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[Post-traumatic hemobilia and successful direct treatment of the arteriobiliary fistula]. Králík J,Vojácek P Zentralblatt fur Chirurgie Traumatic hemobilia is a rare complication of deep and central liver injuries. Repeated and massive bleeding requires an active therapy. For diagnosis of the arterial-biliary fistula, most advantageous is a transcutaneous selective arteriography which can be used also for therapeutic embolization. Of surgical techniques, ligature of the art.hepatica comm. or propria and direct closure of the fistula in the liver parenchyma are recommended. The authors report on such a successful direct intervention in a 9-year-old girl.
[Therapeutic arterial embolization in hemobilia. Apropos of 3 cases]. Roche A,Doyon D,Harry G,Benozio M Journal de radiologie, d'electrologie, et de medecine nucleaire Three patients with bleeding into the bile ducts were explored by angiography. Two of them (severe post-operative bleeding and following needle-biopsy of the liver) were completely cured by highly selective arterial embolus production. No definite diagnosis was established in the third case (liver angioma with large artero-portal fistula). It can be seen from these observations, that angiography is essential in patients with bleeding into the bile ducts. The reason is not to establish the diagnosis but to find the precise location of the lesion and, under certain conditions, to apply radical treatment by highly selective arterial embolus production.
[Hemobilia as a late complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy--endovascular treatment]. Dobrowolska-Bak Małgorzata,Popiela Tadeusz J,Urbanik Andrzej Przeglad lekarski A case of 57-year-old woman with hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm associated with fistula into the biliary tract following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Because of mechanical barrier presence, constricted the blood vessel leading blood into the aneurysm, endovascular embolization with histoacrylate glu was used as a treatment. The use of histoacrylate glu is an effective alternative in hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms treatment, which allowed to get haemostasis by endovascular embolization, especially in cases when it is impossible to use standardly applied microcoils.
[Arterial embolization of an arteriovenous fistula with hemobilia after blind liver puncture]. Ormann W,Starck E,Pausch J Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie Five days after percutaneous liver biopsy we observed in a 42-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis severe hemobilia requiring transfusions of packed red cells. By means of super-selective arterial embolization, using gelfoam, the bleeding source, an av-fistula, was successfully occluded. Iatrogenic hemobilia, although seen after percutaneous liver biopsy only in app. 0.005% of the cases, is today the most important cause of biliary bleeding, mainly as a complication (app. 3% of the cases) of the widespread use of interventional procedures of the biliary tree (e.g. PTCD). Therapeutically arterial embolization should be considered first if possible.
Arterial embolization for traumatic hemobilia with hepato-portal fistula. Shenoy S S,Bergsland J,Cerra F B Cardiovascular and interventional radiology A case of blunt liver trauma complicated by delayed upper gastrointestinal bleeding, probably hemobilia, was successfully treated by intra-arterial embolization. Laparotomy with liver resection or hepatic artery ligation--procedures that carry a high morbidity and mortality in a critically ill patient--were avoided. Embolization techniques can be a valuable alternative to surgery in the management of hepatic trauma with delayed hemorrhage in selected, high-risk cases.
Management of hemobilia associated with transhepatic internal biliary drainage catheters. Sarr M G,Kaufman S L,Zuidema G D,Cameron J L Surgery Hemobilia developed as a complication in nine patients with transhepatic biliary drainage catheters. Arteriography revealed pseudoaneurysms of the hepatic artery in five patients and hepatic arterio-portal venous fistulas in three patients. In one patient no arteriographic abnormality was seen. Seven of eight patients were treated successfully with angiographic embolization of the bleeding site. Hemobilia stopped spontaneously in one patient without therapeutic intervention.
Intrahepatic trifistula causing bilhemia and hemobilia resulting from transjugular liver biopsy in the setting of biliary tract obstruction (with video). Bergmann Ottar M,Sun Shiliang,Weydert Jamie,Silverman William B Gastrointestinal endoscopy 10.1016/j.gie.2007.01.027
Bile duct disruption after blunt hepatic trauma: treatment with percutaneous repair. Miyayama Shiro,Matsui Osamu,Taki Keiichi,Minami Tetsuya,Ito Chiharu,Shinmura Rieko,Takamatsu Shigeyuki,Kobayashi Miki,Toya Daisyu,Mitsui Takeshi The Journal of trauma 10.1097/01.ta.0000204939.77653.95
Asymptomatic arterio-biliary fistula after transarterial chemoembolization of metastatic liver tumors. Chen J H,Ho Y J,Shen W C Hepato-gastroenterology Arterio-biliary fistula is a rare clinical condition resulting from various causes such as iatrogenic injury and ischemic change of the bile duct. Serious clinical symptoms occur due to the shunting of high-pressure blood from the hepatic artery into the bile duct. Here we report a case of arterio-biliary fistula demonstrated by angiographic examinations. The communication appeared after repeat transarterial chemoembolization of metastatic liver tumors. The interesting point of this case was that the patient did not have any obvious clinical symptoms related to the fistula. The mechanisms responsible for this rare manifestation are discussed.
Interventional treatment of iatrogenic lesions and hepatic arteries. Basile Antonio,Lupattelli Tommaso,Giulietti Giorgio,Massa Saluzzo Cesare,Mundo Elena,Carbonatto Paolo,Magnano Marco,Patti Maria Teresa La Radiologia medica PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the angiographic findings and the results of interventional treatment in iatrogenic lesions of the hepatic artery. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twelve patients (6 men and 6 women), aged 46 to 75 years (mean age 56.3 years), with acute hepatic bleeding secondary to percutaneous, surgical or laparoscopic procedures, were diagnosed using angiography and treated with endovascular percutaneous procedures. RESULTS:Angiography revealed 7 pseudoaneurysms, 3 arterial lacerations, 1 arterio-portal fistula e 1 arterio-biliary fistula that were treated by Trans-catheter Arterial Embolization (TAE) (n=11) and stentgraft placement (n=1). Only one patient had a relapse two days after TAE and died of haemorrhagic shock. The other patients had a benign clinical course with an average follow-up of 9.6 months. CONCLUSIONS:Interventional radiological procedures are effective in the management of iatrogenic lesions of the hepatic arterial vessels since they are minimally invasive, have a high success rate, and a low incidence of complications compared to the more complex and dangerous surgical or laparoscopic options.
[Arterioportal fistula and hemobilia in a patient with hepatic transplant]. Vivas S,Palacio M A,Lomo J,Cadenas F,Linares A,Rodríguez M,Rodrigo L Gastroenterologia y hepatologia The case of a 36-year old male liver transplant recipient hospitalized for upper digestive hemorrhage, jaundice and pain in the right hypochondrium is herein reported. Two hepatic biopsies had been performed 60 and 7 days prior to admission. Bleeding was observed to be from the biliary tract by endoscopy and an arterioportal fistula in the right hepatic lobe by echo-doppler and arteriography was seen. Treatment with selective embolization by arteriography was satisfactory with biliary tract drainage not being required. Doppler echography was used to control the evolution of the patient.
[Arterio-biliary fistula as a rare complication of percutaneous biliary drainage]. Steiner W,Berger H,Beck R,Lange V RoFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin 10.1055/s-2008-1032516
Prevention of significant hemobilia during placement of transhepatic biliary drainage catheters: technique modification and initial results. Goodwin S C,Stainken B F,McNamara T O,Yoon H C Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR PURPOSE:The authors evaluated a technique for the prevention of significant hemobilia during placement of transhepatic biliary drainage catheters (TBDCs). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Twenty patients with strictures were randomized to two groups. In the control group, the biliary tree was accessed with an Accustick system and a TBDC was placed routinely. In the experimental group, following initial access, a rotating hemostatic valve was attached and the outer sheath was pulled back over the wire while contrast material was injected. If a major vascular structure was encountered, the tract was not used for TBDC placement. However, the outer sheath was re-advanced and used to opacify the ducts. This facilitated separate access. Once access was achieved without traversing a major vascular structure, a TBDC was placed, and the Accustick system was removed. If a portal vein or hepatic vein branch was traversed, no additional maneuvers were performed. However, if a branch of the hepatic artery had been traversed, the tract and biliary-arterial fistula were embolized with gelatin sponge pledgets. Both groups were evaluated for hemobilia for 6 weeks. RESULTS:In the control group, there were three cases of significant hemobilia; two were mild, one was severe. In the experimental group, the tract communicated with a major vascular structure in three patients. In these patients, a second access was used for TBDC placement. None of the patients in the experimental group experienced significant hemobilia. CONCLUSION:Visualization prevents the usage of tracts that communicate with large vascular structures. Initial results indicate that this reduces the frequency of significant hemobilia when TBDCs are placed.
Management of hemobilia with transarterial angiographic embolization: report of one case. Lau Beng-Huat,Lee Jing-Sheng,Sung Tseng-Chen,Yeh Ming-Lun,Lu Ta-Nien,Sun Cheuk-Kay Acta paediatrica Taiwanica = Taiwan er ke yi xue hui za zhi A nine-year-old girl who developed life threatening hemobilia after blunt abdominal trauma was successfully managed by embolization of the hepatic artery aneurysm. However, biliary fistula persisted and subcapsular liver abscess occurred after the endoscopic sphincterotomy and the placement of a nasobiliary drain for bile leakage. Debridement of the abscess and insertion of a drain tube eventually cured the event. The relevant literature is reviewed and the management of the hemobilia is discussed.
Management of a rare case of fulminant hemobilia due to arteriobiliary fistula following total pancreatectomy. Welsch Thilo,Hallscheidt Peter,Schmidt Jan,Steinhardt Hans J,Büchler Markus W,Sido Bernd Journal of gastroenterology Hemobilia is a rare cause of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is often associated with a history of hepatic or biliary tract injury, tumor growth, hepatic artery aneurysm, cholecystitis, or hepatic abscess. We report a case of a 76-year-old patient with massive hemobilia due to intrahepatic bleeding from the segment 8 hepatic artery without evidence of a true aneurysm, abscess, or metastatic disease 4 weeks following pylorus-preserving total pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer. Gastroduodenoscopy suggested hemorrhage from the duodenojejunostomy but failed to achieve hemostasis, and the patient underwent exploratory laparotomy. It was realized intraoperatively that the bleeding originated from the intrahepatic biliary tract. Bleeding was controlled by blocking the right hepatic bile duct with a Fogarty catheter and subsequent transarterial embolization. Computed tomography did not reveal any local liver or vascular pathology. Retrospectively, the cause of delayed profuse hemobilia was most likely a traumatic intrahepatic pseudoaneurysm following endoscopic bile duct stenting 3 weeks before the pancreatectomy. The reported case is exceptional and of particular interest because of the absence of a typical history or cause of hemobilia, preoperative misleading diagnostic results in an altered anatomic situation, and the operative management to achieve bleeding control in this emergency setting. 10.1007/s00535-006-1905-z
A successful case of deceased donor liver transplantation for a patient with intrahepatic arterioportal fistula. Takagi Kosei,Yagi Takahito,Yoshida Ryuichi,Shinoura Susumu,Umeda Yuzo,Nobuoka Daisuke,Watanabe Nobuyuki,Kuise Takashi,Sui Kenta,Hirose Akira,Tsuboi Makiko,Ogasawara Mitsunari,Iwasaki Shinji,Saibara Toshiji,Fujiwara Toshiyoshi Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology Intrahepatic arterioportal fistula (IAPF) is a rare cause of portal hypertension that is often difficult to treat with interventional radiology or surgery. Liver transplantation for IAPF is extremely rare. We report a case of bilateral diffuse IAPF with severe portal hypertension requiring deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). A 51-year-old woman with no past medical history was admitted to another hospital complaining of abdominal distension and marasmus. A computed tomography scan and digital subtraction angiography indicated a massive pleural effusion, ascites, and a very large IAPF. Several attempts of interventional embolization of the feeding artery failed to ameliorate arterioportal shunt flow. As ruptures of the esophageal varices became more frequent, hepatic encephalopathy worsened. After repeated, uncontrollable attacks of hepatic coma, the patient was referred to our facility for further treatment. Surgical approaches to IAPF other than liver transplantation were challenging because of diffuse collateralization; therefore, we placed the patient on the national waiting list for DDLT. Although her Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was relatively low, she received a DDLT 2 months after the waiting period. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 44 days after her transplant. Liver transplantation may be a valid treatment option for uncontrollable IAPF with severe portal hypertension. 10.1111/hepr.12701
Percutaneous management of postoperative bile leaks after upper gastrointestinal surgery. Stampfl U,Hackert Th,Radeleff B,Sommer C M,Stampfl S,Werner J,Büchler M W,Kauczor H U,Richter G M Cardiovascular and interventional radiology PURPOSE:This study was designed to investigate the benefit of percutaneous interventional management of patients with postoperative bile leak on clinical outcome. Primary study endpoints were closure of the bile leak and duration of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) treatment. Secondary study endpoints were necessity of additional CT-guided drainage catheter placement, course of serum CRP level as parameter for inflammation, and patients' survival. METHODS:Between January 2004 and April 2008, all patients who underwent PTBD placement after upper gastrointestinal surgery were analyzed regarding site of bile leak and previous attempt of operative bile leak repair, interval between initial surgery and PTBD placement, procedural interventional management, course of inflammation parameters, duration of PTBD therapy, PTBD-related complications, and patients' survival. RESULTS:Thirty patients underwent PTBD placement for treatment of postoperative bile leaks. In 12 patients (40%), PTBD was performed secondary to a surgical attempt of bile leak repair. Additional percutaneous drainage of bilomas was performed in 14 patients (47%). CRP serum level decreased from 138.1 ± 73.4 mg/l before PTBD placement to 43.5 ± 33.4 mg/l 30 days after PTBD placement. The mean duration of PTBD treatment was 55.2 ± 32.5 days in the surviving patients. In one patient, a delayed stenosis of the bile duct required balloon dilation. Two PTBD-related complications (portobiliary fistula, hepatic artery aneurysm) occurred, which were successfully treated by embolization. Overall survival was 73% (22 patients). CONCLUSIONS:PTBD treatment is an effective therapy. PTBD treatment and additional CT-guided drainage of bilomas helped to reduce intraabdominal inflammation, as shown by reduction of inflammation parameters. 10.1007/s00270-011-0104-3
Management of hemobilia and persistent biliary fistula after blunt liver trauma. Steiner Z,Brown R A,Jamieson D H,Millar A J,Cywes S Journal of pediatric surgery A 10-year-old girl had hemobilia and a biliocutaneous fistula after blunt abdominal trauma. Embolization of the right hepatic artery occluded the hepatic artery aneurysm, but the cutaneous biliary fistula persisted despite prolonged (8 months) conservative management including sphincter decompression with an endoscopically placed biliary stent. Roux-en-Y fistuloenterostomy eventually cured the bile leak. 10.1016/0022-3468(94)90221-6
Arterioportal fistula following liver biopsy. Three cases occurring in liver transplant recipients. Jabbour N,Reyes J,Zajko A,Nour B,Tzakis A G,Starzl T E,Van Thiel D H Digestive diseases and sciences Although liver biopsy is a very useful procedure used frequently in the diagnosis and management of liver dysfunction occurring after orthotopic liver transplantation, complications can occur with its use. An unusual complication of arterioportal fistula is reported here. Based upon this small series of an unusual event and the knowledge that the posttransplant liver may be more hypervascular than prior to OLTx and that it is uniquely susceptible to hepatic infarction and abscess formation, any attempt at fistula closure should be considered carefully prior to initiating the therapy (15). Unless a serious complication occurs [such as a transient biliary obstruction due to hemobilia as occurred in case 2, portal hypertension as also occurred in case 2, or systemic sepsis or other symptoms develop related directly to the fistula], simple observation may be the best choice of action. Should therapy be required, hepatic arterial embolization should be reserved for adults with intrahepatic fistulas. Primary surgical closure of intrahepatic fistula should be reserved for cases of extrahepatic fistula. 10.1007/bf02064196
[Complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy]. Tombazzi C,Lander B,Bacalao R,Marquez D,Lecuna V G.E.N The laparoscopy cholecistectomy is a surgical procedure described in 1987, and it has had an important apogee and it's had substitute to open procedure. Between its advantages is notable, the postoperatory evolution without pain, paralytic ileus and the short time of hospitalization besides the patient can go away the same day in some cases. In Venezuela, the procedure has been received with enthusiasm by the surgeons with prefer this procedure however, there are complications derived in part for the lack of experience in the first cases, but occur non related of the experience. The quantization of the complications is not simple to realize for different reasons. We present twelve complications, two belong to patients intervened in the Hospital Universitario de Caracas and ten belong to patient transferred from other center. The complications were: pseudoaneurism of hepatic artery, hematoma of the wall, cutting of common bile duct, section the right bile duct, abscess of vesicular bed in two cases, retropneumoperitoneum, ascites by biliary fistula and four biloma. The treatment varied in every case and the utilization of radiologic technique with percutaneous drainage were useful in five cases. We conclude: first, this technique is not free of complications. Second, the percutaneous drainage (abscess, biloma), endoscopic procedure (biliary prosthesis) in fistulaes and arteriographics (arterial embolization), are useful in some cases, and could prevent the surgical reintervention.
Treatment of haemobilia by selective arterial embolisation. Fagan E A,Allison D J,Chadwick V S,Hodgson H J Gut We report a patient in whom haemobilia occurred after percutaneous liver biopsy. Selective hepatic arteriography showed a fistula between hepatic artery and portal venous system, with appearance of contrast in the biliary tract. Intrahepatic bleeding was stopped by arterial embolisation with a mixture of gelatine foam and sterile dura mater. Cholecytectomy was subsequently required as a haemocholecyst developed. The technique of arteriography and embolisation allows accurate localisation of intrahepatic bleeding sites and may avoid the need for a direct surgical approach to this problem. 10.1136/gut.21.6.541
Massive gastrointestinal bleeding after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Corral Juan E,Mousa Omar Y,Riegert-Johnson Douglas L Gut 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314254
Major hemobilia--experience from a specialist unit in a developing country. Gandhi Vidhyachandra,Doctor Nilesh,Marar Shaji,Nagral Aabha,Nagral Sanjay Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation BACKGROUND AND AIM:Hemobilia is a rare but potentially life threatening problem, which can be difficult to diagnose and treat. In the last few decades there has been a change in the etiologic spectrum and management of this problem in the West. The aim of this study was to analyze the etiology, clinical features, management and outcome of major hemobilia in a tertiary referral centre from western India. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was undertaken on 22 patients (16 males, 6 females; mean age 39 years, range 13 to 74) who presented with major hemobilia over a 5-year period. RESULTS:The etiology was iatrogenic in 13 patients (percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage 8, post laparoscopic cholecystectomy 3, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 1, and liver biopsy 1), liver trauma in 6 and liver tumors in 3 patients. Twenty patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding (melena 20 patients, hemetemesis with melena 8 patients), 5 with jaundice and 8 had fever. Abdominal angiography was performed in 20 patients. Angiography revealed pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery or its branches in 14 patients, left hepatic artery in 2, an arterio-biliary fistula in 1, tumor blush in 1 and the source could not be located in 2 patients. Seventeen of the 22 patients were treated with radiological intervention, 3 required surgery (liver resection for tumors 2, laparotomy for venous collateral bleeding of portal cavernoma 1) and two were managed conservatively. Radiological intervention involved embolisation with coils and/or glue in 16, and chemoembolisation in 1 patient. Sixteen of 17 patients responded to embolisation. Overall there were two deaths. CONCLUSION:The spectrum of hemobilia seen in India is now similar to that in the developed world with iatrogenic causes being the commonest. Interventional radiology can treat a majority of patients reducing the need and morbidity associated with surgery.
Delayed, life-threatening hemorrhage after self-expandable metallic biliary stent placement: clinical manifestations and endovascular treatment. Hyun Dongho,Park Kwang Bo,Hwang Jae Cheol,Shin Byung Seok Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987) BACKGROUND:Life-threatening, delayed hemorrhage after self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion for malignant biliary obstruction is very rare. Clinical manifestations, radiologic characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of this complication are not well-known. PURPOSE:To present the clinical manifestations, radiologic findings, and endovascular treatment of life-threatening, delayed hemorrhage secondary to SEMS placement. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A total of six patients (five men and one woman; mean age, 65.5 years) with life-threatening, delayed arterial bleeding after SEMS placement for malignant bile duct obstruction were recruited between 2000 and 2011 from three different hospitals in Korea. The original SEMS placement in all patients utilized either percutaneous (n = 3) or endoscopic approaches (n = 3). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical presentations, computed tomography (CT) and angiographic findings, endovascular treatments, and prognoses of these patients. RESULTS:All patients presented with life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding such as melena (n = 4), hematochezia (n = 1), and hematemesis (n = 1). Mean time period between biliary metallic stent insertion and presentation with bleeding was 75 days (range, 15-152 days). All stents were encased by primary or metastatic cancer along with nearby arteries on CT images. Digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) revealed pseudoaneurysm close to the stent (n = 2), in-stent pseudoaneurysm (n = 2), arteriobiliary fistula (n = 1), or pseudoaneurysm with arteriobiliary fistula (n = 1). The origins of hemorrhage were the gastroduodenal artery (n = 3), the aberrant right posterior hepatic artery from the gastroduodenal artery (n = 2), and the right hepatic artery (n = 1). Hemorrhages were successfully controlled after intra-arterial coil embolization in five patients followed by placement of a stent graft and direct puncture N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization in one patient. CONCLUSION:Life-threatening, delayed hemorrhage within a metallic biliary stent may occur if a stent is placed across the bulky bile duct tumor or tumor encases the stent. Bleeding can be successfully treated with endovascular treatment. However, the overall prognosis was poor. 10.1177/0284185113485501
Arterial complications of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. L'Hermine C,Ernst O,Delemazure O,Sergent G Cardiovascular and interventional radiology PURPOSE:To report on the frequency and treatment of arterial complications due to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). MATERIALS:Lesions of the intrahepatic artery were encountered in 10 of 525 patients treated by PTBD (2%). Hemobilia followed in 9 patients and subcapsular hematoma in 1. Seven patients had a benign biliary stenosis and 3 had a malignant stenosis. RESULTS:The bleeding resolved spontaneously in 3 patients. In 7 it required arterial embolization, which was successfully achieved either through the percutaneous catheter (n = 3) or by arteriography (n = 4). CONCLUSION:Arterial bleeding is a relatively rare complication of PTBD that can easily be treated by selective arterial embolization when it does not resolve spontaneously. In this series its frequency was much higher (16%) when the stenosis was benign than when it was malignant (0.6%).
Angioembolization of Post-traumatic Intrahepatic Arterioportal Fistula Presenting With Portal Hypertension. Mukund Amar,Maiwall Rakhi,Kumar Condati Naveen Journal of clinical and experimental hepatology Traumatic hepatic arterioportal fistula is an abnormal communication between the hepatic artery and portal vein and is a rare cause of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension with delayed presentation, usually after a remote history of abdominal trauma or an interventional procedure. This case report is of one such rare presentation, wherein a 59-year-old gentleman presented with unexplained ascites and complications of portal hypertension, eventually diagnosed with an arterioportal fistula on a computed tomography scan and managed by angioembolization. There was a remarkable improvement in the complications of portal hypertension after the coil embolization. 10.1016/j.jceh.2018.10.001
Hepatic arteriovenous fistulae: role of interventional radiology. Kumar Ajay,Ahuja Chirag Kamal,Vyas Sameer,Kalra Naveen,Khandelwal Niranjan,Chawla Yogesh,Dhiman Radha Krishan Digestive diseases and sciences INTRODUCTION:Hepatic arterial venous fistulae are abnormal communications between the hepatic artery and portal or hepatic vein and commonly occur either secondary to iatrogenic causes like liver biopsy, transhepatic biliary drainage, transhepatic cholangiogram and surgery, or following mechanical insult like blunt or penetrating trauma. Congenital fistulae are rare. Treatment is warranted as an emergency management or in the development of portal hypertension/heart failure in chronic cases. Both surgical and endovascular occlusion of the fistula can be attempted with the latter carrying low intra and post-procedure morbidity. Endovascular treatment has thus currently emerged as a minimally invasive reliable treatment option in such individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS:We describe a short series consisting of four cases of acquired hepatic arterioportal/venous fistulae, which were referred to interventional radiology for endovascular management over the last 2 years. Three patients had arterio-portal communication and one patient had communication between the hepatic artery and middle hepatic vein. Successful embolization through the transarterial route was achieved in all four patients. A brief discussion of these cases is presented along with a relevant review of literature. CONCLUSIONS:Endovascular techniques currently form less invasive and first line treatment options in arterioportal/venous fistulae, surgery being reserved only for unsuccessful embolizations/complex fistulae. 10.1007/s10620-012-2331-0
Percutaneous Treatment of Intrahepatic Biliary Leak: A Modified Occlusion Balloon Technique. Nasser Felipe,Rocha Rafael Dahmer,Falsarella Priscila Mina,da Motta-Leal-Filho Joaquim Maurício,Azevedo André Arantes,Valle Leonardo Guedes Moreira,Cavalcante Rafael Noronha,Garcia Rodrigo Gobbo,Affonso Breno Boueri,Galastri Francisco Leonardo Cardiovascular and interventional radiology PURPOSE:To report a novel modified occlusion balloon technique to treat biliary leaks. METHODS:A 22-year-old female patient underwent liver transplantation with biliary-enteric anastomosis. She developed thrombosis of the common hepatic artery and extensive ischemia in the left hepatic lobe. Resection of segments II and III was performed and a biliary-cutaneous leak originating at the resection plane was identified in the early postoperative period. Initial treatment with percutaneous transhepatic drainage was unsuccessful. Therefore, an angioplasty balloon was coaxially inserted within the biliary drain and positioned close to the leak. RESULTS:The fistula output abruptly decreased after the procedure and stopped on the 7th day. At the 3-week follow-up, cholangiography revealed complete resolution of the leakage. CONCLUSION:This novel modified occlusion balloon technique was effective and safe. However, greater experience and more cases are necessary to validate the technique. 10.1007/s00270-015-1234-9
Hemobilia after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: treatment with transcatheter embolotherapy. Savader S J,Trerotola S O,Merine D S,Venbrux A C,Osterman F A Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR Thirteen of 333 patients who underwent percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) developed severe hemobilia. Hepatic arteriography successfully demonstrated the source of hemorrhage in all 13 patients. Lesions included hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm in nine, hepatic artery-bile duct fistulas in four, and a hepatic artery-portal vein fistula in one patient. Hemobilia occurred from 1 day to 1.8 years (mean, 100 days) following catheter placement. Embolization agents used included Hilal embolization microcoils, occluding spring emboli, cyanoacrylate, detachable balloons, and gelatin sponge pledgets. A single agent was used in eight cases (62%), multiple agents were used in four cases (31%), and in one case (7%), spontaneous thrombosis of the pseudoaneurysm occurred during catheter manipulation. In five patients, the source of the hemorrhage could only be demonstrated following removal of the biliary catheter(s) over guide wire(s). Initial embolization was successful in stopping hemobilia in 12 patients. One patient required repeat embolization after 4 months. Postembolization complications included hepatic abscess formation in two patients and a sterile hepatic infarct in one patient. This series indicates that transcatheter embolotherapy is an effective method for the treatment for severe hemobilia.
Haemobilia - A Rare Cause of Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding. Ion Daniel,Mavrodin Carmen Iuliana,Șerban Mihai Bogdan,Marinescu Tudor,Păduraru Dan Nicolae, Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990) Haemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding that consists of haemorrhage within the biliary tree. Most cases of haemobilia are due to iatrogenic cause, laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy, abdominal trauma, gallstones, hepatic tumours, vascular aneurism. We present the case of a male patient admitted in the surgery department for epigastric and right hypochondria pain, nausea and vomiting. Open cholecystectomy was performed with a trans-cystic tube drainage. Postoperative outcome was favourable but with a continuous decrease in haemoglobin level. In the 13th day postoperatively biliary drainage was 800 ml - haemobilia. Patient health status altered and melena and hematemesis occurred. Endoscopy, cholangiography and abdominal computer tomography (CT) were performed. The episode repeated in day 27 after initial surgery. Duodenotomy and exploration of the biliary tree was performed. Angiography was performed next day that revealed biliary-arterial fistula within segment IV of the liver followed by embolization. Haemobilia reoccurred fifteen days later and colonoscopy and angiography were performed. Embolization with metallic coils was performed. Patient outcome was favourable and was discharged 13 days after second embolization. Interventional angiography remains the first treatment option of haemobilia. Selective arterial ligation or hepatectomy remain the options in case of lack of angiography or insufficient results after embolization. 10.21614/chirurgia.111.6.509
Biliary catheter drainage complicated by hemobilia: treatment by balloon embolotherapy. Mitchell S E,Shuman L S,Kaufman S L,Chang R,Kadir S,Kinnison M L,White R I Radiology Seventeen patients experienced severe hemobilia following percutaneous (nine patients) or surgical (eight patients) placement of biliary drainage catheters. Fourteen patients bled early after catheter placement (0.5-32 weeks; mean, 5.4 weeks) and three bled late during long-term biliary drainage (1.1-3.6 years; mean, 2 years). Hepatic angiography demonstrated the source of bleeding in 15 (88%) patients (hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm in ten, hepatic artery-portal vein fistula in four, varix along the tube tract in one) but showed no source of bleeding in two. Thirteen patients with hemobilia were treated with embolotherapy, using detachable balloons in 12. The advantages of this technique included the ability to flow-direct the balloon without selective catheterization; the ability to test-inflate the balloon at the site of the aneurysm or fistula during angiographic study and adjust its position before detachment; and preservation of the hepatic artery proximal and distal to the inflated balloon, thus preserving hepatic function following embolization. 10.1148/radiology.157.3.4059553
Emergency surgery for hemobilia due to hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture complicated by Mirizzi syndrome type II: a case report. Shishido Yutaka,Fujimoto Koji,Yano Yasumichi,Mitsuoka Eisei,Komatsubara Takashi,Shio Seiji,Ishii Masayuki,Higashiyama Hiroshi BMC surgery BACKGROUND:Hemobilia refers to bleeding into the biliary tract. Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm (HAP) rupture is an uncommon cause of hemobilia, and cases of HAP associated with Mirizzi syndrome are extremely rare. Although transarterial embolization is recommended as the first-line treatment for hemobilia, surgery is sometimes required. CASE PRESENTATION:A 76-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with epigastric pain. She was febrile and had conjunctival icterus and epigastric tenderness. Laboratory tests revealed abnormal white blood cell count and liver function. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple calculi in the gallbladder, an incarcerated calculus in the cystic duct, and a slightly dilated common hepatic duct. Based on examination findings, she was diagnosed with Mirizzi syndrome type I, complicated by cholangitis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, and we performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to place a drainage tube. The fever persisted; therefore, contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) was performed. This revealed portal vein thrombosis and hepatic abscesses; therefore, heparin infusion was administered. The following day, she complained of melena, and laboratory tests showed that she was anemic. ERCP was performed to change the drainage tube in the bile duct; however, bleeding from the papilla of Vater was observed. CECT demonstrated a right HAP with high-density fluid in the gallbladder and gallbladder perforation. Finally, she was diagnosed with hemobilia caused by HAP rupture, and emergency surgery was performed to secure hemostasis and control the infection. During laparotomy, we found that a right HAP had ruptured into the gallbladder. The gallbladder made a cholecystobiliary fistula, which indicated Mirizzi syndrome type II. Although we tried to repair the right hepatic artery, we later ligated it due to arterial wall vulnerability. Then, we performed subtotal cholecystectomy and inserted a T-tube into the common bile duct. There were no postoperative complications except for minor leakage from the T-tube insertion site. The patient was discharged after a total hospital stay of 7 weeks. CONCLUSIONS:We experienced an extremely rare case of emergency definitive surgery for hemobilia due to HAP rupture complicated by Mirizzi syndrome type II. Surgery might be indicated when controlling underlying infections was required. 10.1186/s12893-021-01314-z
Minimally invasive image-guided interventional management of Haemobilia. Prasad T V,Gupta A K,Garg P,Pal S,Gamanagatti S Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation Hemobilia is a well known cause for upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleed seen commonly in setting of iatrogenic or accidental trauma and various inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Patients present with UGI bleed and symptoms of associated biliary obstruction. Management options in intractable cases are surgery and endovascular embolisation. We report a series of eighteen patients presented with severe hemobilia from January 2010 to October 2014, who were managed by endovascular approach in our department. Etiology in these patients were trauma (n = 3), liver biopsy (n = 3), surgery (n = 3), percutaneous procedures (n = 2), inflammatory (n-3), neoplasm (n = 1) and the rest were idiopathic. Angiography revealed pseudoaneurysms of hepatic artery (n = 5), splenic artery (n = 1) and gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and arterio-biliary fistula (n = 1). Embolising agents used were detachable coils (n = 10) and glue (n = 8). All patients had technical and clinical success with minor non-consequential complications. Our findings show that endovascular embolisation is a simple, safe, accurate and effective treatment in patients with severe hemobilia. It is a viable alternative to major and potentially morbid surgeries. 10.7869/tg.280
Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms following pancreatoduodenectomy. Otah Eseroghene,Cushin Brian J,Rozenblit Grigory N,Neff Richard,Otah Kenneth E,Cooperman Avram M Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) Pancreatic and biliary fistulas and delayed gastric emptying are the most common complications after pancreatoduodenectomy. The development and bleeding of visceral arterial pseudoaneurysms are rare phenomena and pose diagnostic and treatment dilemmas. We describe 5 recent patients who developed bleeding from visceral artery pseudoaneurysms after pancreatoduodenectomy. These patients all had "herald" bleeding from their abdominal drains. Subsequent angiography and therapeutic embolizations were successfully performed. 10.1001/archsurg.137.1.55
Simultaneous embolization of a spontaneous porto-systemic shunt and intrahepatic arterioportal fistula: A case report. Liu Guo-Feng,Wang Xiao-Ze,Luo Xue-Feng World journal of clinical cases BACKGROUND:Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent and debilitating complication of chronic liver disease. Recurrent HE is strongly linked with spontaneous portosystemic shunts (SPSSs). Intrahepatic arterioportal fistulas (IAPFs) occur rarely but pose a major clinical challenge and may lead to or worsen portal hypertension. Herein, we present a rare case of recurrent HE secondary to a SPSS combined with an IAPF. CASE SUMMARY:A 63-year-old female with primary biliary cirrhosis presented with recurrent disturbance of consciousness for 4 mo. SPSS communicating the superior mesenteric vein with the inferior vena cava and IAPF linking the intrahepatic artery with the portal vein were found on contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography. The patient did not respond well to medical treatment. Therefore, simultaneous embolization of SPSS and IAPF was scheduled. After embolization, the symptoms of HE showed obvious resolution. CONCLUSION:The presence of liver vascular disorders should not be neglected in patients with chronic liver disease, and interventional therapy is a reasonable choice in such patients. 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i31.9577
[Right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm fistulating to the biliary tract responsible for recurrent upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding]. Paseka Tomáš,Vlček Petr,Vojtíšek Bohuslav,Kianička Bohuslav Casopis lekaru ceskych The paper presents a case of 51 years old patient suffering from repetitive upper intestinal tract bleedings following several months after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. After a difficult diagnostic algorithm the diagnosis is set as a right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm fistulating into the cystic duct stump. Several attempts of intraarterial embolisation (coiling) were done with only temporary effect. Finally an open surgical procedure with transligation of the aneurysm was performed with an immediate and definitive effect. No clinical signs of bleeding appeared within 6 months after the procedure. Key words: haemobilia, hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm, complication of cholecystectomy, coiling.
Interventional treatment of hepatic arterial and venous pathology: a commentary. Rösch J,Petersen B D,Hall L D,Ivancev K Cardiovascular and interventional radiology Hepatic aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms and fistulas (arterial biliary and arterial portal) causing bleeding or portal hypertension, and arteriovenous malformations causing high output cardiac failure in adults can be successfully managed by embolization techniques. Results of embolization in infantile hemangioendotheliomas are less uniform and tumors with massive arteriovenous shunting are difficult to manage. Transjugular intrahepatic portal systemic shunts using expendable stents have been successfully created in patients and have effectively controlled portal hypertension and variceal bleeding.
An unusual case of haemobilia. Rai Rakesh,Rose John,Manas Derek European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology Arterio-biliary fistula is an uncommon cause of haemobilia. We describe a case of right hepatic artery pseudo-aneurysm causing arterio-biliary fistula and presenting as severe melaena and cholangitis. Gastroduodenoscopy failed to establish the exact source of bleeding and hepatic artery angiography and selective embolization of the pseudo-aneurysm successfully controlled the bleeding. Pseudo-aneurysm of the hepatic artery is mostly iatrogenic due to biliary intervention, as demonstrated in this case. Difficulty in diagnosis and management is discussed together with a review of the literature. 10.1097/01.meg.0000085493.01212.9b
Iatrogenic hemobilia in 10-year-old boy. Zaleska-Dorobisz Urszula,Lasecki Mateusz,Olchowy Cyprian,Ugorski Wojciech,Garcarek Jerzy,Patkowski Dariusz,Kurcz Jacek Polish journal of radiology BACKGROUND:Hemobilia in children is a rare phenomenon which has been described mostly in the context of traumas. The descriptions of massive hemobilia in children after liver biopsy are a rarity in the scientific literature because there are only a few examples of it. Hemobilia rarely develops spontaneously. Generally, this is a complication after a blunt abdominal trauma or after medical (especially surgical) procedures. Correct diagnosis and treatment of hemobilia are essential, especially in the case of patients with severe - sometimes life-threatening - haemorrhage from biliary ducts. It should be remembered that the symptoms of hemobilia do not necessarily occur immediately after surgery or trauma. In some cases hemobilia occurs after a changeable, asymptomatic period of time. CASE REPORT:We would like to present a case of a severe form of hemobilia caused by arterio-biliary fistula which developed incidentally after liver biopsy in a 10-year-old boy with chronic hepatitis B. Symptoms of hemobilia appeared on the seventh day after the diagnostic biopsy when the patient's general condition began to deteriorate. The diagnosis of arterio-biliary fistula was established after angio-CT examination of the liver. A selective embolization of the right hepatic artery was carried out. Hemobilia in children is a rare phenomenon which has been described mostly in the context of traumas. The cases of massive hemobilia in children after liver biopsy are a rarity in the scientific literature because there are only a few examples of it. Hemobilia very rarely develops spontaneously. Generally, this is a complication after a blunt abdominal trauma or after medical (especially surgical) procedures. RESULTS:Correct diagnosis and treatment of hemobilia are essential, especially in the case of patients with severe - sometimes life-threatening - haemorrhage from biliary ducts. It should be remembered that the symptoms of hemobilia do not necessarily occur immediately after surgery or trauma. In some cases hemobilia occurs after a changeable, asymptomatic period of time. 10.12659/PJR.890410
Hemobilia Secondary to Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Procedure: A Case Report. Kaswala Dharmesh,Gandhi Divyang,Moroianu Andrew,Patel Jina,Patel Nitin,Klyde David,Brelvi Zamir Journal of clinical medicine A 59 year-old woman with liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C, complicated by refractory hepatic hydrothorax was treated with a TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) procedure. The procedure was complicated by substantial gastrointestinal hemorrhage. EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy) was performed and revealed hemobilia. A hepatic angiogram was then performed revealing a fistulous tract between a branch of the hepatic artery and biliary tree. Bleeding was successfully stopped by embolization of the bleeding branch of the right hepatic artery. Hemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an increasing incidence due to the widespread use of invasive hepatobiliary procedures. Hemobilia is an especially uncommon complication of TIPS procedures. We recommend that in cases of hemobilia after TIPS placement, a physician should immediately evaluate the bleeding to exclude an arterio-biliary fistula. 10.3390/jcm1010015
[A case of diffuse hepatic arteriovenous fistulae with hepatic encephalopathy, postprandial abdominal pain and biliary injury]. Kawano Akira,Shigematsu Hirohisa,Maruyama Toshihiro,Nomura Hideyuki,Shimoda Shinji Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology A 60-year-old woman with hepatic encephalopathy was admitted to our hospital. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and hepatic arteriography revealed diffuse hepatic arteriovenous fistulae (HAVF). Overt portosystemic shunt could not be identified. Right heart catheterization showed increased cardiac output. However the patient had never shown any signs of heart failure. Other than that, marked hepatopetal arterial flow from some branches of the superior mesenteric artery was detected and mesenteric arterial flow remarkably decreased. Extensive HAVF can lead to significant complications, including high output heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, portal hypertension, hepatic encephalopathy, biliary ischemia, cirrhosis, postprandial abdominal pain, and reduced liver function. Embolization or ligation of the hepatic artery provides temporal improvement of clinical symptoms, but long-term results are unsatisfactory because of the development of collateral circulation and the risk of refractory intrahepatic cholangitis, subsequently leading to liver failure. Liver transplantation offers another therapeutic option and can be a successful curative treatment.
Control of hemobilia by embolization of a false aneurysm and arterioportobiliary fistula of the hepatic artery. Beningfield S J,Bornman P C,Krige J E,Terblanche J AJR. American journal of roentgenology 10.2214/ajr.156.6.2028875
Multimodal Management for Refractory Biliary Stricture After Living Donor Liver Transplantation. Transplantation proceedings BACKGROUND:Biliary stricture is a common complication of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) is the primary treatment of biliary stricture, which is sometimes refractory. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for biliary stricture after LDLT and present successful management for refractory biliary stricture. METHODS:Data from 26 patients who underwent LDLT were retrospectively analyzed. The relationship between the incidence of biliary strictures and clinical variables, including pre/intra/postoperative factors, was assessed. RESULTS:Univariate analysis showed that ABO incompatibility (P = .037) was a significant risk factor for biliary strictures. Case 1 was a 57-year-old woman who underwent LDLT using a left-lobe graft for primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and developed a biliary stricture 1 month after surgery. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and embolization of the portal vein and hepatic artery were performed. Thereafter, ethanol was injected into the biliary duct, and the intervention was successfully completed. Case 2 was a 54-year-old woman who underwent LDLT using a right-lobe graft and duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction for PBC. Internal plastic stent insertion by ERBD was unsuccessful due to the significantly bending bile duct. After PTCD, the gun-site technique for the posterior branch and dual hepatic vascular embolization of the anterior branch was performed. The patient was followed up without an external fistula tube. CONCLUSION:ABO incompatibility was a risk factor for refractory biliary stricture. Appropriate procedures should be chosen based on stricture types. 10.1016/j.transproceed.2023.04.001
Portal vein aneurysm associated with arterioportal fistula after hepatic anterior segmentectomy: Thought-provoking complication after hepatectomy. Kimura Yusuke,Hori Tomohide,Machimoto Takafumi,Ito Tatsuo,Hata Toshiyuki,Kadokawa Yoshio,Kato Shigeru,Yasukawa Daiki,Aisu Yuki,Takamatsu Yuichi,Kitano Taku,Yoshimura Tsunehiro Surgical case reports BACKGROUND:Few cases of postoperative arterioportal fistula (APF) have been documented. APF after hepatectomy is a very rare surgery-related complication. CASE PRESENTATION:A 62-year-old man was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma in segments 5 and 8, respectively. Anterior segmentectomy was performed as a curative surgery. Each branch of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and biliary duct for the anterior segment was ligated together as the Glissonean bundle. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 14. Three months later, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging showed an arterioportal fistula and portal vein aneurysm. Surprisingly, the patient did not have subtle symptoms. Although a perfect angiographic evaluation could not be ensured, we performed angiography with subsequent interventional radiology to avoid sudden rupture. Arteriography was immediately performed to create a portogram via the APF from the stump of the anterior hepatic artery, and portography clearly revealed hepatofugal portal vein flow. Portography also showed that the stump of the anterior portal vein had developed a 40-mm-diameter portal vein aneurysm. Selective embolization of the anterior hepatic artery was accomplished in the whole length of the stump of the anterior hepatic artery, and abnormal blood flow through the APF was drastically reduced. The portal vein aneurysm disappeared, and portal flow was normalized. Dynamic computed tomography after embolization clearly demonstrated perfect interruption of the APF. The patient maintained good health thereafter. CONCLUSIONS:Post-hepatectomy APFs are very rare, and some appear to be cryptogenic. Our thought-provoking case may help to provide a possible explanation of the causes of post-hepatectomy APF. 10.1186/s40792-018-0465-9
Special presentation of bronchobiliary fistula after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization: A case report. Medicine RATIONALE:Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a widely adopted treatment for advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nevertheless, several complications may occur, such as hepatic artery injury, nontarget embolization, pulmonary embolism, hepatic abscess, biloma, biliary strictures, and hepatic failure. However, bronchobiliary fistula is rarely mentioned before. PATIENT CONCERNS:A 65-year-old man with HCC underwent the TACE procedure, and then he encountered fever, dyspnea, abdominal pain, and abundant yellowish purulent bronchorrhea. DIAGNOSIS:Bronchobiliary fistula was diagnosed based on the computed tomography (CT) scan of his chest, which revealed the right lower lobe of his lung was connected to a hepatic cystic lesion. INTERVENTIONS:Percutaneous transhepatic cystic drainage was performed, and we obtained yellowish bile, showing the same characteristics as the patient's bronchorrhea. OUTCOMES:We kept drainage of his biloma and provided supportive care as the patient wished. Unfortunately, the patient passed away due to progressive right lower lobe pneumonia 2 weeks later. LESSONS:This case exhibits a typical CT scan image that was helpful for the diagnosis of post-TACE bronchobiliary fistula. Post-TACE bronchobiliary fistula formation hypothesis includes biliary tree injuries with subsequent biloma formation and diaphragmatic injuries. Moreover, the treatment of bronchobiliary fistula should be prompt to cease pneumonia progression. Therefore, we introduce this rare complication of post-TACE bronchobiliary fistula in hopes that future clinicians will keep earlier intervention in mind. 10.1097/MD.0000000000031596
Coil embolization of an arteriobiliary fistula caused by hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy. Takao Hidemasa,Doi Ippei,Makita Kohzoh,Watanabe Toshiaki Cardiovascular and interventional radiology Arteriobiliary fistula is a rare complication of hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy. We report successful coil embolization of an arteriobiliary fistula. An 80-year-old woman underwent percutaneous placement of an indwelling catheter into the replaced right hepatic artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of liver metastases. Coil embolization of the left hepatic artery was not performed. The patient complained of abdominal pain during intra-arterial chemotherapy. Angiography revealed a fistula between the replaced right hepatic artery and the common bile duct. The fistula was successfully treated by coil embolization via the indwelling catheter, and the indwelling catheter was removed. Although such complications usually herald the termination of intra-arterial chemotherapy, the patient underwent percutaneous implantation of a new catheter-port system, and intra-arterial chemotherapy was restarted. 10.1007/s00270-004-0172-8
Emergency cholecystectomy and hepatic arterial repair in a patient presenting with haemobilia and massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to a spontaneous cystic artery gallbladder fistula masquerading as a pseudoaneurysm. BMC gastroenterology BACKGROUND:Haemobilia usually occurs secondary to accidental or iatrogenic hepatobiliary trauma. It can occasionally present with cataclysmal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage posing as a life threatening emergency. Haemobilia can very rarely be a complication of acute cholecystitis. Here we report a case of haemobilia manifesting as massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient without any prior history of biliary surgery or intervention and present a brief review of literature. CASE PRESENTATION:A 22 year old male admitted with history suggestive of acute cholecystitis subsequently developed waxing waning jaundice and recurrent episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleed. Endoscopy showed an ulcer in the first part of duodenum with a clot, no active bleed was visible. Angiography was suggestive of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm in the vicinity of the right hepatic artery probably originating from the cystic artery. Coil embolization was tried but the coil dislodged into the right branch of hepatic artery distal to the site of pseudoaneurysm. Review of angiographic video in light of operative findings demonstrated a fistulous communication between cystic artery and gallbladder as the cause, a simultaneous cholecystoduodenal fistula was also noted. Retrograde cholecystectomy, closure of cholecystoduodenal fistula and right hepatic arteriotomy with retrieval of the endo-coil and hepatic arterial repair was performed. CONCLUSION:Fistula between the cystic artery and gallbladder has been commonly reported to occur after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Spontaneous fistulous communication, i.e. in the absence of any prior trauma or intervention, between cystic artery and gallbladder is rare with very few reports in literature. Aetiopathogenesis of the disease, in the context of current literature is reviewed. The diagnostic dilemma posed by the confounding finding of an ulcer in the duodenum, the iconic video angiographic depiction as also the therapeutic challenge of a failed embolization with consequent microcoil migration and primary hepatic arterial repair in the emergency situation is discussed. 10.1186/1471-230X-13-43
Management of a Fulminant Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Exteriorized Through Hemobilia Due to Arteriobiliary Fistula Between the Common Bile Duct and a Right Hepatic Artery Aneurysm - A Case Report. Bacalbasa Nicolae,Brezean Iulian,Anghel Claudiu,Barbu Ion,Pautov Mihai,Balescu Irina,Brasoveanu Vladislav In vivo (Athens, Greece) Right hepatic artery aneurysms are rare events that might remain asymptomatic for a long period of time. However, in cases presenting large lesions, symptoms might develop especially due to the association of compression of the surrounding elements. Most often these symptoms and signs include diffuse abdominal pain, jaundice or portal vein compression signs. In rare cases life-threatening complications might develop due to the aneurysmal erosion of the biliary duct, portal vein or due to the aneurysmal rupture in the peritoneal cavity. In all these cases emergency surgery is imposed. We present the case of a 66-year-old patient diagnosed with a partially thrombosed right hepatic artery aneurysm compressing the common bile duct who was initially submitted to a percutaneous arterial embolization of the aneurysm in association with an external biliary drainage; three weeks later the patient presented a fulminant upper gastrointestinal bleeding exteriorized through the external biliary drainage, hematemesis and hematochezia. The patient was successfully submitted to surgery, intraoperatively a synchronous rupture of the portal vein being revealed. The right hepatic artery aneurysm was resected en bloc with common bile duct resection and segmental portal vein resection. The continuity of the portal vein was re-established through the interposition of a cadaveric allograft, the common bile duct was anastomosed with en Roux en Y limb while the right hepatic artery aneurysm was ligated and resected, the arterial vascularization of the liver being provided by the left hepatic artery. 10.21873/invivo.11158
Unsuccessful Stent Graft Repair of a Hepatic Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Haemobilia: Case Report and Comprehensive Literature Review. EJVES vascular forum AIMS:To discuss treatment strategies for non-traumatic, non-iatrogenic hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs) in the presence of an arteriobiliary fistula, illustrated by a case and followed by a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS:Following the PRISMA guidelines, 24 eligible HAA cases presenting with haemobilia were identified. Characteristics of patients, aneurysms, treatment strategies and their outcomes were collected. RESULTS:A 69 year old patient with no previous hepatobiliary intervention or trauma, presented with jaundice and haemobilia caused by a HAA. Initial treatment by endovascular stenting was chosen to prevent ischaemic liver complications. Unfortunately, this strategy failed because of stent migration due to ongoing infection leading to a type 1A endoleak. The patient had to be converted to open surgery with ligation of the HAA. The patient recovered uneventfully and no complications occurred during the following 12 months. COMPREHENSIVE LITERATURE REVIEW:Of the 24 cases, nine had a true HAA and 15 were pseudo/mycotic aneurysms, mainly caused by endocarditis or cholecystitis. The majority were located in the right hepatic artery. In 20 cases, an endovascular first approach was chosen with embolisation, none with covered stents. Three of these cases had to be converted to open surgery because of rebleeding. In all open (primary or secondary) cases, ligation of the HAA was performed. One patient in these series died. No liver ischaemia or abscesses were reported, although one patient developed an ischaemic gallbladder. CONCLUSIONS:Patients who present with a HAA and haemobilia may be treated safely by embolisation or open ligation. Using a covered stent graft in these patients can cause problems due to ongoing infection and should be monitored closely by imaging. Publication bias and lack of long term follow up imply cautious interpretation of these findings. 10.1016/j.ejvsvf.2021.06.008
Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm, bronchobiliary fistula in a patient with liver trauma. Jha Prabhat,Joshi Bijendra Dhoj,Jha Binit Kumar BMC surgery BACKGROUND:Bronchobiliary fistula and hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm are rare complications of hepatic trauma. There are isolated case reports for both pseudoaneurysm and bronchobiliary fistula following hepatic trauma but there aren't reports of both conditions developing in a single patient. CASE PRESENTATION:This case describes an 18 year old hindu male who developed right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm and bronchobiliary fistula following blunt abdominal trauma. Patient was managed with exploratory laparotomy followed by coil embolization and Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography stenting respectively. CONCLUSION:Rare complications of liver trauma include pseudoaneurysm and bronchobiliary fistula. These complications can rarely co- exist in a single patient. 10.1186/s12893-018-0437-9
Hepatic infarction following selective hepatic artery embolization with microcoils for iatrogenic biliary hemorrhage. Hashimoto Manabu,Akabane Yoko,Heianna Jyouichi,Tate Etuko,Ishiyama Koichi,Nishii Toshiaki,Watarai Jiro Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the relation of collateral filling to ischemic or infarcted liver following selective embolization of hepatic artery with microcoils in patients with iatrogenic hemobilia. Methods: We performed retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes and post-embolization angiograms in eight patients (mean age of 66 years) studied over the last 7 years. Hemobilia occurred after percutaneous biliary drainage (n = 5) and percutaneous hepatic biopsy (n = 3). Causes of bleeding were pseudoaneurysm (n = 6), arterial laceration (n = 1), and direct hepatic artery-to-biliary duct fistula (n = 1). We placed microcoils in the subsegmental (n = 4) or segmental branch (n = 2), or both branches (n = 2), distal and proximal to the bleeding point. Results: We obtained complete hemostasis in all patients (100%). Four patients had no hepatic infarction after embolization. Normal filling of the distal part of the embolized branch through collaterals was seen on post-embolization films. Four patients with no collateral filling experienced liver infarction in the area corresponding to embolized branch. One patient with severe portal stenosis died of hepatic failure. Conclusion: Hepatic infarction is related to lack of immediate collateral flow. 10.1016/j.hepres.2004.05.002
Right Hepatic Artery Aneurysm with Aneurysm-Choledochal Fistula. Barbu Ionut,Ichim Florin,Ristea Alexandru,Lazea Razvan,Danciuc Ioana,Magdoiu Oana,Smira Gabriela,Toma Mihai,Braşoveanu Vlad Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990) 66-year-old patient, investigated for jaundice, weight loss, imaging on CT scan with partially thrombosed right hepatic artery aneurysm - compressive effect on the common hepatic canal causing dilation of intrahepatic bile ducts and intimate adhesion to the anterior wall of the portal vein with significant inflammation at this level. Left hepatic artery accessory from the left gastric artery. The embolization of the right hepatic artery with detachable spirals of 5 mm / 20 cm is practiced. Subsequent arteriographies demonstrate occlusion of the aneurysm without repermeabilization of the left hepatic artery. Internalized external biliary drainage is practiced. Control arteriography demonstrates revascularization of the right hepatic lobe in the left hepatic artery, but associating the repermeabilization of the aneurysmal sac in the left hepatic artery. Surgery is decided. Resection of the aneurysm with segmental resection of the portal vein, with T-T anastomosis by interposition of cadaveric venous graft. (video article https://www.revistachirurgia.ro/pdfs/video/voluminos-anevrism-artera-hepatica-2281.mp4). 10.21614/chirurgia.116.4.501
Immediate transbiliary embolization of a biliary-hepatic artery fistula encountered during access for percutaneous biliary drainage. Nakagawa N,Nakajima Y,Bird S M,Wakabayashi M Cardiovascular and interventional radiology The authors describe a case in which a biliary-hepatic artery fistula was created by a glidewire perforation during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and was successfully treated by embolization via the transbiliary tract. Great caution should be exercised to avoid perforation when a Terumo hydrophilic glidewire is used during biliary intervention.
Arterio-Biliary Fistula as a Rare Life-Threatening Complication of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: A Case Report. Taehan Yongsang Uihakhoe chi A 46-year-old male with alcoholic liver cirrhosis underwent a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for refractory ascites. On the 9th day after the procedure, he presented with melena and decreasing hemoglobin levels. Hemobilia due to fistula formation between the right intrahepatic bile duct and right hepatic artery was suspected on computed tomography. Angiography revealed a fistula of the small branches of the hepatic segmental arteries, and right intrahepatic bile duct was confirmed; embolization was successfully performed with a coil for the eighth segmental hepatic artery, a glue-lipiodol mixture for the fifth segmental hepatic artery, and gelfoam slurry for the right anterior hepatic artery. However, 2 days after embolization, the patient died owing to aggravated disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. When gastrointestinal bleeding occurs after TIPS, careful evaluation is immediately required, and hemobilia should be considered. 10.3348/jksr.2021.0083
Trans biliary proximal and distal coil embolization of an arteriobiliary fistula: report of a case and review of literature. Galambo Faris,Maybody Majid CVIR endovascular BACKGROUND:Hepatic arterial injury is an uncommon complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage interventions that commonly presents with hemobilia and peri catheter hemorrhage. It is classically managed with antegrade trans arterial embolization. However, this approach may not be possible due to altered anatomy and alternative techniques need to be considered. We report a case of an arteriobiliary fistula which was successfully coil embolized both distal and proximal to the lesion using a trans biliary approach. This is the first report of such method and interventionalists should be aware of this option. The literature is reviewed. CASE PRESENTATION:We report a case of a 49-year-old male with advanced colorectal cancer presented with cholangitis. His duodenal anatomy precludes endoscopic intervention, so he underwent percutaneous biliary drainage complicated by intractable hemobilia and pericatheter bleeding. Hepatic arterial anatomy evaluated by two catheter angiographies was shown to be isolated at multiple levels by tumors and prohibited antegrade access of bleeding artery for embolization. Sheath cholangiography revealed an arteriobiliary fistula involving left hepatic arterial branches. The arterial injury was successfully treated by coil embolization distal and proximal to the lesion via a retrograde trans biliary approach, with complete resolution of hemobilia. CONCLUSION:Trans biliary proximal and distal coil embolization is a newly reported approach for treating biliary hemorrhage when traditional antegrade arterial embolization is not feasible due to preclusive anatomic factors. Interventionalists should be familiar with this management option. 10.1186/s42155-018-0046-9
Treatment of hemobilia with selective hepatic artery embolization. Hidalgo F,Narváez J A,Reñé M,Domínguez J,Sancho C,Montanyà X Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR PURPOSE:To evaluate retrospectively the results of selective transcatheter embolization in the treatment of hemobilia. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Twelve patients with hemobilia (mean age, 43 years) underwent embolotherapy. Causes of hepatic vascular injury were iatrogenic trauma, blunt external trauma, septic emboli, and lupus vasculitis. A 5-F cobra catheter or a 5-F non-tapered Simmons shaped catheter passed over a hydrophilic guide wire, or a Tracker 18 catheter forming a coaxial system was used. Embolic agents included gelatin sponge or polyvinyl alcohol fragments used alone or with coils. RESULTS:Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms were found in 10 patients, ruptured hepatic artery aneurysm was found in one, and arterioportal fistula was found in two (with pseudoaneurysm in one). Bleeding was immediately controlled in 11 of 12 patients after embolization; one patient rebled and underwent surgery. Two patients underwent repeat embolization (2 weeks and 2 months later). Two patients died, one of biliary sepsis and liver insufficiency 24 hours after embolization and the other of gangrenous cholecystitis. CONCLUSION:Transcatheter embolization is an effective treatment of hemobilia. It allows control of bleeding and identification of the origin of the hemorrhage.
Hepatic artery angiography and embolization for hemobilia after hepatobiliary surgery. Peng Z,Yan S,Zhou X,Xu Z Chinese medical journal OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effectiveness of hepatic angiography and embolization in the diagnosis and treatment of hemobilia after hepatobiliary surgery. METHODS:Nine patients had upper gastrointestinal bleeding 7 days to 3 months after surgery. They underwent emergency hepatic artery angiography and were treated by embolization using Gelfoam particles only (8 patients) and Gelfoam particles plus microcoils (1 patient). RESULTS:Hepatic artery angiography revealed hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms in 3 patients, diffuse hemorrhage of the hepatic artery branches in 3, right hepatic artery-bile duct fistulas in 2, and hepatic artery-small intestine fistula in 1. Hemobilia was controlled with embolization in 7 patients, of whom 1 had recurrent bleeding 1 day after treatment. During the follow-up, 3 patients died of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Two patients whose hemorrhage could not be controlled due to technical reasons died several days later. CONCLUSION:When hemobilia after hepatobiliary surgery is suspected, patients should receive hepatic angiography as a first diagnostic procedure and be treated with minimally invasive procedure of selective embolization of the involved artery as soon as possible.
Arterio-Biliary Fistula: a Rare Cause of Hemobilia. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 10.1007/s11605-021-05118-7
Delayed hepatic rupture post ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy: A case report. Huang Jia-Yan,Lu Qiang,Liu Ji-Bin Medicine RATIONALE:Hemorrhage, one of complications after liver biopsy, is often identified immediately after the procedure while delayed liver rupture is relatively rare. PATIENT CONCERNS:A 45-year-old woman was diagnosed with undetermined liver cirrhosis and abnormal liver function. To determine the etiology and severity of liver cirrhosis, ultrasound-guided liver biopsy was arranged. The patients did not complain any pain during the procedure. Ultrasound examination on postoperative day1 (POD 1) and MRI on POD 3 showed no evidence of hematoma and ascites. On POD 7, however, the patient was taken to the hospital with a sudden onset of pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. DIAGNOSES:Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed liver rupture of right inferior segment of the liver with subcapsular hematoma. INTERVENTIONS:Patient was treated with infusion of 2-unit red blood cell suspension, fluid and hemostatics. OUTCOMES:The vital signs of the patient were stabilized after the therapy. The follow-up ultrasound 1 month later showed a shrunken subcapsular hematoma measuring 4.2 × 2.1 cm at the right lobe. LESSONS:Whenever a liver biopsy procedure is performed, the care should be taken to avoid puncturing those areas that may have liver incisure. Moreover, the patient need to rest for several days and to avoid heavy activities, which is one of the major risk factors for post-procedure bleeding. 10.1097/MD.0000000000009955
A Rare Liver Tumor Nodule. Qu Chao,Wang Hang-Yan,Xiu Dian-Rong Gastroenterology 10.1053/j.gastro.2021.05.064
An Uncommon Lesion of the Liver. Su Peng,Hong Jianguo,Li Tao Gastroenterology 10.1053/j.gastro.2021.03.006
Ulcers or More? Dupont Jolan,Van Langenhove Charlotte,Colpaert Erwin Gastroenterology 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.02.051
Acute Diarrheal Illness. Jansson-Knodell Claire L,Shin Andrea,Rogers Nicholas Gastroenterology 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.08.012