens from rats fed 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.6% magnesium diets, and in another study we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal magnesium on vascular calcification in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. The effects of magnesium on established vascular calcification were also evaluated in uremic rats fed on diets with either normal (0.1%) or moderately increased magnesium (0.6%) content. The increase in dietary magnesium resulted in a marked reduction in vascular calcification, together with improved mineral metabolism and renal function. Moderately elevated dietary magnesium (0.3%), but not high dietary magnesium (0.6%), improved bone homeostasis as compared to basal dietary magnesium (0.1%). Results of our study also suggested that the protective effect of magnesium on vascular calcification was not limited to its action as an intestinal phosphate binder since magnesium administered intraperitoneally also decreased vascular calcification. Oral magnesium supplementation also reduced blood pressure in uremic rats, and in vitro medium magnesium decreased BMP-2 and p65-NF-κB in TNF-α-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Finally, in uremic rats with established vascular calcification, increasing dietary magnesium from 0.1% magnesium to 0.6% reduced the mortality rate from 52% to 28%, which was associated with reduced vascular calcification. Thus, increasing dietary magnesium reduced both vascular calcification and mortality in uremic rats. 10.1016/j.kint.2017.04.011
Peritoneal magnesium elimination and its clinical relevance in peritoneal dialysis patients. Holzmann-Littig Christopher,McCallum Wendy,Heemann Uwe,Renders Lutz,Bietenbeck Andreas,Steubl Dominik Clinical nephrology BACKGROUND:Dialysis patients are at increased risk for vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease. Emerging data suggests that magnesium might be protective for the vascular system in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients as well. However, only limited data is available on the elimination of magnesium through PD treatment. This study aims to evaluate the peritoneal magnesium elimination characteristics in comparison to other small solutes and the influence of peritoneal transport status. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Peritoneal elimination of magnesium, blood-urea-nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine during a 4-hour peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was assessed in 30 stable PD patients. Absolute magnesium elimination was compared overall and between creatinine transport tertiles. RESULTS:Median age was 61 years, 50% of patients were male, 20% were on automated PD treatment. Serum magnesium was 0.84 mmol/L, and dialysate magnesium at the end of the PET was 0.57 mmol/L in the overall cohort and did not differ significantly between tertiles. The magnesium dialysate-to-plasma ratio was significantly different between the subgroups (lower tertile: median 0.60 (minimum 0.52, maximum 0.68) vs. middle tertile: 0.64 (0.58, 0.68) vs. upper tertile: 0.69 (0.67, 0.74), p &lt; 0.001). The elimination per liter of dialysis fluid was also significantly different (8.6 (6.6, 10.4) vs. 9.4 (8.0, 10.5) vs. 10.6 (0.2, 11.8) mg/L, p = 0.002), as was the absolute removal during the 4-hour dwell (18.6 (15.8, 21.2) vs. 19.4 (13.4, 24.6) vs. 22.7 (19.6, 31.9) mg, p = 0.007, respectively). CONCLUSION:Peritoneal magnesium elimination is similar to small solute transport characteristics. However, the absolute differences among patients with slower and faster transport types are small. Therefore, magnesium supplementation in PD patients should be guided by serum magnesium concentrations rather than the amount of peritoneal elimination. 10.5414/CN110115
Impact of Serum Magnesium Levels on Kidney and Cardiovascular Prognosis and Mortality in CKD Patients. Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation INTRODUCTION:In the general population, hypomagnesemia has been associated with cardiovascular events and hypermagnesemia with overall mortality. In chronic kidney disease (CKD) the evidence is not so strong. The objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between serum magnesium (SMg) concentration and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, all-cause mortality, and the progression to kidney failure in a population with CKD. METHODS:Observational study of a cohort of 746 patients with CKD. Baseline characteristics and analytical profile were collected at the first visit, and patients were followed for a mean of 42.6 months. RESULTS:A cohort of 746 patients were analyzed, age 70 ± 13 years, 62.9% were male, 45.2% had CKD grade 3, and 35.9% grade 4. The mean SMg concentration was 2.09 ± 0.33 mg/dL, with a close correlation between SMg concentration and serum creatinine, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) values. Use of calcitriol was associated with higher SMg (SMgH) concentration, while calcium supplements and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were associated with lower SMg concentration. For risk of cardiovascular events, patients with hypermagnesemia had an overall higher risk on a crude analysis (Log Rank 4.83, P = .28) and adjusted analysis (HR = 1.34, CI 1.02-1.77, P = .037). For risk of all-cause mortality, patients with hypermagnesemia had an overall higher risk on crude analysis (Log Rank 13.11, P > .001) and adjusted analysis (HR = 1.5424, IC = 1.002-2.319, P = .049). After performing a propensity score matching for SMg concentration, we achieved two comparable groups of 287 patients, finding again higher all-cause mortality in the hypermagnesemia group (LogRank 15.147, P < .001), that persisted in the Cox model adjusted for calcium, phosphorus, and iPTH. No association was found between SMg concentration and initiation of kidney replacement therapy (KRT). CONCLUSIONS:Magnesium concentration increases with decreasing kidney function. Hypermagnesemia predicts cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in this same population. Thus, magnesium supplementation should be used with caution in these patients. 10.1053/j.jrn.2020.09.004
Magnesium in Hemodialysis Patients: A New Understanding of the Old Problem. Sakaguchi Yusuke,Hamano Takayuki,Isaka Yoshitaka Contributions to nephrology BACKGROUND:Despite the prognostic significance of mineral and bone disorders in patients undergoing hemodialysis, very few studies have focused on magnesium metabolism in this population. Nephrologists have paid much attention to hypermagnesemia, which is sometimes caused by magnesium administration, but the clinical implication of low magnesium has been largely overlooked. Recently, several cohort studies have reported that lower serum magnesium levels are associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among hemodialysis patients. In addition to its beneficial effect on endothelium, magnesium has been shown to inhibit the progression of vascular calcification both in vitro and in vivo. Although the exact underlying mechanism is still uncertain, magnesium can suppress the maturation of calciprotein particles, a candidate culprit for vascular calcification, which is promoted by high phosphate. Thus, magnesium seems to be useful to alleviate the phosphate-induced calcification stress. Consistently, the risk of cardiovascular death associated with hyperphosphatemia is attenuated among hemodialysis patients with high serum magnesium levels, whereas this risk is exacerbated among those with low serum magnesium levels. In the context of the bone-vascular axis, magnesium may also be involved in the risk of fracture. It should be noted that, although total serum magnesium levels of hemodialysis patients are often above the reference range, the concentration of ionized magnesium, a biologically active form of magnesium, is largely normal or even low. SUMMARY:A growing number of observational studies have uncovered the relationship between lower serum magnesium levels and poorer survival of hemodialysis patients. Magnesium modulates the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders and might provide a novel therapeutic approach for vascular calcification. Key Messages: Future intervention studies should clarify whether magnesium supplementation and/or increasing dialysate magnesium concentration improves the prognosis of hemodialysis patients. 10.1159/000485700
Magnesium for treating sickle cell disease. Than Nan Nitra,Soe Htoo Htoo Kyaw,Palaniappan Senthil K,Abas Adinegara Bl,De Franceschi Lucia The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive inherited haemoglobinopathy which causes painful vaso-occlusive crises due to sickle red blood cell dehydration. Vaso-occlusive crises are common painful events responsible for a variety of clinical complications; overall mortality is increased and life expectancy decreased compared to the general population. Experimental studies suggest that intravenous magnesium has proven to be well-tolerated in individuals hospitalised for the immediate relief of acute (sudden onset) painful crisis and has the potential to decrease the length of hospital stay. Some in vitro studies and open studies of long-term oral magnesium showed promising effect on pain relief but failed to show its efficacy. The studies show that oral magnesium therapy may prevent sickle red blood cell dehydration and prevent recurrent painful episodes. There is a need to access evidence for the impact of oral and intravenous magnesium effect on frequency of pain, length of hospital stay and quality of life. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effects of short-term intravenous magnesium on the length of hospital stay and quality of life in children and adults with sickle cell disease. To determine the effects of long-term oral magnesium therapy on the frequency of painful crises and the quality of life in children and adults with sickle cell disease. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books.Date of last search of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 01 December 2016.Date of last search of other resources (clinical trials registries): 29 March 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA:We searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled studies of oral or intravenous magnesium compared to placebo or no magnesium. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Authors independently assessed the study quality and extracted the data using standard Cochrane methodologies. MAIN RESULTS:We included five randomized placebo-controlled studies with a total of 386 participants (aged three to 53 years). Two shorter parallel studies (n = 306) compared intravenous magnesium sulphate to placebo (normal saline) for admission to hospital due to a vaso-occlusive crisis, for which we were able to analyse data. The quality of evidence was moderate for studies presenting this comparison mainly due to limitations due to risk of bias and imprecision. Two of the three longer-term studies comparing oral magnesium pidolate to placebo had a cross-over design. The third was a parallel factorial study which compared hydroxyurea and oral magnesium to each other and to placebo over a longer period of time; we only present the comparison of oral magnesium to placebo from this study. The quality of evidence was very low with uncertainty of the estimation.The eight-hourly dose levels in the two studies of intravenous magnesium were different; one used 100 mg/kg while the second used 40 mg/kg. Only one of these studies (n = 104) reported the mean daily pain score while hospitalised (a non-significant difference between groups, moderate quality evidence). The second study (n = 202) reported a number of child- and parent-reported quality of life scores. None of the scores showed any difference between treatment groups (low quality evidence). Data from one study (n = 106) showed no difference in length of stay in hospital between groups (low quality evidence). Both studies reported on adverse events, but not defined by severity as we had planned. One study showed significantly more participants receiving intravenous magnesium experienced warmth at infusion site compared to placebo; there were no differences between groups for other adverse events (low quality evidence).Three studies (n = 80) compared oral magnesium pidolate to placebo. None of them reported data which we were able to analyse. One study (n = 24) reported on the number of painful days and stated there was no difference between two groups (low quality evidence). None of the studies reported on quality of life or length of hospital stay. Two studies (n = 68) reported there were no differences in levels of magnesium in either plasma or red blood cells (moderate quality evidence). Two studies (n = 56) reported adverse events. One reported episodes of mild diarrhoea and headache, all of which resolved without stopping treatment. The second study reported adverse events as gastrointestinal disorders, headache or migraine, upper respiratory infections and rash; which were all evenly distributed across treatment groups (moderate quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Moderate to low quality evidence showed neither intravenous magnesium and oral magnesium therapy has an effect on reducing painful crisis, length of hospital stay and changing quality of life in treating sickle cell disease. Therefore, no definitive conclusions can be made regarding its clinical benefit. Further randomized controlled studies, perhaps multicentre, are necessary to establish whether intravenous and oral magnesium therapies have any effect on improving the health of people with sickle cell disease. 10.1002/14651858.CD011358.pub2
Neuroprotective effect of magnesium supplementation on cerebral ischemic diseases. Xu Runnan,Wang Liping,Sun Liyuan,Dong Jianghui Life sciences Ischemic encephalopathy is associated with a high mortality and rate of disability. The most common type of ischemic encephalopathy, ischemic stroke, is the second leading cause of death in the world. At present, the main treatment for ischemic stroke is to reopen blocked blood vessels. However, despite revascularization, many patients are not able to achieve good functional results. At the same time, the strict time window (<4.5 h) of thrombolytic therapy limits clinical application. Therefore, it is important to explore effective neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist, which exerts neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. However, while most basic studies have shown that magnesium supplementation can help treat cerebral ischemia, intravenous magnesium supplementation in large clinical trials has failed to improve prognosis of ischemic patients. Therefore, we review the basic and clinical studies of magnesium supplementation for cerebral ischemia. According to the route of administration, treatment can be divided into intraperitoneal magnesium supplementation, intravenous magnesium supplementation, arterial magnesium supplementation and intracranial magnesium supplementation. We also summarized the potential influencing factors of magnesium ion intervention in cerebral ischemia injury. Finally, in combination with influencing factors derived from basic research, this article proposes three future research directions, including magnesium supplementation into the circulatory system combined with magnesium supplementation in the lateral ventricle, magnesium supplementation in the lateral ventricle combined with hypothermia therapy, and lateral ventricle magnesium supplementation combined with intracarotid magnesium supplementation combined with selective hypothermia. 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119257
Serum magnesium level and hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Jafari Mostafa,Di Napoli Mario,Lattanzi Simona,Mayer Stephan A,Bachour Salam,Bershad Eric M,Damani Rahul,Datta Yvonne H,Divani Afshin A Journal of the neurological sciences Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating subtype of stroke that results in significant rates of mortality and morbidities. The initial hematoma volume, hematoma expansion (HE), blood pressure (BP), and coagulopathy are considered strong predictors of clinical outcomes and mortality. Low serum magnesium (Mg) levels have been shown to be associated with larger initial hematoma and greater HE. Coagulopathy, platelet dysfunction, high BP, and increased inflammatory response might form the mechanistic link between low serum Mg levels, larger hematoma size and greater HE. However, randomized clinical trials administering intravenous Mg have shown no benefit over placebo in ICH patients. The confounding effect of hypocalcemia and a delay in Mg trafficking across the blood-brain barrier might explain the futile results for intravenous Mg therapy. In the current review, we will discuss the evidence regarding the possible role of low serum Mg level on HE in acute ICH. 10.1016/j.jns.2019.01.027
Magnesium and thiazide diuretics. Kisters Klaus,Gröber Uwe Magnesium research 10.1684/mrh.2019.0447
Magnesium and Intracranial Aneurysms: Not Only Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Pera Joanna,Anderson Christopher D Neurology 10.1212/WNL.0000000000012247
Hypermagnesemia in Clinical Practice. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) Hypermagnesemia is a relatively uncommon but potentially life-threatening electrolyte disturbance characterized by elevated magnesium concentrations in the blood. Magnesium is a crucial mineral involved in various physiological functions, such as neuromuscular conduction, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, insulin metabolism, and muscular contraction. Hypomagnesemia is a prevalent electrolyte disturbance that can lead to several neuromuscular, cardiac, or nervous system disorders. Hypermagnesemia has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes, particularly in hospitalized patients. Prompt identification and management of hypermagnesemia are crucial to prevent complications, such as respiratory and cardiovascular negative outcomes, neuromuscular dysfunction, and coma. Preventing hypermagnesemia is crucial, particularly in high-risk populations, such as patients with impaired renal function or those receiving magnesium-containing medications or supplements. Clinical management of hypermagnesemia involves discontinuing magnesium-containing therapies, intravenous fluid therapy, or dialysis in severe cases. Furthermore, healthcare providers should monitor serum magnesium concentration in patients at risk of hypermagnesemia and promptly intervene if the concentration exceeds the normal range. 10.3390/medicina59071190
Magnesium Balance and Measurement. Reddy Snigdha T,Soman Sandeep S,Yee Jerry Advances in chronic kidney disease Magnesium is an essential ion in the human body, playing an important role in practically every major metabolic and biochemical process, supporting and maintaining cellular processes critical for human life. Magnesium plays an important physiological role, particularly in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscles. As the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium, it is involved in over 600 enzymatic reactions including energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Magnesium has been implicated in and used as treatment of several diseases. Although the importance of magnesium is widely acknowledged, routine serum magnesium levels are not routinely evaluated in clinical medicine. This review provides a discussion as to where magnesium is stored, handled, absorbed, and excreted. We discuss approaches for the assessment of magnesium status. 10.1053/j.ackd.2018.03.002
Short-Term Magnesium Therapy Alleviates Moderate Stress in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial. Nutrients Patients suffering from fibromyalgia often report stress and pain, with both often refractory to usual drug treatment. Magnesium supplementation seems to improve fibromyalgia symptoms, but the level of evidence is still poor. This study is a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial in fibromyalgia patients that compared once a day oral magnesium 100 mg (Chronomag, magnesium chloride technology formula) to placebo, for 1 month. The primary endpoint was the level of stress on the DASS-42 scale, and secondary endpoints were pain, sleep, quality of life, fatigue, catastrophism, social vulnerability, and magnesium blood concentrations. After 1 month of treatment, the DASS-42 score decreased in the magnesium and placebo groups but not significantly (21.8 ± 9.6 vs. 21.6 ± 10.8, respectively, = 0.930). Magnesium supplementation significantly reduced the mild/moderate stress subgroup (DASS-42 stress score: 22.1 ± 2.8 to 12.3 ± 7.0 in magnesium vs. 21.9 ± 11.9 to 22.9 ± 11.9 in placebo, = 0.003). Pain severity diminished significantly ( = 0.029) with magnesium while the other parameters were not significantly different between both groups. These findings show, for the first time, that magnesium improves mild/moderate stress and reduces the pain experience in fibromyalgia patients. This suggests that daily magnesium could be a useful treatment to improve the burden of disease of fibromyalgia patients and calls for a larger clinical trial. 10.3390/nu14102088
The Effects of Oral Magnesium Supplementation on Glycemic Response among Type 2 Diabetes Patients. ELDerawi Wafaa A,Naser Ihab A,Taleb Mahmmoud H,Abutair Ayman S Nutrients BACKGROUND:Magnesium (Mg) supplementation may help control glycemic response among type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. OBJECTIVE:This study means to determine whether Mg supplementation improves glycemic control indicators in patients with T2D. METHODS:After one week of the dietary stabilization phase, 42 T2D patients were stratified according to sex, age, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and Mg levels and then randomly allocated into two groups. The intervention group was on 250 mg/day of elemental Mg for three months while the control group did not receive any type of supplements throughout the intervention period. RESULTS:The daily administration of 250 mg of elemental Mg indicated a significant improvement in HbA1C (8.32 to 7.96%, < 0.001), insulin levels (IL) (15.56 to 12.18 μIU/mL, < 0.001), C-peptide (2.28 to 1.90 ng/mL, = 0.001), HOMA.IR (6.16 to 4.44, < 0.001) and HOMA.β% (59.99 to 52.37, = 0.036) of the intervention group when compared with the control group after three months of intervention. CONCLUSION:The results of this study revealed that oral Mg supplementation reduces insulin resistance and improves the glycemic control indicators among T2D patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:current controlled trials PHRC/HC/32/15. Registered 5 October 2015. 10.3390/nu11010044
Relationship between Whole-Blood Magnesium and Cognitive Performance among Chinese Adults. Nutrients OBJECTIVE:To explore the association between magnesium levels and the odds of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHOD:In this cross-sectional study of 1006 participants (≥55 years) from China, whole-blood magnesium concentration was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. MCI was diagnosed according to Petersen criteria using self-reported cognitive decline and a neuropsychological test battery, including the trail-making test-part B (TMT-B), auditory verbal learning test (AVLT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), and verbal fluency test (VFT), which measured the assessment of executive, memory, attention, and language functioning, respectively. A logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between magnesium levels and MCI, and linear regression analyses were performed for the association between magnesium and cognitive function score. RESULTS:The MCI group had a significantly lower concentration of magnesium compared to the Non-MCI group (34.7 ± 9.8 vs. 36.7 ± 9.7, = 0.017). After adjusting for covariates, a negative association was observed between magnesium levels and MCI. Compared with the lowest quartile (median: 25.4 mg/L), the odds ratio for MCI was 0.53 (95%CI 0.32-0.90) for the highest quartile (median: 48.4 mg/L), and there was an inverse dose-response relationship ( for trend = 0.009). In addition, higher levels of magnesium were positively correlated with VFT scores (β = 0.37, 95%CI = 0.11-0.62) and DSST scores (β = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.01~0.98) and negatively correlated with TMT scores (β = -1.73, 95%CI = -3.40--0.07) in the middle-aged and older adults. CONCLUSIONS:Whole-blood magnesium was inversely associated with the occurrence of MCI and positively associated with performance in neuropsychological tests assessing attention, executive, and language ability in middle-aged and older adults. 10.3390/nu15122706
Superiority of magnesium and vitamin B6 over magnesium alone on severe stress in healthy adults with low magnesemia: A randomized, single-blind clinical trial. PloS one INTRODUCTION:Animal and clinical studies suggest complementary effects of magnesium and high-dose pyridoxine (vitamin B6) on stress reduction. This is the first randomized trial evaluating the effects of combined magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation on stress in a stressed population with low magnesemia using a validated measure of perceived stress. METHODS:In this Phase IV, investigator-blinded trial (EudraCT: 2015-003749-24), healthy adults with Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-42) stress subscale score >18 and serum magnesium concentration 0.45 mmol/L-0.85 mmol/L, were randomized 1:1 to magnesium-vitamin B6 combination (Magne B6 [Mg-vitamin B6]; daily dose 300 mg and 30 mg, respectively) or magnesium alone (Magnespasmyl [Mg]; daily dose 300 mg). Outcomes included change in DASS-42 stress subscale score from baseline to Week 8 (primary endpoint) and Week 4, and incidence of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS:In the modified intention-to-treat analysis (N = 264 subjects), both treatment arms substantially reduced DASS-42 stress subscale score from baseline to Week 8 (Mg-vitamin B6, 44.9%; Mg 42.4%); no statistical difference between arms was observed (p>0.05). An interaction (p = 0.0097) between baseline stress level and treatment warranted subgroup analysis (as per statistical plan); adults with severe/extremely severe stress (DASS-42 stress subscale score ≥25; N = 162) had a 24% greater improvement with Mg-vitamin B6 versus Mg at Week 8 (3.16 points, 95% CI 0.50 to 5.82, p = 0.0203). Consistent results were observed in the per protocol analysis and at Week 4. Overall, 12.1% of Mg-vitamin B6 treated and 17.4% of Mg-treated subjects experienced AEs potentially treatment related. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest oral Mg supplementation alleviated stress in healthy adults with low magnesemia and the addition of vitamin B6 to Mg was not superior to Mg supplementation alone. With regard to subjects with severe/extremely severe stress, this study provides clinical support for greater benefit of Mg combined with vitamin B6. 10.1371/journal.pone.0208454
The Role and the Effect of Magnesium in Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review. Botturi Andrea,Ciappolino Valentina,Delvecchio Giuseppe,Boscutti Andrea,Viscardi Bianca,Brambilla Paolo Nutrients INTRODUCTION:Magnesium is an essential cation involved in many functions within the central nervous system, including transmission and intracellular signal transduction. Several studies have shown its usefulness in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Furthermore, it seems that magnesium levels are lowered in the course of several mental disorders, especially depression. OBJECTIVES:In this study, we wish to evaluate the presence of a relationship between the levels of magnesium and the presence of psychiatric pathology as well as the effectiveness of magnesium as a therapeutic supplementation. METHODS:A systematic search of scientific records concerning magnesium in psychiatric disorders published from 2010 up to March 2020 was performed. We collected a total of 32 articles: 18 on Depressive Disorders (DD), four on Anxiety Disorders (AD), four on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), three on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), one on Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), one on Schizophrenia (SCZ) and one on Eating Disorders (ED). RESULTS:Twelve studies highlighted mainly positive results in depressive symptoms. Seven showed a significant correlation between reduced plasma magnesium values and depression measured with psychometric scales. Two papers reported improved depressive symptoms after magnesium intake, two in association with antidepressants, compared to controls. No significant association between magnesium serum levels and panic or Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) patients, in two distinct papers, was found. In two other papers, a reduced Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) score in depressed patients correlated with higher levels of magnesium and beneficial levels of magnesium in stressed patients was found. Two papers reported low levels of magnesium in association with ADHD. Only one of three papers showed lower levels of magnesium in ASD. ED and SCZ reported a variation in magnesium levels in some aspects of the disease. CONCLUSION:The results are not univocal, both in terms of the plasma levels and of therapeutic effects. However, from the available evidence, it emerged that supplementation with magnesium could be beneficial. Therefore, it is necessary to design ad hoc clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of magnesium alone or together with other drugs (antidepressants) in order to establish the correct use of this cation with potential therapeutic effects. 10.3390/nu12061661
Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, Copper and Selenium Status in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Robberecht Harry,Verlaet Annelies A J,Breynaert Annelies,De Bruyne Tess,Hermans Nina Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) In this study, we critically review the literature concerning the relation of Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Se and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Elemental status is estimated using peripheral blood parameters, hair, urine, daily intake and response to supplementation. The observed associations between concentration levels of the elements Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Se and ADHD symptoms are contradictory. This is partly due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the disorder. As a trend, lower ferritin and zinc levels can be observed. However, this correlation is not causative, as illustrated by placebo-controlled trials reporting conflicting evidence on the efficacy of supplementation. Well-defined studies on changes in concentration levels of the elements in relation to ADHD symptoms before and after treatment with therapeutics it will be possible to shed more light on the significance of these elements in this behavioral disorder. The discussion on whether a change in concentration of an element is cause or consequence of ADHD is not within the scope of this article. 10.3390/molecules25194440
Magnesium: Are We Consuming Enough? Razzaque Mohammed S Nutrients Magnesium is essential for maintaining normal cellular and organ function. In-adequate magnesium balance is associated with various disorders, such as skeletal deformities, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome. Unfortunately, routinely measured serum magnesium levels do not always reflect total body magnesium status. Thus, normal blood magnesium levels eclipse the wide-spread magnesium deficiency. Other magnesium measuring methods, including the magnesium loading test, may provide more accurate reflections of total body magnesium status and thus improve identification of magnesium-deficient individuals, and prevent magnesium deficiency related complications. 10.3390/nu10121863
An overview of diagnosis and management of drug-induced hypomagnesemia. Pharmacology research & perspectives Magnesium (Mg) is commonly addressed as the "forgotten ion" in medicine. Nonetheless, hypomagnesemia should be suspected in clinical practice in patients with relevant symptomatology and also be considered a predisposing factor for the development of other electrolyte disturbances. Furthermore, chronic hypomagnesemia has been associated with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Hypomagnesemia as a consequence of drug therapy is relatively common, with the list of drugs inducing low serum Mg levels expanding. Culprit medications linked to hypomagnesemia include antibiotics (e.g. aminoglycosides, amphotericin B), diuretics, antineoplastic drugs (cisplatin and cetuximab), calcineurin inhibitors, and proton pump inhibitors. In recent years, the mechanisms of drug-induced hypomagnesemia have been unraveled through the discovery of key Mg transporters in the gut and kidney. This narrative review of available literature focuses on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying drug-induced hypomagnesemia in order to increase the insight of clinicians toward early diagnosis and effective management. 10.1002/prp2.829
Magnesium and Hypertension in Old Age. Dominguez Ligia,Veronese Nicola,Barbagallo Mario Nutrients Hypertension is a complex condition in which various actors and mechanisms combine, resulting in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications that today represent the most frequent causes of mortality, morbidity, disability, and health expenses worldwide. In recent decades, there has been an exceptional number of experimental, epidemiological, and clinical studies confirming a close relationship between magnesium deficit and high blood pressure. Multiple mechanisms may help to explain the bulk of evidence supporting a protective effect of magnesium against hypertension and its complications. Hypertension increases sharply with advancing age, hence older persons are those most affected by its negative consequences. They are also more frequently at risk of magnesium deficiency by multiple mechanisms, which may, at least in part, explain the higher frequency of hypertension and its long-term complications. The evidence for a favorable effect of magnesium on hypertension risk emphasizes the importance of broadly encouraging the intake of foods such as vegetables, nuts, whole cereals and legumes, optimal dietary sources of magnesium, and avoiding processed foods, which are very poor in magnesium and other fundamental nutrients, in order to prevent hypertension. In some cases, when diet is not enough to maintain an adequate magnesium status, magnesium supplementation may be of benefit and has been shown to be well tolerated. 10.3390/nu13010139
Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Gröber Uwe,Schmidt Joachim,Kisters Klaus Nutrients Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status-primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia-might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium's many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 10.3390/nu7095388
Magnesium and blood pressure. II. Clinical studies. Durlach J,Durlach V,Rayssiguier Y,Bara M,Guiet-Bara A Magnesium research Magnesium deficit may be considered as a cardiovascular risk because of its aetiopathogenic role in the genesis of atherogenous dyslipidaemias and the so-called "idiopathic" mitral valve prolapse. It does not, however, constitute a major antihypertensive factor, though it may sometimes be an accessory co-factor. Plasma magnesium is generally normal in untreated hypertensive patients and normotension is the rule during magnesium deficit. An inverse relationship between magnesium and renin in the plasma of hypertensives has not been confirmed. In practice, plasma magnesium seems to be related to the evolution of the disease. An inverse correlation between blood pressure and erythrocyte total and free magnesium levels has been observed in diverse selected populations but no adjustment has been made in these studies for important covariables. A weak positive association between blood pressure and erythrocyte free magnesium was lost in a multivariate regression analysis. As a rule there is no difference between erythrocyte, leucocyte, and lymphocyte magnesium in hypertensives and controls. More often no relation between urinary magnesium and blood pressure is observed. Daily urine magnesium may be increased with increased excretion of urine adrenaline. Epidemiological data on dietary magnesium, particularly in drinking water, should be carefully scrutinized: these studies do not establish a major role for magnesium as an antihypertensive factor but confirm the importance of magnesium deficit as a nephrocardiovascular risk factor and sometimes gives support for a role of magnesium as an antihypertensive cofactor. The use of magnesium-depleting drugs in hypertensive patients may induce magnesium depletion which must be palliated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)