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Proton FLASH Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Symptomatic Bone Metastases: The FAST-01 Nonrandomized Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:To our knowledge, there have been no clinical trials of ultra-high-dose-rate radiotherapy delivered at more than 40 Gy/sec, known as FLASH therapy, nor first-in-human use of proton FLASH. Objectives:To assess the clinical workflow feasibility and treatment-related toxic effects of FLASH and pain relief at the treatment sites. Design, Setting, and Participants:In the FAST-01 nonrandomized trial, participants treated at Cincinnati Children's/UC Health Proton Therapy Center underwent palliative FLASH radiotherapy to extremity bone metastases. Patients 18 years and older with 1 to 3 painful extremity bone metastases and life expectancies of 2 months or more were eligible. Patients were excluded if they had foot, hand, and wrist metastases; metastases locally treated in the 2 weeks prior; metal implants in the treatment field; known enhanced tissue radiosensitivity; and implanted devices at risk of malfunction with radiotherapy. One of 11 patients who consented was excluded based on eligibility. The end points were evaluated at 3 months posttreatment, and patients were followed up through death or loss to follow-up for toxic effects and pain assessments. Of the 10 included patients, 2 died after the 2-month follow-up but before the 3-month follow-up; 8 participants completed the 3-month evaluation. Data were collected from November 3, 2020, to January 28, 2022, and analyzed from January 28, 2022, to September 1, 2022. Interventions:Bone metastases were treated on a FLASH-enabled (≥40 Gy/sec) proton radiotherapy system using a single-transmission proton beam. This is consistent with standard of care using the same prescription (8 Gy in a single fraction) but on a conventional-dose-rate (approximately 0.03 Gy/sec) photon radiotherapy system. Main Outcome and Measures:Main outcomes included patient time on the treatment couch, device-related treatment delays, adverse events related to FLASH, patient-reported pain scores, and analgesic use. Results:A total of 10 patients (age range, 27-81 years [median age, 63 years]; 5 [50%] male) underwent FLASH radiotherapy at 12 metastatic sites. There were no FLASH-related technical issues or delays. The average (range) time on the treatment couch was 18.9 (11-33) minutes per patient and 15.8 (11-22) minutes per treatment site. Median (range) follow-up was 4.8 (2.3-13.0) months. Adverse events were mild and consistent with conventional radiotherapy. Transient pain flares occurred in 4 of the 12 treated sites (33%). In 8 of the 12 sites (67%) patients reported pain relief, and in 6 of the 12 sites (50%) patients reported a complete response (no pain). Conclusions and Relevance:In this nonrandomized trial, clinical workflow metrics, treatment efficacy, and safety data demonstrated that ultra-high-dose-rate proton FLASH radiotherapy was clinically feasible. The treatment efficacy and the profile of adverse events were comparable with those of standard-of-care radiotherapy. These findings support the further exploration of FLASH radiotherapy in patients with cancer. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04592887. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.5843
Prognostic implications of p16 and HPV discordance in oropharyngeal cancer (HNCIG-EPIC-OPC): a multicentre, multinational, individual patient data analysis. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:p16 (p16) immunohistochemistry is the most widely used biomarker assay for inferring HPV causation in oropharyngeal cancer in clinical and trial settings. However, discordance exists between p16 and HPV DNA or RNA status in some patients with oropharyngeal cancer. We aimed to clearly quantify the extent of discordance, and its prognostic implications. METHODS:In this multicentre, multinational individual patient data analysis, we did a literature search in PubMed and Cochrane database for systematic reviews and original studies published in English between Jan 1, 1970, and Sept 30, 2022. We included retrospective series and prospective cohorts of consecutively recruited patients previously analysed in individual studies with minimum cohort size of 100 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. Patient inclusion criteria were diagnosis with a primary squamous cell carcinoma of oropharyngeal cancer; data on p16 immunohistochemistry and on HPV testing; information on age, sex, tobacco, and alcohol use; staging by TNM 7th edition; information on treatments received; and data on clinical outcomes and follow-up (date of last follow-up if alive, date of recurrence or metastasis, and date and cause of death). There were no limits on age or performance status. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients of the overall cohort who showed the different p16 and HPV result combinations, as well as 5-year overall survival and 5-year disease-free survival. Patients with recurrent or metastatic disease or who were treated palliatively were excluded from overall survival and disease-free survival analyses. Multivariable analysis models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for different p16 and HPV testing methods for overall survival, adjusted for prespecified confounding factors. FINDINGS:Our search returned 13 eligible studies that provided individual data for 13 cohorts of patients with oropharyngeal cancer from the UK, Canada, Denmark, Sweden, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain. 7895 patients with oropharyngeal cancer were assessed for eligibility. 241 were excluded before analysis, and 7654 were eligible for p16 and HPV analysis. 5714 (74·7%) of 7654 patients were male and 1940 (25·3%) were female. Ethnicity data were not reported. 3805 patients were p16-positive, 415 (10·9%) of whom were HPV-negative. This proportion differed significantly by geographical region and was highest in the areas with lowest HPV-attributable fractions (r=-0·744, p=0·0035). The proportion of patients with p16+/HPV- oropharyngeal cancer was highest in subsites outside the tonsil and base of tongue (29·7% vs 9·0%, p<0·0001). 5-year overall survival was 81·1% (95% CI 79·5-82·7) for p16+/HPV+, 40·4% (38·6-42·4) for p16-/HPV-, 53·2% (46·6-60·8) for p16-/HPV+, and 54·7% (49·2-60·9) for p16+/HPV-. 5-year disease-free survival was 84·3% (95% CI 82·9-85·7) for p16+/HPV+, 60·8% (58·8-62·9) for p16-/HPV-; 71·1% (64·7-78·2) for p16-/HPV+, and 67·9% (62·5-73·7) for p16+/HPV-. Results were similar across all European sub-regions, but there were insufficient numbers of discordant patients from North America to draw conclusions in this cohort. INTERPRETATION:Patients with discordant oropharyngeal cancer (p16-/HPV+ or p16+/HPV-) had a significantly worse prognosis than patients with p16+/HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer, and a significantly better prognosis than patients with p16-/HPV- oropharyngeal cancer. Along with routine p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV testing should be mandated for clinical trials for all patients (or at least following a positive p16 test), and is recommended where HPV status might influence patient care, especially in areas with low HPV-attributable fractions. FUNDING:European Regional Development Fund, Generalitat de Catalunya, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) UK, Cancer Research UK, Medical Research Council UK, and The Swedish Cancer Foundation and the Stockholm Cancer Society. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00013-X
Carboplatin and paclitaxel plus avelumab compared with carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer (MITO END-3): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Adding immunotherapy to first-line chemotherapy might improve outcomes for patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer. We aimed to compare carboplatin and paclitaxel versus avelumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel as first-line treatment with avelumab given concurrent to chemotherapy and as maintenance after the end of chemotherapy. METHODS:MITO END-3 is an open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial conducted at 31 cancer institutes, hospitals, and universities in Italy. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed advanced (FIGO stage III-IV) or recurrent endometrial cancer, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1, and no previous systemic anticancer therapy as primary treatment for advanced or metastatic disease. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computerised minimisation procedure stratified by centre, histology, and stage at study entry, to either receive carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC] 5 mg/mL × min) and paclitaxel (175 mg/m; standard group) intravenously every 3 weeks for six to eight cycles or avelumab (10 mg/kg intravenously) added to carboplatin and paclitaxel (experimental group) every 3 weeks and then every 2 weeks as a single maintenance treatment after the end of chemotherapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients, treating clinicians, and those assessing radiological examinations were not masked to study treatment. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival, measured in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Patients who received at least one dose of study drug were included in the safety analysis. Experimental group superiority was tested with 80% power and one-tailed α 0·20. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03503786) and EudraCT (2016-004403-31). FINDINGS:From April 9, 2018, to May 13, 2021, 166 women were assessed for eligibility and 39 were excluded. 125 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive carboplatin and paclitaxel (n=62) or avelumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel (n=63) and included in the ITT population. The median follow-up was 23·3 months (IQR 13·2-29·6) and was similar between the two groups. 91 progression-free survival events were reported, with 49 events in 62 patients in the standard group and 42 events in 63 patients in the experimental group. The median progression-free survival was 9·9 months (95% CI 6·7-12·1) in the standard group and 9·6 months (7·2-17·7) in the experimental group (HR of progression or death 0·78 [60% CI 0·65-0·93]; one-tailed p=0·085). Serious adverse events were reported more frequently in the experimental group (24 vs seven events in the standard group); neutrophil count decrease was the most frequent grade 3-4 adverse event (19 [31%] of 61 patients in the experimental group vs 26 [43%] of 61 patients in the standard group). Two deaths occurred in the experimental group during treatment (one respiratory failure following severe myositis [possibly related to treatment] and one cardiac arrest [not related to treatment]). INTERPRETATION:Adding avelumab to first-line chemotherapy deserves further testing in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer, although consideration of mismatch repair status is warranted. FUNDING:Pfizer. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00016-5
Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Prognosis of ERBB2-Low Breast Cancer Among Patients in the National Cancer Database. JAMA oncology Importance:Given conflicting results regarding the prognosis of erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2; formerly HER2 or HER2/neu)-low breast cancer, a large-scale, nationally applicable comparison of ERBB2-low vs ERBB2-negative breast cancer is needed. Objective:To investigate whether ERBB2-low breast cancer is a clinically distinct subtype in terms of epidemiological characteristics, prognosis, and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Design/Participants/Setting:This retrospective cohort study was conducted using the National Cancer Database, including 1 136 016 patients in the US diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2019, who had ERBB2-negative disease and had immunohistochemistry results available. ERBB2-low tumors were classified as having an immunohistochemistry score of 1+, or 2+ with a negative in situ hybridization test. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2021, through November 30, 2022. Exposures:Standard therapy according to routine clinical practice. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS), reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs), and pathologic complete response, reported as adjusted odds ratios (aORs), for ERBB2-negative vs ERBB2-low breast cancer, controlling for age, sex, race and ethnicity, Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index score, treatment facility type, tumor grade, tumor histology, hormone receptor status, and cancer stage. Results:The study identified 1 136 016 patients (mean [SD] age, 62.4 [13.1] years; 99.1% female; 78.6% non-Hispanic White), of whom 392 246 (34.5%) were diagnosed with ERBB2-negative and 743 770 (65.5%) with ERBB2-low breast cancer. The mean (SD) age of the ERBB2-negative group was 62.1 (13.2) years and 62.5 (13.0) years for the ERBB2-low group. Higher estrogen receptor expression was associated with increased rates of ERBB2-low disease (aOR, 1.15 per 10% increase). Compared with non-Hispanic White patients, of whom 66.1% were diagnosed with ERBB2-low breast cancer, fewer non-Hispanic Black (62.8%) and Hispanic (61.0%) patients had ERBB2-low disease, although in non-Hispanic Black patients this was mediated by differences in rates of triple-negative disease and other confounders. A slightly lower rate of pathologic complete response was seen in patients with ERBB2-low disease vs patients with ERBB2-negative disease on multivariable analysis (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92; P < .001). ERBB2-low status was also associated with small improvements in OS for stage III (aHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.96; P < .001) and stage IV (aHR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.96; P < .001) triple-negative breast cancer, although this amounted to only a 2.0% (stage III) and 0.4% (stage IV) increase in 5-year OS. Conclusions and Relevance:This large-scale retrospective cohort analysis found minimal prognostic differences between ERBB2-low and ERBB2-negative breast cancer. These findings suggest that, moving forward, outcomes in ERBB2-low breast cancer will be driven by ERBB2-directed antibody-drug conjugates, rather than intrinsic differences in biological characteristics associated with low-level ERBB2 expression. These findings do not support the classification of ERBB2-low breast cancer as a unique disease entity. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.7476
Toripalimab combined with definitive chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (EC-CRT-001): a single-arm, phase 2 trial. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Toripalimab is a PD-1 inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but its efficacy in locally advanced disease is unclear. We administered toripalimab with definitive chemoradiotherapy to patients with unresectable locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and aimed to investigate the activity and safety of this regimen, and potential biomarkers. METHODS:EC-CRT-001 was a single-arm, phase 2 trial done at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China). Patients aged 18-70 years with untreated, unresectable, stage I-IVA oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, with an ECOG performance status of 0-2, and adequate organ and bone marrow function were eligible for inclusion. Patients received concurrent thoracic radiotherapy (50·4 Gy in 28 fractions), chemotherapy (five cycles of weekly intravenous paclitaxel [50 mg/m] and cisplatin [25 mg/m]), and toripalimab (240 mg intravenously every 3 weeks for up to 1 year, or until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity). The primary endpoint was the complete response rate at 3 months after radiotherapy by investigator assessment. Secondary endpoints were overall survival, progression-free survival, duration of response, quality of life (not reported here), and safety. All enrolled patients were included in the activity and safety analyses. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04005170; enrolment is completed and follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS:Between Nov 12, 2019, and Jan 25, 2021, 42 patients were enrolled. The median age was 56 years (IQR 53-63), 39 (93%) of 42 patients had stage III or IVA disease, and 32 (76%) patients were male and 10 (24%) were female. 40 (95%) of 42 patients completed the planned chemoradiotherapy and 26 (62%; 95% CI 46-76) of 42 had a complete response. The median duration of response was 12·1 months (95% CI 5·9-18·2). After a median follow-up of 14·9 months (IQR 11·9-18·4), 1-year overall survival was 78·4% (95% CI 66·9-92·0) and 1-year progression-free survival was 54·5% (41·3-72·0). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse event was lymphopenia (36 [86%] of 42). One (2%) patient died from treatment-related pneumonitis. INTERPRETATION:Combining toripalimab with definitive chemoradiotherapy provided encouraging activity and acceptable toxicity in patients with locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and this regimen warrants further investigation. FUNDING:National Natural Science Foundation of China and Sci-Tech Project Foundation of Guangzhou. TRANSLATION:For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00060-8
Adjuvant chemotherapy following chemoradiotherapy as primary treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer versus chemoradiotherapy alone (OUTBACK): an international, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Standard treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer is chemoradiotherapy, but many patients relapse and die of metastatic disease. We aimed to determine the effects on survival of adjuvant chemotherapy after chemoradiotherapy. METHODS:The OUTBACK trial was a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial done in 157 hospitals in Australia, China, Canada, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and the USA. Eligible participants were aged 18 year or older with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, or adenocarcinoma of the cervix (FIGO 2008 stage IB1 disease with nodal involvement, or stage IB2, II, IIIB, or IVA disease), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and adequate bone marrow and organ function. Participants were randomly assigned centrally (1:1) using a minimisation approach and stratified by pelvic or common iliac nodal involvement, requirement for extended-field radiotherapy, FIGO 2008 stage, age, and site to receive standard cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (40 mg/m cisplatin intravenously once-a-week for 5 weeks, during radiotherapy with 45·0-50·4 Gy external beam radiotherapy delivered in fractions of 1·8 Gy to the whole pelvis plus brachytherapy; chemoradiotherapy only group) or standard cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with four cycles of carboplatin (area under the receiver operator curve 5) and paclitaxel (155 mg/m) given intravenously on day 1 of a 21 day cycle (adjuvant chemotherapy group). The primary endpoint was overall survival at 5 years, analysed in the intention-to-treat population (ie, all eligible patients who were randomly assigned). Safety was assessed in all patients in the chemoradiotherapy only group who started chemoradiotherapy and all patients in the adjuvant chemotherapy group who received at least one dose of adjuvant chemotherapy. The OUTBACK trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01414608, and the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12610000732088. FINDINGS:Between April 15, 2011, and June 26, 2017, 926 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the chemoradiotherapy only group (n=461) or the adjuvant chemotherapy group (n=465), of whom 919 were eligible (456 in the chemoradiotherapy only group and 463 in the adjuvant chemotherapy group; median age 46 years [IQR 37 to 55]; 663 [72%] were White, 121 [13%] were Black or African American, 53 [6%] were Asian, 24 [3%] were Aboriginal or Pacific islander, and 57 [6%] were other races) and included in the analysis. As of data cutoff (April 12, 2021), median follow-up was 60 months (IQR 45 to 65). 5-year overall survival was 72% (95% CI 67 to 76) in the adjuvant chemotherapy group (105 deaths) and 71% (66 to 75) in the chemoradiotherapy only group (116 deaths; difference 1% [95% CI -6 to 7]; hazard ratio 0·90 [95% CI 0·70 to 1·17]; p=0·81). In the safety population, the most common clinically significant grade 3-4 adverse events were decreased neutrophils (71 [20%] in the adjuvant chemotherapy group vs 34 [8%] in the chemoradiotherapy only group), and anaemia (66 [18%] vs 34 [8%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 107 (30%) in the adjuvant chemotherapy group versus 98 (22%) in the chemoradiotherapy only group, most commonly due to infectious complications. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION:Adjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy given after standard cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy for unselected locally advanced cervical cancer increased short-term toxicity and did not improve overall survival; therefore, it should not be given in this setting. FUNDING:National Health and Medical Research Council and National Cancer Institute. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00147-X
Role of chemotherapy in patients with nasopharynx carcinoma treated with radiotherapy (MAC-NPC): an updated individual patient data network meta-analysis. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:The meta-analysis of chemotherapy for nasopharynx carcinoma (MAC-NPC) collaborative group previously showed that the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to concomitant chemoradiotherapy had the highest survival benefit of the studied treatment regimens in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Due to the publication of new trials on induction chemotherapy, we updated the network meta-analysis. METHODS:For this individual patient data network meta-analysis, trials of radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma that completed accrual before Dec 31, 2016, were identified and updated individual patient data were obtained. Both general databases (eg, PubMed and Web of Science) and Chinese medical literature databases were searched. Overall survival was the primary endpoint. A frequentist network meta-analysis approach with a two-step random effect stratified by trial based on hazard ratio Peto estimator was used. Global Cochran Q statistic was used to assess homogeneity and consistency, and p score to rank treatments, with higher scores indicating higher benefit therapies. Treatments were grouped into the following categories: radiotherapy alone, induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, induction chemotherapy without taxanes followed by chemoradiotherapy, induction chemotherapy with taxanes followed by chemoradiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42016042524. FINDINGS:The network comprised 28 trials and included 8214 patients (6133 [74·7%] were men, 2073 [25·2%] were women, and eight [0·1%] had missing data) enrolled between Jan 1, 1988, and Dec 31, 2016. Median follow-up was 7·6 years (IQR 6·2-13·3). There was no evidence of heterogeneity (p=0·18), and inconsistency was borderline (p=0·10). The three treatments with the highest benefit for overall survival were induction chemotherapy with taxanes followed by chemoradiotherapy (hazard ratio 0·75; 95% CI 0·59-0·96; p score 92%), induction chemotherapy without taxanes followed by chemoradiotherapy (0·81; 0·69-0·95; p score 87%), and chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (0·88; 0·75-1·04; p score 72%), compared with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (p score 46%). INTERPRETATION:The inclusion of new trials modified the conclusion of the previous network meta-analysis. In this updated network meta-analysis, the addition of either induction chemotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy to chemoradiotherapy improved overall survival over chemoradiotherapy alone in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. FUNDING:Institut National du Cancer and Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00163-8
Combination Immunotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer-Checkmate or a Draw? JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.0086
Efficacy and Safety of Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab vs Nivolumab Alone for Treatment of Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: The Phase 2 CheckMate 714 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:There remains an unmet need to improve clinical outcomes in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN). Objective:To evaluate clinical benefit of first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab vs nivolumab alone in patients with R/M SCCHN. Design, Setting, and Participants:The CheckMate 714, double-blind, phase 2 randomized clinical trial was conducted at 83 sites in 21 countries between October 20, 2016, and January 23, 2019. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older and had platinum-refractory or platinum-eligible R/M SCCHN and no prior systemic therapy for R/M disease. Data were analyzed from October 20, 2016 (first patient, first visit), to March 8, 2019 (primary database lock), and April 6, 2020 (overall survival database lock). Interventions:Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive nivolumab (3 mg/kg intravenously [IV] every 2 weeks) plus ipilimumab (1 mg/kg IV every 6 weeks) or nivolumab (3 mg/kg IV every 2 weeks) plus placebo for up to 2 years or until disease progression, unacceptable toxic effects, or consent withdrawal. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end points were objective response rate (ORR) and duration of response between treatment arms by blinded independent central review in the population with platinum-refractory R/M SCCHN. Exploratory end points included safety. Results:Of 425 included patients, 241 (56.7%; median age, 59 [range, 24-82] years; 194 males [80.5%]) had platinum-refractory disease (nivolumab plus ipilimumab, n = 159; nivolumab, n = 82) and 184 (43.3%; median age, 62 [range, 33-88] years; 152 males [82.6%]) had platinum-eligible disease (nivolumab plus ipilimumab, n = 123; nivolumab, n = 61). At primary database lock, the ORR in the population with platinum-refractory disease was 13.2% (95% CI, 8.4%-19.5%) with nivolumab plus ipilimumab vs 18.3% (95% CI, 10.6%-28.4%) with nivolumab (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; 95.5% CI, 0.33-1.43; P = .29). Median duration of response for nivolumab plus ipilimumab was not reached (NR) (95% CI, 11.0 months to NR) vs 11.1 months (95% CI, 4.1 months to NR) for nivolumab. In the population with platinum-eligible disease, the ORR was 20.3% (95% CI, 13.6%-28.5%) with nivolumab plus ipilimumab vs 29.5% (95% CI, 18.5%-42.6%) with nivolumab. The rates of grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events with nivolumab plus ipilimumab vs nivolumab were 15.8% (25 of 158) vs 14.6% (12 of 82) in the population with platinum-refractory disease and 24.6% (30 of 122) vs 13.1% (8 of 61) in the population with platinum-eligible disease. Conclusions and Relevance:The CheckMate 714 randomized clinical trial did not meet its primary end point of ORR benefit with first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab vs nivolumab alone in platinum-refractory R/M SCCHN. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab was associated with an acceptable safety profile. Research to identify patient subpopulations in R/M SCCHN that would benefit from nivolumab plus ipilimumab over nivolumab monotherapy is warranted. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02823574. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.0147
The prognosis of patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix: a retrospective study of the SEER database and a Chinese multicentre registry. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare but poor prognosis pathological type of cervical cancer, for which advice in clinical guidelines is unspecific. We therefore aimed to investigate the factors and treatment methods that affect the prognosis of patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix. METHODS:In this retrospective study, we collected data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registries cohort and a Chinese multi-institutional registry. The SEER cohort included females diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the cervix between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2018, whereas the Chinese cohort included women diagnosed between Jun 1, 2006, and April 30, 2022. In both cohorts, eligibility was limited to female patients older than 20 years with a confirmed diagnosis of small cell carcinoma of the cervix. Participants who were lost to follow-up or those for whom small cell carcinoma of the cervix was not the primary malignant tumour were excluded from the multi-institutional registry, and those with an unknown surgery status (in addition to those for whom small cell carcinoma of the cervix was not the primary malignant tumour) were excluded from the SEER data. The primary outcome of this study was overall survival (length of time from the date of first diagnosis until the date of death from any cause, or the last follow-up). Kaplan-Meier analysis, propensity score matching, and Cox-regression analyses were used to assess treatment outcomes and risk factors. FINDINGS:1288 participants were included in the study; 610 in the SEER cohort and 678 in the Chinese cohort. Both univariable and multivariable Cox regression analysis (SEER hazard ratio [HR] 0·65 [95% CI 0·48-0·88], p=0·0058; China HR 0·53 [0·37-0·76], p=0·0005) showed that surgery was associated with a better prognosis. In subgroup analyses, surgery remained a protective factor for patients with locally advanced disease in both cohorts (SEER HR 0·61 [95% CI 0·39-0·94], p=0·024; China HR 0·59 [0·37-0·95]; p=0·029). Furthermore, the protective effect of surgery was observed among patients with locally advanced disease after propensity score matching in the SEER cohort (HR 0·52 [95% CI 0·32-0·84]; p=0·0077). In the China registry, surgery was associated with better outcomes in patients with stage IB3-IIA2 cancer (HR 0·17 [95% CI 0·05-0·50]; p=0·0015). INTERPRETATION:This study provides evidence that surgery improves outcomes of patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix. Although guidelines recommend non-surgical methods as first-line treatment, patients with locally advanced disease or stage IB3-IIA2 cancer might benefit from surgery. FUNDING:The National Key R&D Program of China and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00185-7
Artifical intelligence-based model for lymph node metastases detection in bladder cancer. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00152-3
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant cisplatin-gemcitabine versus cisplatin-fluorouracil chemotherapy for N2-3 nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Patients with N2-3 nasopharyngeal carcinoma have a high risk of treatment being unsuccessful despite the current practice of using a concurrent adjuvant cisplatin-fluorouracil regimen. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of concurrent adjuvant cisplatin-gemcitabine with cisplatin-fluorouracil in N2-3 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS:We conducted an open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial at four cancer centres in China. Eligible patients were aged 18-65 years with untreated, non-keratinising, stage T1-4 N2-3 M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-1, and adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive concurrent cisplatin (100 mg/m intravenously) on days 1, 22, and 43 of intensity-modulated radiotherapy followed by either gemcitabine (1 g/m intravenously on days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (80 mg/m intravenously for 4 h on day 1) once every 3 weeks or fluorouracil (4 g/m in continuous intravenous infusion for 96 h) and cisplatin (80 mg/m intravenously for 4 h on day 1) once every 4 weeks, for three cycles. Randomisation was done using a computer-generated random number code with a block size of six, stratified by treatment centre and nodal category. The primary endpoint was 3-year progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population (ie, all patients randomly assigned to treatment). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of chemoradiotherapy. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03321539, and patients are currently under follow-up. FINDINGS:From Oct 30, 2017, to July 9, 2020, 240 patients (median age 44 years [IQR 36-52]; 175 [73%] male and 65 [27%] female) were randomly assigned to the cisplatin-fluorouracil group (n=120) or cisplatin-gemcitabine group (n=120). As of data cutoff (Dec 25, 2022), median follow-up was 40 months (IQR 32-48). 3-year progression-free survival was 83·9% (95% CI 75·9-89·4; 19 disease progressions and 11 deaths) in the cisplatin-gemcitabine group and 71·5% (62·5-78·7; 34 disease progressions and seven deaths) in the cisplatin-fluorouracil group (stratified hazard ratio 0·54 [95% CI 0·32-0·93]; log rank p=0·023). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events that occurred during treatment were leukopenia (61 [52%] of 117 in the cisplatin-gemcitabine group vs 34 [29%] of 116 in the cisplatin-fluorouracil group; p=0·00039), neutropenia (37 [32%] vs 19 [16%]; p=0·010), and mucositis (27 [23%] vs 32 [28%]; p=0·43). The most common grade 3 or worse late adverse event (occurring from 3 months after completion of radiotherapy) was auditory or hearing loss (six [5%] vs ten [9%]). One (1%) patient in the cisplatin-gemcitabine group died due to treatment-related complications (septic shock caused by neutropenic infection). No patients in the cisplatin-fluorouracil group had treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION:Our findings suggest that concurrent adjuvant cisplatin-gemcitabine could be used as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of patients with N2-3 nasopharyngeal carcinoma, although long-term follow-up is required to confirm the optimal therapeutic ratio. FUNDING:National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Guangdong Major Project of Basic and Applied Basic Research, Sci-Tech Project Foundation of Guangzhou City, Sun Yat-sen University Clinical Research 5010 Program, Innovative Research Team of High-level Local Universities in Shanghai, Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province for Distinguished Young Scholar, Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, Postdoctoral Innovative Talent Support Program, Pearl River S&T Nova Program of Guangzhou, Planned Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, Key Youth Teacher Cultivating Program of Sun Yat-sen University, the Rural Science and Technology Commissioner Program of Guangdong Province, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00232-2
Adjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00266-8
Evidence on Effectiveness of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Patients With Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.0972
Adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00270-X
Dysphagia-optimised intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus standard intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer (DARS): a phase 3, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Most newly diagnosed oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers are treated with chemoradiotherapy with curative intent but at the consequence of adverse effects on quality of life. We aimed to investigate if dysphagia-optimised intensity-modulated radiotherapy (DO-IMRT) reduced radiation dose to the dysphagia and aspiration related structures and improved swallowing function compared with standard IMRT. METHODS:DARS was a parallel-group, phase 3, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial done in 22 radiotherapy centres in Ireland and the UK. Participants were aged 18 years and older, had T1-4, N0-3, M0 oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer, a WHO performance status of 0 or 1, and no pre-existing swallowing dysfunction. Participants were centrally randomly assigned (1:1) using a minimisation algorithm (balancing factors: centre, chemotherapy use, tumour type, American Joint Committee on Cancer tumour stage) to receive DO-IMRT or standard IMRT. Participants and speech language therapists were masked to treatment allocation. Radiotherapy was given in 30 fractions over 6 weeks. Dose was 65 Gy to primary and nodal tumour and 54 Gy to remaining pharyngeal subsite and nodal areas at risk of microscopic disease. For DO-IMRT, the volume of the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle or inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle lying outside the high-dose target volume had a mandatory 50 Gy mean dose constraint. The primary endpoint was MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) composite score 12 months after radiotherapy, analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population that included only patients who completed a 12-month assessment; safety was assessed in all randomly assigned patients who received at least one fraction of radiotherapy. The study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN25458988, and is complete. FINDINGS:From June 24, 2016, to April 27, 2018, 118 patients were registered, 112 of whom were randomly assigned (56 to each treatment group). 22 (20%) participants were female and 90 (80%) were male; median age was 57 years (IQR 52-62). Median follow-up was 39·5 months (IQR 37·8-50·0). Patients in the DO-IMRT group had significantly higher MDADI composite scores at 12 months than patients in the standard IMRT group (mean score 77·7 [SD 16·1] vs 70·6 [17·3]; mean difference 7·2 [95% CI 0·4-13·9]; p=0·037). 25 serious adverse events (16 serious adverse events assessed as unrelated to study treatment [nine in the DO-IMRT group and seven in the standard IMRT group] and nine serious adverse reactions [two vs seven]) were reported in 23 patients. The most common grade 3-4 late adverse events were hearing impairment (nine [16%] of 55 in the DO-IMRT group vs seven [13%] of 55 in the standard IMRT group), dry mouth (three [5%] vs eight [15%]), and dysphagia (three [5%] vs eight [15%]). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION:Our findings suggest that DO-IMRT improves patient-reported swallowing function compared with standard IMRT. DO-IMRT should be considered a new standard of care for patients receiving radiotherapy for pharyngeal cancers. FUNDING:Cancer Research UK. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00265-6
NHS embraces AI-assisted radiotherapy technology. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00353-4
Weekly Adaptive Radiotherapy vs Standard Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Improving Salivary Function in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer: A Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:Xerostomia is a major toxic effect associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oropharyngeal cancers. Objective:To assess whether adaptive radiotherapy (ART) improves salivary function compared with IMRT in patients with head and neck cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:This phase 3 randomized clinical trial was conducted in 11 French centers. Patients aged 18 to 75 years with stage III-IVB squamous cell oropharyngeal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy were enrolled between July 5, 2013, and October 1, 2018. Data were analyzed from November 2021 to May 2022. Interventions:The patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive standard IMRT (without replanning) or ART (systematic weekly replanning). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was the frequency of xerostomia, measured by stimulating salivary flow with paraffin. Secondary end points included salivary gland excretory function measured using technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, patient-reported outcomes (Eisbruch xerostomia-specific questionnaire and the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for Head and Neck Cancer questionnaire), early and late toxic effects, disease control, and overall and cancer-specific survival. Results:A total of 132 patients were randomized, and after 1 exclusion in the ART arm, 131 were analyzed: 66 in the ART arm (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 60 [8] years; 57 [86.4%] male) and 65 in the standard IMRT arm (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 60 [8] years; 57 [87.7%] male). The median follow-up was 26.4 months (IQR, 1.2-31.3 months). The mean (SD) salivary flow (paraffin) at 12 months was 630 (450) mg/min in the ART arm and 584 (464) mg/min in the standard arm (P = .64). The mean (SD) excretory function of the parotid gland at 12 months, measured by scintigraphy, improved in the ART arm (48% [17%]) compared with the standard arm (41% [17%]) (P = .02). The 2-year-overall survival was 76.9% (95% CI, 64.7%-85.4%) in both arms. Conclusions and Relevance:This randomized clinical trial did not demonstrate a benefit of ART in decreasing xerostomia compared with standard IMRT. No significant differences were found in secondary end points except for parotid gland excretory function, as assessed by scintigraphy, or in survival rates. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01874587. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.1352
The Potential of Adaptive Radiotherapy for Patients With Head and Neck Cancer-Too Much or Not Enough? JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.1306
Conventional versus hypofractionated postmastectomy proton radiotherapy in the USA (MC1631): a randomised phase 2 trial. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Proton therapy is under investigation in breast cancer as a strategy to reduce radiation exposure to the heart and lungs. So far, studies investigating proton postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) have used conventional fractionation over 25-28 days, but whether hypofractionated proton PMRT is feasible is unclear. We aimed to compare conventional fractionation and hypofractionation in patients with indications for PMRT, including those with immediate breast reconstruction. METHODS:We did a randomised phase 2 trial (MC1631) at Mayo Clinic in Rochester (MN, USA) and Mayo Clinic in Arizona (Phoenix, AZ, USA) comparing conventional fractionated (50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy [relative biological effectiveness of 1·1]) and hypofractionated (40·05 Gy in 15 fractions of 2·67 Gy [relative biological effectiveness of 1·1]) proton PMRT. All patients were treated with pencil-beam scanning. Eligibility criteria included age 18 years or older, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and breast cancer resected by mastectomy with or without immediate reconstruction with indications for PMRT. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either conventional fractionation or hypofractionation, with presence of immediate reconstruction (yes vs no) as a stratification factor, using a biased-coin minimisation algorithm. Any patient who received at least one fraction of protocol treatment was evaluable for the primary endpoint and safety analyses. The primary endpoint was 24-month complication rate from the date of first radiotherapy, defined as grade 3 or worse adverse events occurring from 90 days after last radiotherapy or unplanned surgical interventions in patients with immediate reconstruction. The inferiority of hypofractionation would not be ruled out if the upper bound of the one-sided 95% CI for the difference in 24-month complication rate between the two groups was greater than 10%. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02783690, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS:Between June 2, 2016, and Aug 23, 2018, 88 patients were randomly assigned (44 to each group), of whom 82 received protocol treatment (41 in the conventional fractionation group and 41 in the hypofractionation group; median age of 52 years [IQR 44-64], 79 [96%] patients were White, two [2%] were Black or African American, one [1%] was Asian, and 79 [96%] were not of Hispanic ethnicity). As of data cutoff (Jan 30, 2023), the median follow-up was 39·3 months (IQR 37·5-61·2). The median mean heart dose was 0·54 Gy (IQR 0·30-0·72) for the conventional fractionation group and 0·49 Gy (0·25-0·64) for the hypofractionation group. Within 24 months of first radiotherapy, 14 protocol-defined complications occurred in six (15%) patients in the conventional fractionation group and in eight (20%) patients in the hypofractionation group (absolute difference 4·9% [one-sided 95% CI 18·5], p=0·27). The complications in the conventionally fractionated group were contracture (five [12%] of 41 patients]) and fat necrosis (one [2%] patient) requiring surgical intervention. All eight protocol-defined complications in the hypofractionation group were due to infections, three of which were acute infections that required surgical intervention, and five were late infections, four of which required surgical intervention. All 14 complications were in patients with immediate expander or implant-based reconstruction. INTERPRETATION:After a median follow-up of 39·3 months, non-inferiority of the hypofractionation group could not be established. However, given similar tolerability, hypofractionated proton PMRT appears to be worthy of further study in patients with and without immediate reconstruction. FUNDING:The Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, the Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ, USA, and the US National Cancer Institute. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00388-1
Dysphagia-optimised intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus standard radiotherapy in patients with pharyngeal cancer. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00387-X
The Global, Regional, and National Burden of Adult Lip, Oral, and Pharyngeal Cancer in 204 Countries and Territories: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. JAMA oncology Importance:Lip, oral, and pharyngeal cancers are important contributors to cancer burden worldwide, and a comprehensive evaluation of their burden globally, regionally, and nationally is crucial for effective policy planning. Objective:To analyze the total and risk-attributable burden of lip and oral cavity cancer (LOC) and other pharyngeal cancer (OPC) for 204 countries and territories and by Socio-demographic Index (SDI) using 2019 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study estimates. Evidence Review:The incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to LOC and OPC from 1990 to 2019 were estimated using GBD 2019 methods. The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate the proportion of deaths and DALYs for LOC and OPC attributable to smoking, tobacco, and alcohol consumption in 2019. Findings:In 2019, 370 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 338 000-401 000) cases and 199 000 (95% UI, 181 000-217 000) deaths for LOC and 167 000 (95% UI, 153 000-180 000) cases and 114 000 (95% UI, 103 000-126 000) deaths for OPC were estimated to occur globally, contributing 5.5 million (95% UI, 5.0-6.0 million) and 3.2 million (95% UI, 2.9-3.6 million) DALYs, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, low-middle and low SDI regions consistently showed the highest age-standardized mortality rates due to LOC and OPC, while the high SDI strata exhibited age-standardized incidence rates decreasing for LOC and increasing for OPC. Globally in 2019, smoking had the greatest contribution to risk-attributable OPC deaths for both sexes (55.8% [95% UI, 49.2%-62.0%] of all OPC deaths in male individuals and 17.4% [95% UI, 13.8%-21.2%] of all OPC deaths in female individuals). Smoking and alcohol both contributed to substantial LOC deaths globally among male individuals (42.3% [95% UI, 35.2%-48.6%] and 40.2% [95% UI, 33.3%-46.8%] of all risk-attributable cancer deaths, respectively), while chewing tobacco contributed to the greatest attributable LOC deaths among female individuals (27.6% [95% UI, 21.5%-33.8%]), driven by high risk-attributable burden in South and Southeast Asia. Conclusions and Relevance:In this systematic analysis, disparities in LOC and OPC burden existed across the SDI spectrum, and a considerable percentage of burden was attributable to tobacco and alcohol use. These estimates can contribute to an understanding of the distribution and disparities in LOC and OPC burden globally and support cancer control planning efforts. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.2960
Radiotherapy Plus Cisplatin With or Without Lapatinib for Non-Human Papillomavirus Head and Neck Carcinoma: A Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:Patients with locally advanced non-human papillomavirus (HPV) head and neck cancer (HNC) carry an unfavorable prognosis. Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with cisplatin or anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody improves overall survival (OS) of patients with stage III to IV HNC, and preclinical data suggest that a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor dual EGFR and ERBB2 (formerly HER2 or HER2/neu) inhibitor may be more effective than anti-EGFR antibody therapy in HNC. Objective:To examine whether adding lapatinib, a dual EGFR and HER2 inhibitor, to radiation plus cisplatin for frontline therapy of stage III to IV non-HPV HNC improves progression-free survival (PFS). Design, Setting, and Participants:This multicenter, phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial enrolled 142 patients with stage III to IV carcinoma of the oropharynx (p16 negative), larynx, and hypopharynx with a Zubrod performance status of 0 to 1 who met predefined blood chemistry criteria from October 18, 2012, to April 18, 2017 (median follow-up, 4.1 years). Data analysis was performed from December 1, 2020, to December 4, 2020. Intervention:Patients were randomized (1:1) to 70 Gy (6 weeks) plus 2 cycles of cisplatin (every 3 weeks) plus either 1500 mg per day of lapatinib (CRT plus lapatinib) or placebo (CRT plus placebo). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was PFS, with 69 events required. Progression-free survival rates between arms for all randomized patients were compared by 1-sided log-rank test. Secondary end points included OS. Results:Of the 142 patients enrolled, 127 (median [IQR] age, 58 [53-63] years; 98 [77.2%] male) were randomized; 63 to CRT plus lapatinib and 64 to CRT plus placebo. Final analysis did not suggest improvement in PFS (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.56-1.46; P = .34) or OS (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.61-1.86; P = .58) with the addition of lapatinib. There were no significant differences in grade 3 to 4 acute adverse event rates (83.3% [95% CI, 73.9%-92.8%] with CRT plus lapatinib vs 79.7% [95% CI, 69.4%-89.9%] with CRT plus placebo; P = .64) or late adverse event rates (44.4% [95% CI, 30.2%-57.8%] with CRT plus lapatinib vs 40.8% [95% CI, 27.1%-54.6%] with CRT plus placebo; P = .84). Conclusion and Relevance:In this randomized clinical trial, dual EGFR-ERBB2 inhibition with lapatinib did not appear to enhance the benefit of CRT. Although the results of this trial indicate that accrual to a non-HPV HNC-specific trial is feasible, new strategies must be investigated to improve the outcome for this population with a poor prognosis. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01711658. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.3809
Metastases-Targeting Radiotherapy and ADT. JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.3628
Individualized Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Lung Tumors: The iSABR Phase 2 Nonrandomized Controlled Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is used for treating lung tumors but can cause toxic effects, including life-threatening damage to central structures. Retrospective data suggested that small tumors up to 10 cm3 in volume can be well controlled with a biologically effective dose less than 100 Gy. Objective:To assess whether individualizing lung SABR dose and fractionation by tumor size, location, and histological characteristics may be associated with local tumor control. Design, Setting, and Participants:This nonrandomized controlled trial (the iSABR trial, so named for individualized SABR) was a phase 2 multicenter trial enrolling participants from November 15, 2011, to December 5, 2018, at academic medical centers in the US and Japan. Data were analyzed from December 9, 2020, to May 10, 2023. Patients were enrolled in 3 groups according to cancer type: initial diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition T1-3N0M0 tumor (group 1), a T1-3N0M0 new primary NSCLC with a history of prior NSCLC or multiple NSCLCs (group 2), or lung metastases from NSCLC or another solid tumor (group 3). Intervention:Up to 4 tumors were treated with once-daily SABR. The dose ranged from 25 Gy in 1 fraction for peripheral tumors with a volume of 0 to 10 cm3 to 60 Gy in 8 fractions for central tumors with a volume greater than 30 cm3. Main outcome:Per-group freedom from local recurrence (same-lobe recurrence) at 1 year, with censoring at time of distant recurrence, death, or loss to follow-up. Results:In total, 217 unique patients (median [IQR] age, 72 [64-80] years; 129 [59%] male; 150 [69%] current or former smokers) were enrolled (some multiple times). There were 240 treatment courses: 79 in group 1, 82 in group 2, and 79 in group 3. A total of 285 tumors (211 [74%] peripheral and 74 [26%] central) were treated. The most common dose was 25 Gy in 1 fraction (158 tumors). The median (range) follow-up period was 33 (2-109) months, and the median overall survival was 59 (95% CI, 49-82) months. Freedom from local recurrence at 1 year was 97% (90% CI, 91%-99%) for group 1, 94% (90% CI, 87%-97%) for group 2, and 96% (90% CI, 89%-98%) for group 3. Freedom from local recurrence at 5 years ranged from 83% to 93% in the 3 groups. The proportion of patients with grade 3 to 5 toxic effects was low, at 5% (including a single patient [1%] with grade 5 toxic effects). Conclusions and Relevance:The results of this nonrandomized controlled trial suggest that individualized SABR (iSABR) used to treat lung tumors may allow minimization of treatment dose and is associated with excellent local control. Individualized dosing should be considered for use in future trials. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01463423. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.3495
Personalized Radiation Therapy-Spurning the "One Size Fits All" Approach. JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.3350
Adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors: re-assessing the risk-benefit ratio. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00575-2
Is there finally a place for neoadjuvant treatment in locally advanced cervical cancer? The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00576-4
Cumulative incidence of second primary cancers in a large nationwide cohort of Danish cancer survivors: a population-based retrospective cohort study. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:A new primary cancer is a serious late effect of a pre-existing cancer diagnosis, and can be attributed to hereditary cancer syndromes, immune or hormonal factors, cancer treatment, or modifiable lifestyle or environmental factors. We investigated the absolute and relative incidence of second primary cancers in a large cohort of Danish cancer survivors. Furthermore, we examined the association between alcohol-related, smoking-related, virus-related, and hormone-related first and second primary cancers. METHODS:In this retrospective cohort study, we identified a cohort of Danish adults (aged ≥40 years) diagnosed with cancer from Jan 1, 1997, to Dec 31, 2014 and alive 1 year after diagnosis. Follow-up was from date of first cancer diagnosis and lasted up to 24 years, ending on Dec 31, 2020. Cohort identification and information on second primary cancers was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry, and comorbidity and sociodemographic information was obtained from Danish population-based registries. Overall, and for 27 cancer types, cumulative incidence functions and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the incidence of second primary cancer and death, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of second primary cancer adjusted for sex, age and year of diagnosis, cohabitation status, income, and comorbidity. FINDINGS:457 334 Danish adults were included in our study (230 150 [50·3%] male individuals and 227 184 [49·7%] female individuals; median age at diagnosis 68·3 years, IQR 59·7-76·6; median follow-up 3·6 years, IQR 0·6-9·3). The cumulative incidence of second primary cancer increased over time from 6·3% (95% CI 6·2-6·4) 5 years after diagnosis to 10·5% (10·4-10·6) 10 years after diagnosis and to 13·5% (13·4-13·7) 15 years after diagnosis. The highest cumulative incidence of second primary cancer 10 years after diagnosis was observed in survivors of cancers in the larynx (21·8%, 20·5-23·1), oropharynx and oral cavity (19·5%, 18·7-20·3), and bladder and urinary tract (18·5%, 18·0-19·0). Survivors of cancers related to alcohol (HR 1·09, 95% CI 1·06-1·13), smoking (1·73, 1·68-1·78), diet high in red or processed meat (1·32, 1·24-1·39), or virus (1·23, 1·13-1·35) were at increased risk of developing a second cancer with the same aetiology, whereas having had a hormone-related first cancer was associated with lower risk of a second hormone-related cancer (0·77, 0·73-0·81). INTERPRETATION:Our results could help optimise prevention efforts targeting modifiable risk factors to reduce risk of developing a second primary cancer. FUNDING:Nordic Cancer Union and The Health Foundation (Helsefonden). 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00538-7
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus camrelizumab for locally advanced cervical cancer (NACI study): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Locally advanced cervical cancer constitutes around 37% of cervical cancer cases globally and has a poor prognosis due to limited therapeutic options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors in the neoadjuvant setting could address these challenges. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemo-immunotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS:In this single-arm, phase 2 trial, which was done across eight tertiary hospitals in China, we enrolled patients aged 18-70 years with untreated cervical cancer (IB3, IIA2, or IIB/IIIC1r with a tumour diameter ≥4 cm [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2018]) and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Eligible patients underwent one cycle of priming doublet chemotherapy (75-80 mg/m cisplatin, intravenously, plus 260 mg/m nab-paclitaxel, intravenously), followed by two cycles of a combination of chemotherapy (cisplatin plus nab-paclitaxel) on day 1 with camrelizumab (200 mg, intravenously) on day 2, with a 3-week interval between treatment cycles. Patients with stable disease or progressive disease received concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and patients with a complete response or partial response proceeded to radical surgery. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate, by independent central reviewer according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours, version 1.1. Activity and safety were analysed in patients who received at least one dose of camrelizumab. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04516616, and is ongoing. FINDINGS:Between Dec 1, 2020, and Feb 10, 2023, 85 patients were enrolled and all received at least one dose of camrelizumab. Median age was 51 years (IQR 46-57) and no data on race or ethnicity were collected. At data cutoff (April 30, 2023), median follow-up was 11·0 months (IQR 6·0-14·5). An objective response was noted in 83 (98% [95% CI 92-100]) patients, including 16 (19%) patients who had a complete response and 67 (79%) who had a partial response. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events during neoadjuvant chemo-immunotherapy were lymphopenia (21 [25%] of 85), neutropenia (ten [12%]), and leukopenia (seven [8%]). No serious adverse events or treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION:Neoadjuvant chemo-immunotherapy showed promising antitumour activity and a manageable adverse event profile in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. The combination of neoadjuvant chemo-immunotherapy with radical surgery holds potential as a novel therapeutic approach for locally advanced cervical cancer. FUNDING:National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China and the National Clinical Research Center of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00531-4
Symptomatic Necrosis With Antibody-Drug Conjugates and Concurrent Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases. JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.4492
Clinical and Biomarker Findings of Neoadjuvant Pembrolizumab and Carboplatin Plus Docetaxel in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: NeoPACT Phase 2 Clinical Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:Addition of pembrolizumab to anthracycline-based chemotherapy improves pathologic complete response (pCR) and event-free survival (EFS) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The efficacy of anthracycline-free chemoimmunotherapy in TNBC has not been assessed. Objective:To assess the efficacy of the anthracycline-free neoadjuvant regimen of carboplatin and docetaxel plus pembrolizumab in TNBC. Design, Setting, and Participants:This was an open-label phase 2 clinical trial including a single group of patients with stage I to III TNBC enrolled at 2 sites who received neoadjuvant carboplatin and docetaxel plus pembrolizumab every 21 days for 6 cycles. Participants were enrolled from 2018 to 2022. Intervention or Exposure:Carboplatin (with an area under the free carboplatin plasma concentration vs time curve of 6) and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) plus pembrolizumab (200 mg) every 21 days for 6 cycles. Myeloid growth factor support was administered with all cycles. Main Outcomes and Measures:Primary end point was pathologic complete response (pCR) defined as no evidence of invasive tumor in breast and axilla. The secondary end points were residual cancer burden, EFS, toxicity, and immune biomarkers. RNA isolated from pretreatment tumor tissue was subjected to next-generation sequencing. Specimens were classified as positive or negative for the 44-gene DNA damage immune response (DDIR) signature and for the 27-gene tumor immune microenvironment (TIM; DetermaIO) signature using predefined cutoffs. Stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) were evaluated using standard criteria. Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) testing was performed using a standard immunohistochemical assay. Results:Among the eligible study population of 115 female patients (median [range] age, 50 [27-70] years) who enrolled from September 2018 to January 2022, 39% had node-positive disease. pCR and residual cancer burden 0 + 1 rates were 58% (95% CI, 48%-67%) and 69% (95% CI, 60%-78%), respectively. Grade 3 or higher immune-mediated adverse events were observed in 3.5% of patients. sTILs, PD-L1, DDIR, and TIM were each predictive of pCR in multivariable analyses. The areas under curve for pCR were 0.719, 0.740, 0.699, and 0.715 for sTILs, PD-L1, DDIR, and TIM, respectively. Estimated 3-year EFS was 86% in all patients; 98% in pCR group and 68% in no-pCR group. Conclusions and Relevance:The findings of the phase 2 clinical trial indicate that neoadjuvant carboplatin and docetaxel plus pembrolizumab shows encouraging pCR and 3-year EFS. The regimen was well tolerated, and immune enrichment as identified by various biomarkers was independently predictive of pCR. These results provide data on an alternative anthracycline-free chemoimmunotherapy regimen for patients who are not eligible for anthracycline-based regimens and support further evaluation of this regimen as a chemotherapy de-escalation strategy in randomized studies for TNBC. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03639948. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.5033
Increasing Use of Shorter-Course Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer. JAMA oncology Importance:Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the noninferiority of shorter radiotherapy (RT) courses (termed hypofractionation) compared with longer RT courses in patients with localized prostate cancer. Although shorter courses are associated with cost-effectiveness, convenience, and expanded RT access, their adoption remains variable. Objective:To identify the current practice patterns of external beam RT for prostate cancer in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cohort study obtained data from the National Cancer Database, which collects hospital registry data from more than 1500 accredited US facilities on approximately 72% of US patients with cancer. Patients were included in the sample if they had localized prostate adenocarcinoma that was diagnosed between 2004 and 2020 and underwent external beam RT with curative intent. Analyses were conducted between February and March 2023. Exposures:Radiotherapy schedules, which were categorized as ultrahypofractionation (≤7 fractions), moderate hypofractionation (20-30 fractions), and conventional fractionation (31-50 fractions). Main Outcomes and Measures:Longitudinal pattern in RT fractionation schedule was the primary outcome. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate the variables associated with shorter RT courses. Covariables included age, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group, rurality, race, facility location, facility type, median income, insurance type or status, and Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index. Results:A total of 313 062 patients with localized prostate cancer (mean [SD] age, 68.8 [7.7] years) were included in the analysis. There was a temporal pattern of decline in the proportion of patients who received conventional fractionation, from 76.0% in 2004 to 36.6% in 2020 (P for trend <.001). From 2004 to 2020, use of moderate hypofractionation increased from 22.0% to 45.0% (P for trend <.001), and use of ultrahypofractionation increased from 2.0% to 18.3% (P for trend <.001). By 2020, the most common RT schedule was ultrahypofractionation for patients in the low-risk group and moderate hypofractionation for patients in the intermediate-risk group. On multivariable analysis, treatment at a community cancer program (compared with academic or research program; odds ratio [OR], 0.54 [95% CI, 0.52-0.56]; P < .001), Medicaid insurance (compared with Medicare; OR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.41-1.57]; P < .001), Black race (compared with White race; OR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.87-0.92]; P < .001), and higher median income (compared with lower median income; OR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.25-1.31]; P < .001) were associated with receipt of shorter courses of RT. Conclusions and Relevance:Results of this cohort study showed an increase in the use of shorter courses of RT for prostate cancer from 2004 to 2020; a number of social determinants of health appeared to be associated with reduced adoption of shorter treatment courses. Realignment of reimbursement models may be necessary to enable broader adoption of ultrahypofractionation to support technology acquisition costs. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.4267
Circulating Tumor HPV DNA for Surveillance of HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Narrative Review. JAMA oncology Importance:Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma has an overall favorable prognosis, yet a subset of patients will experience devastating disease recurrence. Current surveillance standards for detection of recurrent disease are imperfect. There is growing interest in improving detection of recurrent disease through the use of plasma-based assays able to detect circulating tumor HPV DNA. Observations:Although most circulating tumor HPV DNA assays remain in the research domain, the circulating tumor tissue-modified viral HPV DNA assay became commercially available in the United States in early 2020 and has been increasingly used in the clinical setting. With the rapidly increasing incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and concomitant expansion of biomarker capabilities for this disease, it is critical to reexamine current posttreatment surveillance practices and to determine whether emerging technologies may be used to improve outcomes for a growing survivor population. However, caution is advised; it is not yet known whether biomarker-based surveillance is truly beneficial, and as is true with any intervention, it has the capacity to cause harm. Conclusions and Relevance:Using Margaret Pepe's classic 5 phases of biomarker development for early detection of cancer as a framework, this article reviews the current state of knowledge, highlights existing knowledge gaps, and suggests research that should be prioritized to understand the association between biomarker-based surveillance and patient outcomes. Specific attention is paid to the commercially available tumor tissue-modified viral HPV DNA assay, given its increasing clinical use. This review may serve as a road map for future research and a guide for clinicians considering its adoption in practice. Enrollment of patients into clinical trials incorporating biomarker-based surveillance should be prioritized. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.4042
Tumor Mutational Burden Testing in Solid Tumors. JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.4293
Durvalumab versus placebo with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer (CALLA): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Concurrent chemoradiotherapy has been the standard of care for locally advanced cervical cancer for over 20 years; however, 30-40% of treated patients have recurrence or progression within 5 years. Immune checkpoint inhibition has improved outcomes for patients with PD-L1 positive metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer. We assessed the benefit of adding durvalumab, a PD-L1 antibody, with and following chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS:The CALLA randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial included 105 hospitals across 15 countries. Patients aged at least 18 years with previously untreated locally advanced cervical cancer (adenocarcinoma, squamous, or adenosquamous; International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] 2009 stage IB2-IIB lymph node positive, stage ≥III any lymph node status) and WHO or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 were randomly assigned (1:1) through an interactive web response system using a permuted block size of 4 to receive durvalumab (1500 mg intravenously once every 4 weeks) or placebo with and following chemoradiotherapy, for up to 24 cycles. Chemoradiotherapy included 45 Gy external beam radiotherapy at 5 fractions per week concurrent with intravenous cisplatin (40 mg/m) or carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve 2) once weekly for 5 weeks, followed by image-guided brachytherapy (high-dose rate, 27·5-30 Gy or low-dose/pulse-dose rate, 35-40 Gy). Randomisation was stratified by disease stage status (FIGO stage and node status) and geographical region. Chemoradiotherapy quality was continuously reviewed. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, assessed by the investigator using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03830866. FINDINGS:Between Feb 15, 2019, and Dec 10, 2020, 770 women were randomly assigned (385 to durvalumab and 385 to placebo; median age 49 years [IQR 41-57]). Median follow-up was 18·5 months (IQR 13·2-21·5) in the durvalumab group and 18·4 months (13·2-23·7) in the placebo group. At data cutoff, median progression-free survival had not been reached (95% CI not reached-not reached) for either group (HR 0·84; 95% CI 0·65-1·08; p=0·17); 12-month progression-free survival was 76·0% (71·3-80·0) with durvalumab and 73·3% (68·4-77·5) with placebo. The most frequently reported grade 3-4 adverse events in both groups were anaemia (76 [20%] of 385 in the durvalumab group vs 56 [15%] of 384 in the placebo group) and decreased white blood cells (39 [10%] vs 49 [13%]). Serious adverse events occurred for 106 (28%) patients who received durvalumab and 89 (23%) patients who received placebo. There were five treatment-related deaths in the durvalumab group (one case each of urinary tract infection, blood loss anaemia, and pulmonary embolism related to chemoradiotherapy only; one case of endocrine disorder related to durvalumab only; and one case of sepsis related to both durvalumab and chemoradiotherapy). There was one treatment-related death in the placebo group (pneumonia related to chemoradiotherapy). INTERPRETATION:Durvalumab concurrent with chemoradiotherapy was well tolerated in participants with locally advanced cervical cancer, however it did not significantly improve progression-free survival in a biomarker unselected, all-comers population. Concurrent durvalumab plus chemoradiotherapy warrants further exploration in patients with high tumoral PD-L1 expression. Rigorous monitoring ensured high chemoradiotherapy compliance with advanced technology and allowed patients to receive optimal care. FUNDING:AstraZeneca. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00479-5
Utilising cancer registry data to monitor cancer burden. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00596-X
Pembrolizumab or Placebo Plus Chemotherapy With or Without Bevacizumab for Persistent, Recurrent, or Metastatic Cervical Cancer: Subgroup Analyses From the KEYNOTE-826 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:The KEYNOTE-826 randomized clinical trial showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful survival benefits with the addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab in patients with persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer. Treatment effects in patient subgroups of the study population are unknown. Objective:To assess efficacy outcomes in patient subgroups of KEYNOTE-826. Design, Setting, and Participants:Exploratory subgroup analyses were conducted in a global, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants included women with persistent, recurrent, or metastatic adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, or squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix that had not been treated with systemic chemotherapy and was not amenable to curative treatment. This subanalysis was conducted from November 20, 2018, to May 3, 2021. Interventions:Pembrolizumab, 200 mg, every 3 weeks or placebo for up to 35 cycles plus chemotherapy (paclitaxel, 175 mg/m2, plus cisplatin, 50 mg/m2, or carboplatin AUC 5 [area under the free carboplatin plasma concentration vs time curve]) with or without bevacizumab, 15 mg/kg. Main Outcomes and Measures:Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) by investigator assessment per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 in subgroups defined by use of bevacizumab (yes or no), choice of platinum (carboplatin or cisplatin), prior chemoradiotherapy (CRT) exposure only (yes or no), and histologic type (squamous or nonsquamous) in patients with programmed cell death ligand 1-positive tumors (defined as a combined positive score [CPS] ≥1) and in the intention-to-treat population. Results:A total of 617 patients (median age, 51 years; range, 22-82 years) were enrolled in the trial. In the CPS greater than or equal to 1 population, hazard ratios (HRs) for OS favored the pembrolizumab group in all subgroups: with bevacizumab (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.87) and without bevacizumab (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47-0.96), use of carboplatin (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50-0.85) and cisplatin (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.27-1.04), with prior CRT only (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39-0.81) and without prior CRT only (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-1.00), and squamous (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.79) and nonsquamous (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.41-1.20) histologic type. In the intention-to-treat population, HRs for OS also favored the pembrolizumab group in all subgroups: with bevacizumab (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.87) and without bevacizumab (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.53-1.04), use of carboplatin (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54-0.89) or cisplatin (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.32-1.09), with prior CRT only (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.91) and without prior CRT only (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53-0.97), and squamous (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47-0.80) and nonsquamous (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.47-1.23) histologic type. Similar to OS, the addition of pembrolizumab prolonged PFS across all subgroups in the CPS greater than or equal to 1 and intention-to-treat populations. Conclusions and Relevance:The findings of this trial suggest that adding pembrolizumab to chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab improved OS across subgroups of patients with persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03635567. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.5410
Stereotactic Radiosurgery vs Conventional Radiotherapy for Spine Metastases. JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.6060
Immunotherapy in Prepatients-Preventing or Promoting a Malignant Transformation? JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.4799
Assessing Response for Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck. JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.5401
Nivolumab for Patients With High-Risk Oral Leukoplakia: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is an aggressive oral precancerous disease characterized by a high risk of transformation to invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and no therapies have been shown to affect its natural history. A recent study of the PVL immune landscape revealed a cytotoxic T-cell-rich microenvironment, providing strong rationale to investigate immune checkpoint therapy. Objective:To determine the safety and clinical activity of anti-programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1) therapy to treat high-risk PVL. Design, Setting, and Participants:This nonrandomized, open-label, phase 2 clinical trial was conducted from January 2019 to December 2021 at a single academic medical center; median (range) follow-up was 21.1 (5.4-43.6) months. Participants were a population-based sample of patients with PVL (multifocal, contiguous, or a single lesion ≥4 cm with any degree of dysplasia). Intervention:Patients underwent pretreatment biopsy (1-3 sites) and then received 4 doses of nivolumab (480 mg intravenously) every 28 days, followed by rebiopsy and intraoral photographs at each visit. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was the change in composite score (size and degree of dysplasia) from before to after treatment (major response [MR]: >80% decrease in score; partial response: 40%-80% decrease). Secondary analyses included immune-related adverse events, cancer-free survival (CFS), PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, 9p21.3 deletion, and other exploratory immunologic and genomic associations of response. Results:A total of 33 patients were enrolled (median [range] age, 63 [32-80] years; 18 [55%] were female), including 8 (24%) with previously resected early-stage OSCC. Twelve patients (36%) (95% CI, 20.4%-54.8%) had a response by composite score (3 MRs [9%]), 4 had progressive disease (>10% composite score increase, or cancer). Nine patients (27%) developed OSCC during the trial, with a 2-year CFS of 73% (95% CI, 53%-86%). Two patients (6%) discontinued because of toxic effects; 7 (21%) experienced grade 3 to 4 immune-related adverse events. PD-L1 combined positive scores were not associated with response or CFS. Of 20 whole-exome sequenced patients, all 6 patients who had progression to OSCC after nivolumab treatment exhibited 9p21.3 somatic copy-number loss on pretreatment biopsy, while only 4 of the 14 patients (29%) who did not develop OSCC had 9p21.3 loss. Conclusions and Relevance:This immune checkpoint therapy precancer nonrandomized clinical trial met its prespecified response end point, suggesting potential clinical activity for nivolumab in high-risk PVL. Findings identified immunogenomic associations to inform future trials in this precancerous disease with unmet medical need that has been difficult to study. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03692325. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.4853
Actinium-225-PSMA radioligand therapy of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (WARMTH Act): a multicentre, retrospective study. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Actinium-225 (Ac) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) radioligand therapy (RLT) is a novel therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We aimed to report the safety and antitumour activity of Ac-PSMA RLT of mCRPC in a large cohort of patients treated at multiple centres across the world. METHODS:This retrospective study included patients treated at seven centres in Australia, India, Germany, and South Africa. We pooled data of consecutive patients of any age and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status with histopathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate who were treated with one or more cycles of 8 MBq Ac-PSMA RLT administered intravenously for mCRPC. Previous lines of mCRPC treatment included taxane-based chemotherapy, androgen-receptor-axis inhibitors, lutetium-177 (Lu) PSMA RLT, and radium-223 dichloride. The primary outcomes were overall survival and progression-free survival. FINDINGS:Between Jan 1, 2016, and May 31, 2023, 488 men with mCRPC received 1174 cycles of Ac-PSMA RLT (median two cycles, IQR 2-4). The mean age of the patients was 68·1 years (SD 8·8), and the median baseline prostate-specific antigen was 169·5 ng/mL (IQR 34·6-519·8). Previous lines of treatment were docetaxel in 324 (66%) patients, cabazitaxel in 103 (21%) patients, abiraterone in 191 (39%) patients, enzalutamide in 188 (39%) patients, Lu-PSMA RLT in 154 (32%) patients, and radium-223 dichloride in 18 (4%) patients. The median follow-up duration was 9·0 months (IQR 5·0-17·5). The median overall survival was 15·5 months (95% CI 13·4-18·3) and median progression-free survival was 7·9 months (6·8-8·9). In 347 (71%) of 488 patients, information regarding treatment-induced xerostomia was available, and 236 (68%) of the 347 patients reported xerostomia after the first cycle of Ac-PSMA RLT. All patients who received more than seven cycles of Ac-PSMA RLT reported xerostomia. Grade 3 or higher anaemia occurred in 64 (13%) of 488 patients, leukopenia in 19 (4%), thrombocytopenia in 32 (7%), and renal toxicity in 22 (5%). No serious adverse events or treatment-related deaths were recorded. INTERPRETATION:Ac-PSMA RLT shows a substantial antitumour effect in mCRPC and represents a viable therapy option in patients treated with previous lines of approved agents. Xerostomia is a common side-effect. Severe bone marrow and renal toxicity are less common adverse events. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00638-1
Endpoints in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer trials. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00065-2
Uncovering causal clues in the development of second primary cancers. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00675-7
The Case for Allowing Proton Beam Therapy on Head and Neck Cooperative Group Studies. JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.6274
Surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of p16-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: an individual patient data meta-analysis. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:The increased incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has motivated efforts to optimise treatment for these patients with excellent prognosis. Validation of surrogates for overall survival could expedite the investigation of new therapies. We sought to evaluate candidate intermediate clinical endpoints in trials assessing definitive treatment of p16-positive oropharyngeal cancer with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. METHODS:We did a retrospective review of five multicentre, randomised trials (NRG/RTOG 9003, 0129, 0234, 0522, and 1016) that tested radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in patients (aged ≥18 years) with p16-positive localised head or neck squamous-cell carcinomas. Eight intermediate clinical endpoints were considered as potential surrogates for overall survival: freedom from local progression, freedom from regional progression, freedom from distant metastasis, freedom from locoregional progression, freedom from any progression, locoregional progression-free survival, progression-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival. We used a two-stage meta-analytical framework, which requires high correlation between the intermediate clinical endpoint and overall survival at the patient level (condition 1), and high correlation between the treatment effect on the intermediate clinical endpoint and the treatment effect on overall survival (condition 2). For both, an r greater than 0·7 was used as criteria for clinically relevant surrogacy. FINDINGS:We analysed 1373 patients with oropharyngeal cancer from May 9, 2020, to Nov 22, 2023. 1231 (90%) of patients were men, 142 (10%) were women, and 1207 (88%) were White, with a median age of 57 years (IQR 51-62). Median follow-up was 4·2 years (3·1-5·1). For the first condition, correlating the intermediate clinical endpoints with overall survival at the individual and trial level, the three composite endpoints of locoregional progression-free survival (Kendall's τ 0·91 and r 0·72), distant metastasis-free survival (Kendall's τ 0·93 and r 0·83), and progression-free survival (Kendall's τ 0·88 and r 0·70) were highly correlated with overall survival at the patient level and at the trial-group level. For the second condition, correlating treatment effects of the intermediate clinical endpoints and overall survival, the composite endpoints of locoregional progression-free survival (r 0·88), distant metastasis-free survival (r 0·96), and progression-free survival (r 0·92) remained strong surrogates. Treatment effects on the remaining intermediate clinical endpoints were less strongly correlated with overall survival. INTERPRETATION:We identified locoregional progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and progression-free survival as surrogates for overall survival in p16-positive oropharyngeal cancers treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, which could serve as clinical trial endpoints. FUNDING:NRG Oncology Operations, NRG Oncology SDMC, the National Cancer Institute, Eli Lilly, Aventis, and the University of Michigan. 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00016-0
CALLA trial: immunotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00006-8
CALLA trial: immunotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00648-4
Innovation in gynaecological cancer: highlighting global disparities. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00137-2
Pembrolizumab plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus placebo plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (KEYNOTE-412): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Despite multimodal therapy, 5-year overall survival for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is about 50%. We assessed the addition of pembrolizumab to concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced HNSCC. METHODS:In the randomised, double-blind, phase 3 KEYNOTE-412 trial, participants with newly diagnosed, high-risk, unresected locally advanced HNSCC from 130 medical centres globally were randomly assigned (1:1) to pembrolizumab (200 mg) plus chemoradiotherapy or placebo plus chemoradiotherapy. Randomisation was done using an interactive response technology system and was stratified by investigator's choice of radiotherapy regimen, tumour site and p16 status, and disease stage, with participants randomly assigned in blocks of four per stratum. Participants, investigators, and sponsor personnel were masked to treatment assignments. Local pharmacists were aware of assignments to support treatment preparation. Pembrolizumab and placebo were administered intravenously once every 3 weeks for up to 17 doses (one before chemoradiotherapy, two during chemoradiotherapy, 14 as maintenance therapy). Chemoradiotherapy included cisplatin (100 mg/m) administered intravenously once every 3 weeks for two or three doses and accelerated or standard fractionation radiotherapy (70 Gy delivered in 35 fractions). The primary endpoint was event-free survival analysed in all randomly assigned participants. Safety was analysed in all participants who received at least one dose of study treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03040999, and is active but not recruiting. FINDINGS:Between April 19, 2017, and May 2, 2019, 804 participants were randomly assigned to the pembrolizumab group (n=402) or the placebo group (n=402). 660 (82%) of 804 participants were male, 144 (18%) were female, and 622 (77%) were White. Median study follow-up was 47·7 months (IQR 42·1-52·3). Median event-free survival was not reached (95% CI 44·7 months-not reached) in the pembrolizumab group and 46·6 months (27·5-not reached) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·83 [95% CI 0·68-1·03]; log-rank p=0·043 [significance threshold, p≤0·024]). 367 (92%) of 398 participants treated in the pembrolizumab group and 352 (88%) of 398 participants treated in the placebo group had grade 3 or worse adverse events. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were decreased neutrophil count (108 [27%] of 398 participants in the pembrolizumab group vs 100 [25%] of 398 participants in the placebo group), stomatitis (80 [20%] vs 69 [17%]), anaemia (80 [20%] vs 61 [15%]), dysphagia (76 [19%] vs 62 [16%]), and decreased lymphocyte count (76 [19%] vs 81 [20%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 245 (62%) participants in the pembrolizumab group versus 197 (49%) participants in the placebo group, most commonly pneumonia (43 [11%] vs 25 [6%]), acute kidney injury (33 [8%] vs 30 [8%]), and febrile neutropenia (24 [6%] vs seven [2%]). Treatment-related adverse events led to death in four (1%) participants in the pembrolizumab group (one participant each from aspiration pneumonia, end-stage renal disease, pneumonia, and sclerosing cholangitis) and six (2%) participants in the placebo group (three participants from pharyngeal haemorrhage and one participant each from mouth haemorrhage, post-procedural haemorrhage, and sepsis). INTERPRETATION:Pembrolizumab plus chemoradiotherapy did not significantly improve event-free survival compared with chemoradiotherapy alone in a molecularly unselected, locally advanced HNSCC population. No new safety signals were seen. Locally advanced HNSCC remains a challenging disease that requires better treatment approaches. FUNDING:Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Rahway, NJ, USA. 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00100-1
Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Radiotherapy vs Chemoradiotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:Induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy is recommended for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma but is associated with higher rates of acute toxic effects and low compliance. Evidence on de-escalating treatment intensity after induction chemotherapy is limited. Objective:To assess if radiotherapy was noninferior to chemoradiotherapy after induction chemotherapy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants:From April 2015 to March 2018, a multicenter, open-label, randomized, noninferiority, phase 3 trial was conducted at 5 Chinese hospitals. A total of 383 patients aged 18 to 70 years with an untreated histologically confirmed nonkeratinizing tumor, Karnofsky performance status score not worse than 70, proper organ function, and stage III to IVB nasopharyngeal cancer were enrolled. Data were analyzed from April 2023 to June 2023. Interventions:Patients were assigned randomly. Both groups received 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy consisting of intravenous administration (on day 1) of cisplatin at 60 mg/m2 and docetaxel at 60 mg/m2 and continuous intravenous infusion (from day 1 to day 5) of daily fluorouracil (600 mg/m2), repeated every 21 days. Subsequently, the patients received radiotherapy alone (induction chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy [IC-RT] group) or concomitant cisplatin (30 mg/m2/week) with radiotherapy for 6 to 7 weeks (induction chemotherapy combined with chemoradiotherapy [IC-CCRT] group). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was 3-year progression-free survival (time from the initiation of therapy until the first indication of disease progression or death), with a noninferiority margin of 10%. The secondary end points included overall survival, locoregional failure-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, response rate, and toxic effects. Results:A total of 383 patients (median [range] age, 48 [19-70] years; 100 women [26%]). Median follow-up time was 76 months (IQR, 70-89 months). The 3-year progression-free survival was 76.2% and 76.8% in the IC-RT (n = 193) and IC-CCRT groups (n = 190), respectively, in the intention-to-treat population, showing a difference of 0.6% (95% CI, -7.9% to 9.1%; P = .01 for noninferiority). Identical outcomes were reported in the per-protocol population. The incidence of grade 3 to 4 short-term toxic effects in the IC-RT group was less than the IC-CCRT group. No differences were observed in late toxic effects. Conclusions and Relevance:The results of this randomized clinical trial suggest that after induction chemotherapy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, radiotherapy alone was noninferior to chemoradiotherapy in terms of 3-year progression-free survival. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02434614. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.6552
Efficacy, Safety, and Population Pharmacokinetics of MW032 Compared With Denosumab for Solid Tumor-Related Bone Metastases: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 3 Equivalence Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:The bioequivalence of denosumab biosimilar has yet to be studied in a 53-week, multicenter, large-scale, and head-to-head trial. A clinically effective biosimilar may help increase access to denosumab in patients with solid tumor-related bone metastases. Objectives:To establish the biosimilarity of MW032 to denosumab in patients with solid tumor-related bone metastases based on a large-scale head-to-head study. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this 53-week, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 equivalence trial, patients with solid tumors with bone metastasis were recruited from 46 clinical sites in China. Overall, 856 patients were screened and 708 eligible patients were randomly allocated to receive either MW032 or denosumab. Interventions:Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive MW032 or reference denosumab subcutaneously every 4 weeks until week 49. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was percentage change from baseline to week 13 of natural logarithmic transformed urinary N-telopeptide/creatinine ratio (uNTx/uCr). Results:Among the 701 evaluable patients (350 in the MW032 group and 351 in the denosumab group), the mean (range) age was 56.1 (22.0-86.0) years and 460 patients were women (65.6%). The mean change of uNTx/uCr from baseline to week 13 was -72.0% (95% CI, -73.5% to -70.4%) in the MW032 group and -72.7% (95% CI, -74.2% to -71.2%) in the denosumab group. These percent changes corresponded to mean logarithmic ratios of -1.27 and -1.30, or a difference of 0.02. The 90% CI for the difference (-0.04 to 0.09) was within the equivalence margin (-0.13 to 0.13); the mean changes of uNTx/uCr and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (s-BALP) at each time point were also similar during 53 weeks. The differences of uNTx/uCr change were 0.015 (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.09), -0.02 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.06), -0.05 (95% CI, -0.13 to 0.03) and 0.001 (95% CI, -0.10 to 0.10) at weeks 5, 25, 37, and 53, respectively. The differences of s-BALP change were -0.006 (95% CI, 0.06 to 0.05), 0.00 (95% CI, -0.07 to 0.07), -0.085 (95% CI, -0.18 to 0.01), -0.09 (95% CI, -0.20 to 0.02), and -0.13 (95% CI, -0.27 to 0.004) at weeks 5, 13, 25, 37 and 53, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of skeletal-related events (-1.4%; 95% CI, -5.8% to 3.0%) or time to first on-study skeletal-related events (unadjusted HR, 0.86; P = .53; multiplicity adjusted HR, 0.87; P = .55) in the 2 groups. Conclusions and Relevance:MW032 and denosumab were biosimilar in efficacy, population pharmacokinetics, and safety profile. Availability of denosumab biosimilars may broaden the access to denosumab and reduce the drug burden for patients with advanced tumors. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04812509. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.6520
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Management of Late Radiation Toxicity-A Honey of a Trial? JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.6698
Nivolumab with or without ipilimumab in patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer (CheckMate 358): a phase 1-2, open-label, multicohort trial. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:In preliminary findings from the recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer cohort of CheckMate 358, nivolumab showed durable anti-tumour responses, and the combination of nivolumab plus ipilimumab showed promising clinical activity. Here, we report long-term outcomes from this cohort. METHODS:CheckMate 358 was a phase 1-2, open-label, multicohort trial. The metastatic cervical cancer cohort enrolled patients from 30 hospitals and cancer centres across ten countries. Female patients aged 18 years or older with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with recurrent or metastatic disease, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and up to two previous systemic therapies were enrolled into the nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks group, the randomised groups (nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks [NIVO3 plus IPI1] or nivolumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks for four cycles then nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks [NIVO1 plus IPI3]), or the NIVO1 plus IPI3 expansion group. All doses were given intravenously. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to NIVO3 plus IPI1 or NIVO1 plus IPI3 via an interactive voice response system. Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal, or for up to 24 months. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate. Anti-tumour activity and safety were analysed in all treated patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02488759) and is now completed. FINDINGS:Between October, 2015, and March, 2020, 193 patients were recruited in the recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer cohort of CheckMate 358, of whom 176 were treated. 19 patients received nivolumab monotherapy, 45 received NIVO3 plus IPI1, and 112 received NIVO1 plus IPI3 (45 in the randomised group and 67 in the expansion group). Median follow-up times were 19·9 months (IQR 8·2-44·8) with nivolumab, 12·6 months (7·8-37·1) with NIVO3 plus IPI1, and 16·7 months (7·2-27·5) with pooled NIVO1 plus IPI3. Objective response rates were 26% (95% CI 9-51; five of 19 patients) with nivolumab, 31% (18-47; 14 of 45 patients) with NIVO3 plus IPI1, 40% (26-56; 18 of 45 patients) with randomised NIVO1 plus IPI3, and 38% (29-48; 43 of 112 patients) with pooled NIVO1 plus IPI3. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were diarrhoea, hepatic cytolysis, hyponatraemia, pneumonitis, and syncope (one [5%] patient each; nivolumab group), diarrhoea, increased gamma-glutamyl transferase, increased lipase, and vomiting (two [4%] patients each; NIVO3 plus IPI1 group), and increased lipase (nine [8%] patients) and anaemia (seven [6%] patients; pooled NIVO1 plus IPI3 group). Serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in three (16%) patients in the nivolumab group, 12 (27%) patients in the NIVO3 plus IPI1 group, and 47 (42%) patients in the pooled NIVO1 plus IPI3 group. There was one treatment-related death due to immune-mediated colitis in the NIVO1 plus IPI3 group. INTERPRETATION:Nivolumab monotherapy and nivolumab plus ipilimumab combination therapy showed promise in the CheckMate 358 study as potential treatment options for recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. Future randomised controlled trials of nivolumab plus ipilimumab or other dual immunotherapy regimens are warranted to confirm treatment benefit in this patient population. FUNDING:Bristol Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical. 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00088-3
Postoperative Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy in Cervical Cancer: The POHIM-CCRT Nonrandomized Controlled Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:Prospective data assessing the safety of hypofractionated (40 Gy in 16 fractions) radiotherapy (RT) among patients who receive postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer are lacking. Objective:To evaluate the acute toxic effects of hypofractionated pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemotherapy among women with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants:The POHIM-CCRT (Postoperative Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy in Cervical Cancer) study was designed as a multicenter, phase 2 nonrandomized controlled trial that accrued and followed up patients from June 1, 2017, to February 28, 2023. In total, 84 patients were enrolled from 5 institutions affiliated with the Korean Radiation Oncology Group. Eligible patients experienced lymph node metastasis, parametrial invasion, or positive resection margins after radical hysterectomy for treatment of confirmed cervical cancer. Intervention:Postoperative pelvic radiation using hypofractionated IMRT with 40 Gy in 16 fractions to the whole pelvis combined with concurrent chemotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was incidence of acute grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary, and hematologic toxic effects (based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) in the evaluable population during RT or within 3 months after RT completion. Results:Of 84 patients enrolled, 5 dropped out prior to RT, and data from 79 patients were analyzed. The patients' median (IQR) age was 48 (42-58) years, and the median (IQR) tumor size was 3.7 (2.7-4.5) cm. Of these patients, 31 (39.7%) had lymph node metastasis, 4 (5.1%) had positive resection margins, and 43 (54.4%) had parametrial invasion. Grade 3 or higher acute toxic effects occurred in 2 patients (2.5% [90% CI, 0%-4.8%]). After a median (IQR) follow-up of 43.0 (21.1-59.0) months, the 3-year disease-free survival rate was 79.3%, and the overall survival rate was 98.0%. Conclusions:Findings from this nonrandomized control trial indicated that postoperative pelvic irradiation combined with concurrent chemotherapy using hypofractionated IMRT with 40 Gy in 16 fractions was safe and well-tolerated in women with cervical cancer. Studies assessing long-term toxic effects and oncological outcomes with longer follow-up periods are needed. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03239613. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2024.0565
Combining the prognostic role of age with molecular advances in the understanding of endometrial cancer. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00193-1
Prognostic impact and causality of age on oncological outcomes in women with endometrial cancer: a multimethod analysis of the randomised PORTEC-1, PORTEC-2, and PORTEC-3 trials. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Numerous studies have shown that older women with endometrial cancer have a higher risk of recurrence and cancer-related death. However, it remains unclear whether older age is a causal prognostic factor, or whether other risk factors become increasingly common with age. We aimed to address this question with a unique multimethod study design using state-of-the-art statistical and causal inference techniques on datasets of three large, randomised trials. METHODS:In this multimethod analysis, data from 1801 women participating in the randomised PORTEC-1, PORTEC-2, and PORTEC-3 trials were used for statistical analyses and causal inference. The cohort included 714 patients with intermediate-risk endometrial cancer, 427 patients with high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer, and 660 patients with high-risk endometrial cancer. Associations of age with clinicopathological and molecular features were analysed using non-parametric tests. Multivariable competing risk analyses were performed to determine the independent prognostic value of age. To analyse age as a causal prognostic variable, a deep learning causal inference model called AutoCI was used. FINDINGS:Median follow-up as estimated using the reversed Kaplan-Meier method was 12·3 years (95% CI 11·9-12·6) for PORTEC-1, 10·5 years (10·2-10·7) for PORTEC-2, and 6·1 years (5·9-6·3) for PORTEC-3. Both overall recurrence and endometrial cancer-specific death significantly increased with age. Moreover, older women had a higher frequency of deep myometrial invasion, serous tumour histology, and p53-abnormal tumours. Age was an independent risk factor for both overall recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 1·02 per year, 95% CI 1·01-1·04; p=0·0012) and endometrial cancer-specific death (HR 1·03 per year, 1·01-1·05; p=0·0012) and was identified as a significant causal variable. INTERPRETATION:This study showed that advanced age was associated with more aggressive tumour features in women with endometrial cancer, and was independently and causally related to worse oncological outcomes. Therefore, our findings suggest that older women with endometrial cancer should not be excluded from diagnostic assessments, molecular testing, and adjuvant therapy based on their age alone. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00142-6
No prime time yet for checkpoint inhibitors in localised head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00197-9
Trastuzumab deruxtecan versus treatment of physician's choice in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (DESTINY-Breast02): patient-reported outcomes from a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:In DESTINY-Breast02, patients with HER2-positive unresectable or metastatic breast cancer who received trastuzumab deruxtecan demonstrated superior progression-free and overall survival compared with those receiving treatment of physician's choice. We present the patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and hospitalisation data. METHODS:In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial conducted at 227 clinical sites globally, enrolled patients had to be aged 18 years or older with HER2-positive unresectable or metastatic breast cancer that had progressed on trastuzumab emtansine and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) using block randomisation (block size of 3) to receive trastuzumab deruxtecan (5·4 mg/kg intravenously once every 21 days) or treatment of physician's choice by an independent biostatistician using an interactive web-based system. Patients and investigators remained unmasked to treatment. Treatment of physician's choice was either capecitabine (1250 mg/m orally twice per day on days 1-14) plus trastuzumab (8 mg/kg intravenously on day 1 then 6 mg/kg once per day) or capecitabine (1000 mg/m) plus lapatinib (1250 mg orally once per day on days 1-21), with a 21-day schedule. The primary endpoint, which was progression-free survival based on blinded independent central review, has previously been reported. PROs were assessed in the full analysis set (all patients randomly assigned to the study) using the oncology-specific European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), breast cancer-specific EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Breast 45 (QLQ-BR45), and the generic HRQoL EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. Analyses included change from baseline and time to definitive deterioration for PRO variables of interest and hospitalisation-related endpoints. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03523585, and is closed to recruitment. FINDINGS:Between Sept 6, 2018, and Dec 31, 2020, 608 patients were randomly assigned to receive either trastuzumab deruxtecan (n=406; two did not receive treatment) or treatment of physician's choice (n=202; seven did not receive treatment). Overall, 603 patients (99%) were female and five (<1%) were male. The median follow-up was 21·5 months (IQR 15·2-28·4) in the trastuzumab deruxtecan group and 18·6 months (IQR 8·8-26·0) in the treatment of physician's choice group. Median treatment duration was 11·3 months (IQR 6·2-20·5) in the trastuzumab deruxtecan group and approximately 4·5 months in the treatment of physician's choice group (4·4 months [IQR 2·5-8·7] with trastuzumab; 4·6 months [2·1-8·9] with capecitabine; and 4·5 months [2·1-10·6] with lapatinib). Baseline EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status (GHS) scores were similar with trastuzumab deruxtecan (n=393) and treatment of physician's choice (n=187), and remained stable with no clinically meaningful change (defined as ≥10-point change from baseline) over time. Median time to definitive deterioration was delayed with trastuzumab deruxtecan compared with treatment of physician's choice for the primary PRO variable EORTC QLQ-C30 GHS (14·1 months [95% CI 10·4-18·7] vs 5·9 months [4·3-7·9]; HR 0·5573 [0·4376-0·7099], p<0·0001) and all other prespecified PROs (EORTC QLQ-C30 subscales, EORTC QLQ-BR45 arm and breast symptoms, and EQ-5D-5L visual analogue scale). Patient hospitalisation rates were similar in the trastuzumab deruxtecan (92 [23%] of 406) and treatment of physician's choice (41 [20%] of 202) groups; however, median time to hospitalisation was 133 days (IQR 56-237) with trastuzumab deruxtecan versus 83 days (30-152) with treatment of physician's choice. INTERPRETATION:Overall, GHS and quality of life were maintained for both treatment groups, with prespecified PRO variables favouring trastuzumab deruxtecan over treatment of physician's choice, suggesting that despite a longer treatment duration, there was no detrimental impact on patient health-related quality of life with trastuzumab deruxtecan. When considered with efficacy and safety data from DESTINY-Breast02, these results support the overall benefit of trastuzumab deruxtecan for patients with HER2-positive unresectable or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab emtansine. FUNDING:Daiichi Sankyo and AstraZeneca. 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00128-1
Alternative approaches to risk-benefit balancing in immunotherapy. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00085-8
Olanzapine for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting control. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00091-3
Prospective Data on Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy Provides Guidance in an Unusual Clinical Scenario. JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.7039
Stereotactic Radiation Therapy in Early Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Interstitial Lung Disease: A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial. JAMA oncology Importance:Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been reported to be at high risk of toxic effects after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), but for many patients, there are limited alternative treatment options. Objective:To prospectively assess the benefits and toxic effects of SABR in this patient population. Design, Setting, and Participants:This prospective cohort study was conducted at 6 academic radiation oncology institutions, 5 in Canada and 1 in Scotland, with accrual between March 7, 2019, and January 12, 2022. Patients aged 18 years or older with fibrotic ILD and a diagnosis of T1-2N0 NSCLC who were not candidates for surgical resection were enrolled. Intervention:Patients were treated with SABR to a dose of 50 Gy in 5 fractions every other day. Main Outcomes and Measures:The study prespecified that SABR would be considered worthwhile if median overall survival-the primary end point-was longer than 1 year, with a grade 3 to 4 risk of toxic effects less than 35% and a grade 5 risk of toxic effects less than 15%. Secondary end points included toxic effects, progression-free survival (PFS), local control (LC), quality-of-life outcomes, and changes in pulmonary function. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results:Thirty-nine patients enrolled and received SABR. Median age was 78 (IQR, 67-83) years and 59% (n = 23) were male. At baseline, 70% (26 of 37) of patients reported dyspnea, median forced expiratory volume in first second of expiration was 80% (IQR, 66%-90%) predicted, median forced vital capacity was 84% (IQR, 69%-94%) predicted, and median diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was 49% (IQR, 38%-61%) predicted. Median follow-up was 19 (IQR, 14-25) months. Overall survival at 1 year was 79% (95%, CI 62%-89%; P < .001 vs the unacceptable rate), and median overall survival was 25 months (95% CI, 14 months to not reached). Median PFS was 19 months (95% CI, 13-28 months), and 2-year LC was 92% (95% CI, 69%-98%). Adverse event rates (highest grade per patient) were grade 1 to 2: n = 12 (31%), grade 3: n = 4 (10%), grade 4: n = 0, and grade 5: n = 3 (7.7%, all due to respiratory deterioration). Conclusions and Relevance:In this trial, use of SABR in patients with fibrotic ILD met the prespecified acceptability thresholds for both toxicity and efficacy, supporting the use of SABR for curative-intent treatment after a careful discussion of risks and benefits. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03485378. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.7269
Efficacy and Safety of Radiotherapy Plus Relugolix in Men With Localized or Advanced Prostate Cancer. JAMA oncology Importance:Combination androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with radiotherapy is commonly used for patients with localized and advanced prostate cancer. Objective:To assess the efficacy and safety of the oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist relugolix with radiotherapy for treating prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:This multicenter post hoc analysis of patients with localized and advanced prostate cancer receiving radiotherapy in 2 randomized clinical trials (a phase 2 trial of relugolix vs degarelix, and a subset of the phase 3 HERO trial of relugolix vs leuprolide acetate) included men who were receiving radiotherapy and short-term (24 weeks) ADT (n = 103) from 2014 to 2015 and men receiving radiotherapy and longer-term (48 weeks) ADT (n = 157) from 2017 to 2019. The data were analyzed in November 2022. Interventions:Patients receiving short-term ADT received relugolix, 120 mg, orally once daily (320-mg loading dose) or degarelix, 80 mg, 4-week depot (240-mg loading dose) for 24 weeks with 12 weeks of follow-up. Patients receiving longer-term ADT received relugolix, 120 mg, orally once daily (360-mg loading dose) or leuprolide acetate injections every 12 weeks for 48 weeks, with up to 90 days of follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures:Castration rate (testosterone level <50 ng/dL [to convert to nmol/L, multiply by 0.0347) at all scheduled visits between weeks 5 and 25 for patients receiving short-term ADT and weeks 5 and 49 for patients receiving longer-term ADT. Results:Of 260 patients (38 Asian [14.6%], 23 Black or African American [8.8%], 21 Hispanic [8.1%], and 188 White [72.3%] individuals), 164 (63.1%) received relugolix. Relugolix achieved castration rates of 95% (95% CI, 87.1%-99.0%) and 97% (95% CI, 90.6%-99.0%) among patients receiving short-term and longer-term ADT, respectively. Twelve weeks post-short-term relugolix, 34 (52%) achieved testosterone levels to baseline or more than 280 ng/dL. Ninety days post longer-term ADT, mean (SD) testosterone levels were 310.5 (122.4) (106.7) ng/dL (relugolix; n = 15) vs 53.0 ng/dL (leuprolide acetate; n = 8) among the subset assessed for testosterone recovery. Castration resistance-free survival was not statistically different between the relugolix and leuprolide acetate cohorts (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.35-2.72; P = .62). Adverse events grade 3 or greater for short-term or longer-term relugolix (headache, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation) were uncommon (less than 5%). Conclusions and Relevance:The results of these 2 randomized clinical trials suggest that relugolix rapidly achieves sustained castration in patients with localized and advanced prostate cancer receiving radiotherapy. No new safety concerns were identified when relugolix was used with radiotherapy. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.7279
Hypofractionation for Postprostatectomy Radiotherapy. JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.6697
Patterns of Undertreatment and Overtreatment in Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer Based on Molecular Classification. JAMA oncology 10.1001/jamaoncol.2024.0104
PARP Inhibitors for Breast Cancer Treatment: A Review. JAMA oncology Importance:Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of patients with germline BRCA1/2-associated breast cancer, representing the first targeted therapy capable of improving outcomes in patients with hereditary tumors. However, resistance to PARP inhibitors occurs in almost all patients. Observations:This narrative review summarizes the biological rationale behind the use of PARP inhibitors in breast cancer, as well as the available evidence, recent progress, and potential future applications of these agents. Recent studies have shown that the benefit of PARP inhibitors extends beyond patients with germline BRCA1/2-associated metastatic breast cancer to patients with somatic BRCA1/2 variants and to those with germline PALB2 alterations. Moreover, these agents proved to be effective both in the metastatic and adjuvant settings. However, patients with metastatic breast cancer usually do not achieve the long-term benefit from PARP inhibitors observed in other tumor types. Mechanisms of resistance have been identified, but how to effectively target them is largely unknown. Ongoing research is investigating both novel therapeutics and new combination strategies to overcome resistance. PARP1-selective inhibitors, by sparing the hematological toxic effects induced by the PARP2 blockade, are promising agents to be combined with chemotherapy, antibody-drug conjugates, and other targeted therapies. Conclusions and Relevance:Although the efficacy of PARP inhibitors is well established, many questions persist. Future research should focus on identifying predictive biomarkers and therapeutic strategies to overcome resistance. Integrating well-designed translational efforts into all clinical studies is thereby crucial to laying the groundwork for future insights from ongoing research. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.7322
ESTRO 2024. The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(24)00265-1