Human papillomavirus E6 triggers upregulation of the antiviral and cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B. Vieira Valdimara C,Leonard Brandon,White Elizabeth A,Starrett Gabriel J,Temiz Nuri A,Lorenz Laurel D,Lee Denis,Soares Marcelo A,Lambert Paul F,Howley Peter M,Harris Reuben S mBio UNLABELLED:Several recent studies have converged upon the innate immune DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) as a significant source of genomic uracil lesions and mutagenesis in multiple human cancers, including those of the breast, head/neck, cervix, bladder, lung, ovary, and other tissues. A3B is upregulated in these tumor types relative to normal tissues, but the mechanism is unclear. Because A3B also has antiviral activity in multiple systems and is a member of the broader innate immune response, we tested the hypothesis that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes A3B upregulation. We found that A3B mRNA expression and enzymatic activity were upregulated following transfection of a high-risk HPV genome and that this effect was abrogated by inactivation of E6. Transduction experiments showed that the E6 oncoprotein alone was sufficient to cause A3B upregulation, and a panel of high-risk E6 proteins triggered higher A3B levels than did a panel of low-risk or noncancer E6 proteins. Knockdown experiments in HPV-positive cell lines showed that endogenous E6 is required for A3B upregulation. Analyses of publicly available head/neck cancer data further support this relationship, as A3B levels are higher in HPV-positive cancers than in HPV-negative cancers. Taken together with the established role for high-risk E6 in functional inactivation of TP53 and published positive correlations in breast cancer between A3B upregulation and genetic inactivation of TP53, our studies suggest a model in which high-risk HPV E6, possibly through functional inactivation of TP53, causes derepression of A3B gene transcription. This would lead to a mutator phenotype that explains the observed cytosine mutation biases in HPV-positive head/neck and cervical cancers. IMPORTANCE:The innate immune DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) accounts for a large proportion of somatic mutations in cervical and head/neck cancers, but nothing is known about the mechanism responsible for its upregulation in these tumor types. Almost all cervical carcinomas and large proportions of head/neck tumors are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Here, we establish a mechanistic link between HPV infection and A3B upregulation. The E6 oncoprotein of high-risk, but not low-risk, HPV types triggers A3B upregulation, supporting a model in which TP53 inactivation causes a derepression of A3B gene transcription and elevated A3B enzyme levels. This virus-induced mutator phenotype provides a mechanistic explanation for A3B signature mutations observed in HPV-positive head/neck and cervical carcinomas and may also help to account for the preferential cancer predisposition caused by high-risk HPV isolates. 10.1128/mBio.02234-14
    Evidence for editing of human papillomavirus DNA by APOBEC3 in benign and precancerous lesions. Vartanian Jean-Pierre,Guétard Denise,Henry Michel,Wain-Hobson Simon Science (New York, N.Y.) Cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 family all have specificity for single-stranded DNA, which may become exposed during replication or transcription of double-stranded DNA. Three human APOBEC3A (hA3A), hA3B, and hA3H genes are expressed in keratinocytes and skin, leading us to determine whether genetic editing of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA occurred. In a study of HPV1a plantar warts and HPV16 precancerous cervical biopsies, hyperedited HPV1a and HPV16 genomes were found. Strictly analogous results were obtained from transfection experiments with HPV plasmid DNA and the three nuclear localized enzymes: hA3A, hA3C, and hA3H. Thus, stochastic or transient overexpression of APOBEC3 genes may expose the genome to a broad spectrum of mutations that could influence the development of tumors. 10.1126/science.1153201
    The APOBEC3 genes and their role in cancer: insights from human papillomavirus. Smith Nicola J,Fenton Tim R Journal of molecular endocrinology The interaction between human papillomaviruses (HPV) and the apolipoprotein-B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)3 (A3) genes has garnered increasing attention in recent years, with considerable efforts focused on understanding their apparent roles in both viral editing and in HPV-driven carcinogenesis. Here, we review these developments and highlight several outstanding questions in the field. We consider whether editing of the virus and mutagenesis of the host are linked or whether both are essentially separate events, coincidentally mediated by a common or distinct A3 enzymes. We discuss the viral mechanisms and cellular signalling pathways implicated in A3 induction in virally infected cells and examine which of the A3 enzymes might play the major role in HPV-associated carcinogenesis and in the development of therapeutic resistance. We consider the parallels between A3 induction in HPV-infected cells and what might be causing aberrant A3 activity in HPV-independent cancers such as those arising in the bladder, lung and breast. Finally, we discuss the implications of ongoing A3 activity in tumours under treatment and the therapeutic opportunities that this may present. 10.1530/JME-19-0011
    The spectrum of APOBEC3 activity: From anti-viral agents to anti-cancer opportunities. Green Abby M,Weitzman Matthew D DNA repair The APOBEC3 family of cytosine deaminases are part of the innate immune response to viral infection, but also have the capacity to damage cellular DNA. Detection of mutational signatures consistent with APOBEC3 activity, together with elevated APOBEC3 expression in cancer cells, has raised the possibility that these enzymes contribute to oncogenesis. Genome deamination by APOBEC3 enzymes also elicits DNA damage response signaling and presents therapeutic vulnerabilities for cancer cells. Here, we discuss implications of APOBEC3 activity in cancer and the potential to exploit their mutagenic activity for targeted cancer therapies. 10.1016/j.dnarep.2019.102700
    APOBEC3 Interference during Replication of Viral Genomes. Willems Luc,Gillet Nicolas Albert Viruses Co-evolution of viruses and their hosts has reached a fragile and dynamic equilibrium that allows viral persistence, replication and transmission. In response, infected hosts have developed strategies of defense that counteract the deleterious effects of viral infections. In particular, single-strand DNA editing by Apolipoprotein B Editing Catalytic subunits proteins 3 (APOBEC3s) is a well-conserved mechanism of mammalian innate immunity that mutates and inactivates viral genomes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of APOBEC3 editing during viral replication, the viral strategies that prevent APOBEC3 activity and the consequences of APOBEC3 modulation on viral fitness and host genome integrity. Understanding the mechanisms involved reveals new prospects for therapeutic intervention. 10.3390/v7062757
    A New Class of Antiretroviral Enabling Innate Immunity by Protecting APOBEC3 from HIV Vif-Dependent Degradation. Bennett Ryan P,Salter Jason D,Smith Harold C Trends in molecular medicine The infectivity of HIV depends on overcoming APOBEC3 (A3) innate immunity, predominantly through the expression of the viral protein Vif, which induces A3 degradation in the proteasome. Disruption of the functional interactions of Vif enables A3 mutagenesis of the HIV genome during viral replication, which can result in a broadly neutralizing antiviral effect. Vif function requires self-association along with interactions with A3 proteins, protein chaperones, and factors of the ubiquitination machinery and these are described here as a potential platform for novel antiviral drug discovery. This Review will examine the current state of development of Vif inhibitors that we believe to have therapeutic and functional cure potential. 10.1016/j.molmed.2018.03.004
    Understanding the regulation of APOBEC3 expression: Current evidence and much to learn. Covino Daniela Angela,Gauzzi Maria Cristina,Fantuzzi Laura Journal of leukocyte biology The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) family of cytosine deaminases plays crucial roles in innate immunity through the ability of restricting viral replication by deamination and mutation of viral genomes. The antiviral function of these proteins was first discovered when research in the field of HIV infection revealed that one member of the family, namely APOBEC3G, restricts HIV infection in T lymphocytes and that the viral infectivity factor protein drives the proteosomal degradation of this enzyme, thus overriding its antiviral function. Recent advances in cancer genomics, together with biochemical characterization of the APOBEC3 enzymes, have now implicated some family members in somatic mutagenesis during carcinogenesis. While several studies investigated the downstream consequences of APOBEC3 expression and activity, either in the context of viral infection or tumorigenesis, little is known on the upstream mechanisms regulating APOBEC3 expression. Such knowledge would be of huge importance in developing innovative approaches to strengthen antiviral innate immunity on one side and to prevent cancer development on the other. This mini review summarizes research advances on the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of APOBEC3 family members in selected immune cell populations and cancer cells. 10.1002/JLB.2MR0717-310R
    Human LINE-1 restriction by APOBEC3C is deaminase independent and mediated by an ORF1p interaction that affects LINE reverse transcriptase activity. Horn Axel V,Klawitter Sabine,Held Ulrike,Berger André,Vasudevan Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva,Bock Anja,Hofmann Henning,Hanschmann Kay-Martin O,Trösemeier Jan-Hendrik,Flory Egbert,Jabulowsky Robert A,Han Jeffrey S,Löwer Johannes,Löwer Roswitha,Münk Carsten,Schumann Gerald G Nucleic acids research LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements whose extensive proliferation resulted in the generation of ≈ 34% of the human genome. They have been shown to be a cause of single-gene diseases. Moreover, L1-encoded endonuclease can elicit double-strand breaks that may lead to genomic instability. Mammalian cells adopted strategies restricting mobility and deleterious consequences of uncontrolled retrotransposition. The human APOBEC3 protein family of polynucleotide cytidine deaminases contributes to intracellular defense against retroelements. APOBEC3 members inhibit L1 retrotransposition by 35-99%. However, genomic L1 retrotransposition events that occurred in the presence of L1-restricting APOBEC3 proteins are devoid of detectable G-to-A hypermutations, suggesting one or multiple deaminase-independent L1 restricting mechanisms. We set out to uncover the mechanism of APOBEC3C (A3C)-mediated L1 inhibition and found that it is deaminase independent, requires an intact dimerization site and the RNA-binding pocket mutation R122A abolishes L1 restriction by A3C. Density gradient centrifugation of L1 ribonucleoprotein particles, subcellular co-localization of L1-ORF1p and A3C and co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that an RNA-dependent physical interaction between L1 ORF1p and A3C dimers is essential for L1 restriction. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the amount of L1 complementary DNA synthesized by L1 reverse transcriptase is reduced by ≈ 50% if overexpressed A3C is present. 10.1093/nar/gkt898
    [Recent advances in the study of mechanism of APOBEC3G against virus]. Zhu Yan-Ping,Jiang Jian-Dong,Peng Zong-Gen Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica APOBEC3 is a class of cytidine deaminase, which is considered as a new member of the innate immune system, and APOBEC3G belongs to this family. The research about APOBEC3G is a new direction of innate immune defense mechanism against virus. APOBEC3G has the restrictive activity on many viral replications, which deaminates dC to dU in the viral genome and then induces extensive hypermutation. APOBEC3G can also interrupt viral replication at several phases such as reverse transcription, replication, nucleocapsid and so on by non-deamination mechanisms. However, virus can encode viral proteins to counteract the restriction activity of APOBEC3G. Elucidation of the antagonistic interaction between APOBEC3G and the virus will be contributed to development of new antiviral drugs in the future.
    APOBEC3 deaminases induce hypermutation in human papillomavirus 16 DNA upon beta interferon stimulation. Wang Zhe,Wakae Kousho,Kitamura Kouichi,Aoyama Satoru,Liu Guangyan,Koura Miki,Monjurul Ahasan M,Kukimoto Iwao,Muramatsu Masamichi Journal of virology Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3) proteins are interferon (IFN)-inducible antiviral factors that counteract various viruses such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by inducing cytidine (C)-to-uracil (U) mutations in viral DNA and inhibiting reverse transcription. However, whether APOBEC3 proteins (A3s) can hypermutate human papillomavirus (HPV) viral DNA and exhibit antiviral activity in human keratinocyte remains unknown. Here we examined the involvement of A3s in the HPV life cycle using cervical keratinocyte W12 cells, which are derived from low-grade lesions and retain episomal HPV16 genomes in their nuclei. We focused on the viral E2 gene as a potential target for A3-mediated hypermutation because this gene is frequently found as a boundary sequence in integrated viral DNA. Treatment of W12 cells with beta interferon (IFN-β) increased expression levels of A3s such as A3A, A3F, and A3G and induced C-to-U conversions in the E2 gene in a manner depending on inhibition of uracil DNA glycosylase. Exogenous expression of A3A and A3G also induced E2 hypermutation in W12 cells. IFN-β-induced hypermutation was blocked by transfection of small interfering RNAs against A3G (and modestly by those against A3A). However, the HPV16 episome level was not affected by overexpression of A3A and A3G in W12 cells. This study demonstrates that endogenous A3s upregulated by IFN-β induce E2 hypermutation of HPV16 in cervical keratinocytes, and a pathogenic consequence of E2 hypermutation is discussed. 10.1128/JVI.03091-13
    AID and APOBEC deaminases: balancing DNA damage in epigenetics and immunity. Franchini Don-Marc,Petersen-Mahrt Svend K Epigenomics DNA mutations and genomic recombinations are the origin of oncogenesis, yet parts of developmental programs as well as immunity are intimately linked to, or even depend on, such DNA damages. Therefore, the balance between deleterious DNA damages and organismal survival utilizing DNA editing (modification and repair) is in continuous flux. The cytosine deaminases AID/APOBEC are a DNA editing family and actively participate in various biological processes. In conjunction with altered DNA repair, the mutagenic potential of the family allows for APOBEC3 proteins to restrict viral infection and transposons propagation, while AID can induce somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in antibody genes. On the other hand, the synergy between effective DNA repair and the nonmutagenic potential of the DNA deaminases can induce local DNA demethylation to support epigenetic cellular identity. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms of action of the AID/APOBEC family in immunity and epigenetics. 10.2217/epi.14.35
    APOBEC3A deaminates transiently exposed single-strand DNA during LINE-1 retrotransposition. Richardson Sandra R,Narvaiza Iñigo,Planegger Randy A,Weitzman Matthew D,Moran John V eLife Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition poses a mutagenic threat to human genomes. Human cells have therefore evolved strategies to regulate L1 retrotransposition. The APOBEC3 (A3) gene family consists of seven enzymes that catalyze deamination of cytidine nucleotides to uridine nucleotides (C-to-U) in single-strand DNA substrates. Among these enzymes, APOBEC3A (A3A) is the most potent inhibitor of L1 retrotransposition in cultured cell assays. However, previous characterization of L1 retrotransposition events generated in the presence of A3A did not yield evidence of deamination. Thus, the molecular mechanism by which A3A inhibits L1 retrotransposition has remained enigmatic. Here, we have used in vitro and in vivo assays to demonstrate that A3A can inhibit L1 retrotransposition by deaminating transiently exposed single-strand DNA that arises during the process of L1 integration. These data provide a mechanistic explanation of how the A3A cytidine deaminase protein can inhibit L1 retrotransposition.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02008.001. 10.7554/eLife.02008
    A DNA sequence recognition loop on APOBEC3A controls substrate specificity. Logue Eric C,Bloch Nicolin,Dhuey Erica,Zhang Ruonan,Cao Ping,Herate Cecile,Chauveau Lise,Hubbard Stevan R,Landau Nathaniel R PloS one APOBEC3A (A3A), one of the seven-member APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases, lacks strong antiviral activity against lentiviruses but is a potent inhibitor of adeno-associated virus and endogenous retroelements. In this report, we characterize the biochemical properties of mammalian cell-produced and catalytically active E. coli-produced A3A. The enzyme binds to single-stranded DNA with a Kd of 150 nM and forms dimeric and monomeric fractions. A3A, unlike APOBEC3G (A3G), deaminates DNA substrates nonprocessively. Using a panel of oligonucleotides that contained all possible trinucleotide contexts, we identified the preferred target sequence as TC (A/G). Based on a three-dimensional model of A3A, we identified a putative binding groove that contains residues with the potential to bind substrate DNA and to influence target sequence specificity. Taking advantage of the sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of A3G, we generated A3A/A3G chimeric proteins and analyzed their target site preference. We identified a recognition loop that altered A3A sequence specificity, broadening its target sequence preference. Mutation of amino acids in the predicted DNA binding groove prevented substrate binding, confirming the role of this groove in substrate binding. These findings shed light on how APOBEC3 proteins bind their substrate and determine which sites to deaminate. 10.1371/journal.pone.0097062
    Erroneous identification of APOBEC3-edited chromosomal DNA in cancer genomics. Suspène R,Caval V,Henry M,Bouzidi M S,Wain-Hobson S,Vartanian J-P British journal of cancer BACKGROUND:The revolution in cancer genomics shows that the dominant mutations are CG->TA transitions. The sources of these mutations are probably two host cell cytidine deaminases APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B. The former in particular can access nuclear DNA and monotonously introduce phenomenal numbers of C->T mutations in the signature 5'TpC context. These can be copied as G->A transitions in the 5'GpA context. METHODS:DNA hypermutated by an APOBEC3 enzyme can be recovered by a technique called 3DPCR, which stands for differential DNA denaturation PCR. This method exploits the fact that APOBEC3-edited DNA is richer in A+T compared with the reference. We explore explicitly 3DPCR error using cloned DNA. RESULTS:Here we show that the technique has a higher error rate compared with standard PCR and can generate DNA strands containing both C->T and G->A mutations in a 5'GpCpR context. Sequences with similar traits have been recovered from human tumour DNA using 3DPCR. CONCLUSIONS:Differential DNA denaturation PCR cannot be used to identify fixed C->T transitions in cancer genomes. Presently, the overall mutation frequency is ∼10(4)-10(5) base substitutions per cancer genome, or 0.003-0.03 kb(-1). By contrast, the 3DPCR error rate is of the order of 4-20 kb(-1) owing to constant selection for AT DNA and PCR-mediated recombination. Accordingly, sequences recovered by 3DPCR harbouring mixed C->T and G->A mutations associated with the 5'GpC represent artefacts. 10.1038/bjc.2014.176
    When defense turns into attack: Antiviral cytidine deaminases linked to somatic mutagenesis in HPV-associated cancer. Henderson Stephen,Chakravarthy Ankur,Fenton Tim Molecular & cellular oncology The APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases play an important role in innate immunity but have also emerged as mediators of somatic mutations in human cancer. We recently reported a high incidence of APOBEC-mediated driver mutations in human papillomavirus-associated cancer, suggesting a key role for these enzymes in the development of such tumors. 10.4161/mco.29914
    AID and APOBECs span the gap between innate and adaptive immunity. Moris Arnaud,Murray Shannon,Cardinaud Sylvain Frontiers in microbiology The activation-induced deaminase (AID)/APOBEC cytidine deaminases participate in a diversity of biological processes from the regulation of protein expression to embryonic development and host defenses. In its classical role, AID mutates germline-encoded sequences of B cell receptors, a key aspect of adaptive immunity, and APOBEC1, mutates apoprotein B pre-mRNA, yielding two isoforms important for cellular function and plasma lipid metabolism. Investigations over the last ten years have uncovered a role of the APOBEC superfamily in intrinsic immunity against viruses and innate immunity against viral infection by deamination and mutation of viral genomes. Further, discovery in the area of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection revealed that the HIV viral infectivity factor protein interacts with APOBEC3G, targeting it for proteosomal degradation, overriding its antiviral function. More recently, our and others' work have uncovered that the AID and APOBEC cytidine deaminase family members have an even more direct link between activity against viral infection and induction and shaping of adaptive immunity than previously thought, including that of antigen processing for cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and natural killer cell activation. Newly ascribed functions of these cytodine deaminases will be discussed, including their newly identified roles in adaptive immunity, epigenetic regulation, and cell differentiation. Herein this review we discuss AID and APOBEC cytodine deaminases as a link between innate and adaptive immunity uncovered by recent studies. 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00534
    APOBEC3A functions as a restriction factor of human papillomavirus. Warren Cody J,Xu Tao,Guo Kejun,Griffin Laura M,Westrich Joseph A,Lee Denis,Lambert Paul F,Santiago Mario L,Pyeon Dohun Journal of virology UNLABELLED:Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses causally associated with benign warts and multiple cancers, including cervical and head-and-neck cancers. While the vast majority of people are exposed to HPV, most instances of infection are cleared naturally. However, the intrinsic host defense mechanisms that block the early establishment of HPV infections remain mysterious. Several antiviral cytidine deaminases of the human APOBEC3 (hA3) family have been identified as potent viral DNA mutators. While editing of HPV genomes in benign and premalignant cervical lesions has been demonstrated, it remains unclear whether hA3 proteins can directly inhibit HPV infection. Interestingly, recent studies revealed that HPV-positive cervical and head-and-neck cancers exhibited higher rates of hA3 mutation signatures than most HPV-negative cancers. Here, we report that hA3A and hA3B expression levels are highly upregulated in HPV-positive keratinocytes and cervical tissues in early stages of cancer progression, potentially through a mechanism involving the HPV E7 oncoprotein. HPV16 virions assembled in the presence of hA3A, but not in the presence of hA3B or hA3C, have significantly decreased infectivity compared to HPV virions assembled without hA3A or with a catalytically inactive mutant, hA3A/E72Q. Importantly, hA3A knockdown in human keratinocytes results in a significant increase in HPV infectivity. Collectively, our findings suggest that hA3A acts as a restriction factor against HPV infection, but the induction of this restriction mechanism by HPV may come at a cost to the host by promoting cancer mutagenesis. IMPORTANCE:Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are highly prevalent and potent human pathogens that cause >5% of all human cancers, including cervical and head-and-neck cancers. While the majority of people become infected with HPV, only 10 to 20% of infections are established as persistent infections. This suggests the existence of intrinsic host defense mechanisms that inhibit viral persistence. Using a robust method to produce infectious HPV virions, we demonstrate that hA3A, but not hA3B or hA3C, can significantly inhibit HPV infectivity. Moreover, hA3A and hA3B were coordinately induced in HPV-positive clinical specimens during cancer progression, likely through an HPV E7 oncoprotein-dependent mechanism. Interestingly, HPV-positive cervical and head-and-neck cancer specimens were recently shown to harbor significant amounts of hA3 mutation signatures. Our findings raise the intriguing possibility that the induction of this host restriction mechanism by HPV may also trigger hA3A- and hA3B-induced cancer mutagenesis. 10.1128/JVI.02383-14
    Structural Analysis of the Active Site and DNA Binding of Human Cytidine Deaminase APOBEC3B. Hou Shurong,Silvas Tania V,Leidner Florian,Nalivaika Ellen A,Matsuo Hiroshi,Kurt Yilmaz Nese,Schiffer Celia A Journal of chemical theory and computation APOBEC3 (A3) proteins, a family of human cytidine deaminases, protect the host from endogenous retro-elements and exogenous viral infections by introducing hypermutations. However, overexpressed A3s can modify genomic DNA to promote tumorigenesis, especially A3B. Despite their overall similarity, A3 proteins have distinct deamination activity. Recently determined A3 structures have revealed the molecular determinants of nucleotide specificity and DNA binding. However, for A3B, the structural basis for regulation of deamination activity and the role of active site loops in coordinating DNA had remained unknown. Using advanced molecular modeling followed by experimental mutational analysis and dynamics simulations, we investigated the molecular mechanism of DNA binding by A3B-CTD. We modeled fully native A3B-DNA structure, and we identified Arg211 in loop 1 as the gatekeeper coordinating DNA and critical residue for nucleotide specificity. We also identified a unique autoinhibited conformation in A3B-CTD that restricts access and binding of DNA to the active site. Our results reveal the structural basis for DNA binding and relatively lower catalytic activity of A3B and provide opportunities for rational design of specific inhibitors to benefit cancer therapeutics. 10.1021/acs.jctc.8b00545
    Pan-cancer transcriptomic analysis dissects immune and proliferative functions of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. Ng Joseph C F,Quist Jelmar,Grigoriadis Anita,Malim Michael H,Fraternali Franca Nucleic acids research APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases are largely known for their innate immune protection from viral infections. Recently, members of the family have been associated with a distinct mutational activity in some cancer types. We report a pan-tissue, pan-cancer analysis of RNA-seq data specific to the APOBEC3 genes in 8,951 tumours, 786 cancer cell lines and 6,119 normal tissues. By deconvolution of levels of different cell types in tumour admixtures, we demonstrate that APOBEC3B (A3B), the primary candidate as a cancer mutagen, shows little association with immune cell types compared to its paralogues. We present a pipeline called RESPECTEx (REconstituting SPecific Cell-Type Expression) and use it to deconvolute cell-type specific expression levels in a given cohort of tumour samples. We functionally annotate APOBEC3 co-expressing genes, and create an interactive visualization tool which 'barcodes' the functional enrichment (http://fraternalilab.kcl.ac.uk/apobec-barcodes/). These analyses reveal that A3B expression correlates with cell cycle and DNA repair genes, whereas the other APOBEC3 members display specificity for immune processes and immune cell populations. We offer molecular insights into the functions of individual APOBEC3 proteins in antiviral and proliferative contexts, and demonstrate the diversification this family of enzymes displays at the transcriptomic level, despite their high similarity in protein sequences and structures. 10.1093/nar/gky1316
    Hypoxia-induced human deoxyribonuclease I is a cellular restriction factor of hepatitis B virus. Hallez Camille,Li Xiongxiong,Suspène Rodolphe,Thiers Valérie,Bouzidi Mohamed S,M Dorobantu Cristina,Lucansky Vincent,Wain-Hobson Simon,Gaudin Raphaël,Vartanian Jean-Pierre Nature microbiology Numerous human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases have proven to be, inter alia, host cell restriction factors for retroviruses and hepadnaviruses. Although they can bind to genomic RNA and become encapsidated, they are only catalytically active on single-stranded DNA. As there are many cellular deoxyribonucleases (DNases), we hypothesized that a parallel could be struck between APOBEC3 and DNases. For human hepatitis B virus (HBV), we show that DNase I can considerably reduce the virion genome copy number from a variety of transfected or infected cells. DNASE1 is overexpressed and encapsidated in HBV particles in vitro in hypoxic environments and in vivo in cirrhotic patient livers as well as in the serum of infected patients. The use of CoCl and dimethyloxalylglycine, mimetic agents used to induce hypoxia by inhibiting prolyl hydroxylase enzymes that stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, showed that the formation of HIF-1α/HIF-1β heterodimers results in the induction of DNASE1. Indeed, transfection with HIF-1α and HIF-1β expression constructs upregulated DNASE1. These findings suggest that human DNase I can impact HBV replication through the catabolism of the DNA genome within the capsid. The activity of DNases in general may explain in part the high frequency of empty or 'light' hepatitis B virions observed in vivo. 10.1038/s41564-019-0405-x
    APOBEC3s: DNA-editing human cytidine deaminases. Silvas Tania V,Schiffer Celia A Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society Nucleic acid editing enzymes are essential components of the human immune system that lethally mutate viral pathogens and somatically mutate immunoglobulins. Among these enzymes are cytidine deaminases of the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) super family, each with unique target sequence specificity and subcellular localization. We focus on the DNA-editing APOBEC3 enzymes that have recently attracted attention because of their involvement in cancer and potential in gene-editing applications. We review and compare the crystal structures of APOBEC3 (A3) domains, binding interactions with DNA, substrate specificity, and activity. Recent crystal structures of A3A and A3G bound to ssDNA have provided insights into substrate binding and specificity determinants of these enzymes. Still many unknowns remain regarding potential cooperativity, nucleic acid interactions, and systematic quantification of substrate preference of many APOBEC3s, which are needed to better characterize the biological functions and consequences of misregulation of these gene editors. 10.1002/pro.3670
    Integrative genomic analyses of APOBEC-mutational signature, expression and germline deletion of APOBEC3 genes, and immunogenicity in multiple cancer types. Chen Zhishan,Wen Wanqing,Bao Jiandong,Kuhs Krystle L,Cai Qiuyin,Long Jirong,Shu Xiao-Ou,Zheng Wei,Guo Xingyi BMC medical genomics BACKGROUND:Although APOBEC-mutational signature is found in tumor tissues of multiple cancers, how a common germline APOBEC3A/B deletion affects the mutational signature remains unclear. METHODS:Using data from 10 cancer types generated as part of TCGA, we performed integrative genomic and association analyses to assess inter-relationship of expressions for isoforms APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B, APOBEC-mutational signature, germline APOBEC3A/B deletions, neoantigen loads, and tumor infiltration lymphocytes (TILs). RESULTS:We found that expression level of the isoform uc011aoc transcribed from the APOBEC3A/B chimera was associated with a greater burden of APOBEC-mutational signature only in breast cancer, while germline APOBEC3A/B deletion led to an increased expression level of uc011aoc in multiple cancer types. Furthermore, we found that the deletion was associated with elevated APOBEC-mutational signature, neoantigen loads and relative composition of T cells (CD8+) in TILs only in breast cancer. Additionally, we also found that APOBEC-mutational signature significantly contributed to neoantigen loads and certain immune cell abundances in TILs across cancer types. CONCLUSIONS:These findings reveal new insights into understanding the genetic, biological and immunological mechanisms through which APOBEC genes may be involved in carcinogenesis, and provide potential genetic biomarker for the development of disease prevention and cancer immunotherapy. 10.1186/s12920-019-0579-3
    APOBEC mutagenesis is tightly linked to the immune landscape and immunotherapy biomarkers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Faden Daniel L,Ding Fei,Lin Yan,Zhai Shuyan,Kuo Fengshen,Chan Timothy A,Morris Luc G,Ferris Robert L Oral oncology HNSCC is an immunologically active tumor with high levels of immune cell infiltration, high mutational burden and a subset of patients who respond to immunotherapy. One of the primary sources of mutations in HNSCC is the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3, which is a known participant in innate immunity. Why particular HNSCCs have higher rates of APOBEC mutations and how these mutations relate to the immune microenvironment remains unknown. Utilizing whole exome and RNA-Seq datasets from TCGA HNSCCs we annotated APOBEC mutations, immune cell populations, activating and end effectors of immunity and neoantigens in order to interrogate the relationship between APOBEC mutations and the immune landscape. Immune cell populations and composite scores of immune activation were tightly associated with APOBEC mutational burden (p = 0.04-1.17e-5). HNSCC had the highest levels of IFNy across cancer types with high APOBEC mutational burden, with the highest IFNy scores in HPV mediated HNSCC. Tumor specific neoantigens were significantly correlated with APOBEC mutational burden while other sources of neoantigens were not (0.53 [0.24, 0.76] p = 8e-5). The presence of a germline APOBEC polymorphism was more prevalent in non-white, non-black patients and within this group, patients with the polymorphism had higher APOBEC mutational burden (p = 0.002). APOBEC mutations are tightly linked to immune activation and infiltration in HNSCC. Multiple mechanisms may exist within HNSCC leading to APOBEC mutations including immune upregulation in response to neoantigens and viral infection, via induction of IFNy. These mechanisms may be additive and not mutually exclusive, which could explain higher levels of APOBEC mutations in HPV mediated HNSCC. 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2019.07.020
    APOBEC3A Loop 1 Is a Determinant for Single-Stranded DNA Binding and Deamination. Ziegler Samantha J,Hu Yingxia,Devarkar Swapnil C,Xiong Yong Biochemistry The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3 or A3) family of proteins functions in the innate immune system. The A3 proteins are interferon inducible and hypermutate deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine in foreign single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). However, this deaminase activity cannot discriminate between foreign and host ssDNA at the biochemical level, which presents a significant danger when A3 proteins gain access to the nucleus. Interestingly, this A3 capability can be harnessed when coupled with novel CRISPR-Cas9 proteins to create a targeted base editor. Specifically, A3A has been used to revert mutations associated with disease states. Recent structural studies have shown the importance of loop regions of A3A and A3G in ssDNA recognition and positioning for deamination. In this work, we further examined loop 1 of A3A to determine how it affects substrate selection, as well as the efficiency of deamination, in the hopes of advancing the potential of A3A in base editing technology. We found that mutating residue H29 enhanced deamination activity without changing substrate specificity. Also interestingly, we found that increasing the length of loop 1 decreases substrate specificity. Overall, these results lead to a better understanding of substrate recognition and deamination by A3A and the A3 family of proteins. 10.1021/acs.biochem.9b00394
    AID, APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B efficiently deaminate deoxycytidines neighboring DNA damage induced by oxidation or alkylation. Diamond Cody P,Im Junbum,Button Erynn A,Huebert David N G,King Justin J,Borzooee Faeze,Abdouni Hala S,Bacque Lisa,McCarthy Erin,Fifield Heather,Berghuis Lesley M,Larijani Mani Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects BACKGROUND:AID/APOBEC3 (A3) enzymes instigate genomic mutations that are involved in immunity and cancer. Although they can deaminate any deoxycytidine (dC) to deoxyuridine (dU), each family member has a signature preference determined by nucleotides surrounding the target dC. This WRC (W = A/T, R = A/G) and YC (Y = T/C) hotspot preference is established for AID and A3A/A3B, respectively. Base alkylation and oxidation are two of the most common types of DNA damage induced environmentally or by chemotherapy. Here we examined the activity of AID, A3A and A3B on dCs neighboring such damaged bases. METHODS:Substrates were designed to contain target dCs either in normal WRC/YC hotspots, or in oxidized/alkylated DNA motifs. AID, A3A and A3B were purified and deamination kinetics of each were compared between substrates containing damaged vs. normal motifs. RESULTS:All three enzymes efficiently deaminated dC when common damaged bases were present in the -2 or -1 positions. Strikingly, some damaged motifs supported comparable or higher catalytic efficiencies by AID, A3A and A3B than the WRC/YC motifs which are their most favored normal sequences. Based on the resolved interactions of AID, A3A and A3B with DNA, we modeled interactions with alkylated or oxidized bases. Corroborating the enzyme assay data, the surface regions that recognize normal bases are predicted to also interact robustly with oxidized and alkylated bases. CONCLUSIONS:AID, A3A and A3B can efficiently recognize and deaminate dC whose neighbouring nucleotides are damaged. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE:Beyond AID/A3s initiating DNA damage, some forms of pre-existing damaged DNA can constitute favored targets of AID/A3s if encountered. 10.1016/j.bbagen.2019.129415
    APOBEC3-Mediated RNA Editing in Breast Cancer is Associated with Heightened Immune Activity and Improved Survival. Asaoka Mariko,Ishikawa Takashi,Takabe Kazuaki,Patnaik Santosh K International journal of molecular sciences APOBEC3 enzymes contribute significantly to DNA mutagenesis in cancer. These enzymes are also capable of converting C bases at specific positions of RNAs to U. However, the prevalence and significance of this C-to-U RNA editing in any cancer is currently unknown. We developed a bioinformatics workflow to determine RNA editing levels at known APOBEC3-mediated RNA editing sites using exome and mRNA sequencing data of 1040 breast cancer tumors. Although reliable editing determinations were limited due to sequencing depth, editing was observed in both tumor and adjacent normal tissues. For 440 sites (411 genes), editing was determinable for ≥5 tumors, with editing occurring in 0.6%-100% of tumors (mean 20%, SD 14%) at an average level of 0.6%-20% (mean 7%, SD 4%). Compared to tumors with low RNA editing, editing-high tumors had enriched expression of immune-related gene sets, and higher T cell and M1 macrophage infiltration, B and T cell receptor diversity, and immune cytolytic activity. Concordant with this, patients with increased RNA editing in tumors had better disease- and progression-free survivals (hazard ratio = 1.67-1.75, < 0.05). Our study identifies that APOBEC3-mediated RNA editing occurs in breast cancer tumors and is positively associated with elevated immune activity and improved survival. 10.3390/ijms20225621
    Role of the host restriction factor APOBEC3 on papillomavirus evolution. Warren Cody J,Van Doorslaer Koenraad,Pandey Ahwan,Espinosa Joaquin M,Pyeon Dohun Virus evolution More than 270 different types of papillomaviruses have been discovered in a wide array of animal species. Despite the great diversity of papillomaviruses, little is known about the evolutionary processes that drive host tropism and the emergence of oncogenic genotypes. Although host defense mechanisms have evolved to interfere with various aspects of a virus life cycle, viruses have also coevolved copious strategies to avoid host antiviral restriction. Our and other studies have shown that the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3 family members edit HPV genomes and restrict virus infectivity. Thus, we hypothesized that host restriction by APOBEC3 served as selective pressure during papillomavirus evolution. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the relative abundance of all dinucleotide sequences in full-length genomes of 274 papillomavirus types documented in the Papillomavirus Episteme database (PaVE). Here, we report that TC dinucleotides, the preferred target sequence of several human APOBEC3 proteins (hA3A, hA3B, hA3F, and hA3H), are highly depleted in papillomavirus genomes. Given that HPV infection is highly tissue-specific, the expression levels of APOBEC3 family members were analyzed. The basal expression levels of all APOBEC3 isoforms, excluding hA3B, are significantly higher in mucosal skin compared with cutaneous skin. Interestingly, we reveal that (alpha-PVs), a majority of which infects anogenital mucosa, display the most dramatic reduction in TC dinucleotide content. Computer modeling and reconstruction of ancestral alpha-PV genomes suggest that TC depletion occurred after the alpha-PVs diverged from their most recent common ancestor. In addition, we found that TC depletion in alpha-PVs is greatly affected by protein coding potential. Taken together, our results suggest that PVs replicating in tissues with high APOBEC3 levels may have evolved to evade restriction by selecting for variants that contain reduced APOBEC3 target sites in their genomes. 10.1093/ve/vev015
    APOBEC3A and 3C decrease human papillomavirus 16 pseudovirion infectivity. Ahasan Md Monjurul,Wakae Kousho,Wang Zhe,Kitamura Kouichi,Liu Guangyan,Koura Miki,Imayasu Mieko,Sakamoto Naoya,Hanaoka Kousei,Nakamura Mitsuhiro,Kyo Satoru,Kondo Satoru,Fujiwara Hiroshi,Yoshizaki Tomokazu,Mori Seiichiro,Kukimoto Iwao,Muramatsu Masamichi Biochemical and biophysical research communications Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) proteins are cellular DNA/RNA-editing enzymes that play pivotal roles in the innate immune response to viral infection. APOBEC3 (A3) proteins were reported to hypermutate the genome of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), the causative agent of cervical cancer. However, hypermutation did not affect viral DNA maintenance, leaving the exact role of A3 against HPV infection elusive. Here we examine whether A3 proteins affect the virion assembly using an HPV16 pseudovirion (PsV) production system, in which PsVs are assembled from its capsid proteins L1/L2 encapsidating a reporter plasmid in 293FT cells. We found that co-expression of A3A or A3C in 293FT cells greatly reduced the infectivity of PsV. The reduced infectivity of PsV assembled in the presence of A3A, but not A3C, was attributed to the decreased copy number of the encapsidated reporter plasmid. On the other hand, A3C, but not A3A, efficiently bound to L1 in co-immunoprecipitation assays, which suggests that this physical interaction may lead to reduced infectivity of PsV assembled in the presence of A3C. These results provide mechanistic insights into A3s' inhibitory effects on the assembly phase of the HPV16 virion. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.12.103
    Nucleic acid recognition orchestrates the anti-viral response to retroviruses. Stavrou Spyridon,Blouch Kristin,Kotla Swathi,Bass Antonia,Ross Susan R Cell host & microbe Intrinsic restriction factors and viral nucleic acid sensors are important for the anti-viral response. Here, we show how upstream sensing of retroviral reverse transcripts integrates with the downstream effector APOBEC3, an IFN-induced cytidine deaminase that introduces lethal mutations during retroviral reverse transcription. Using a murine leukemia virus (MLV) variant with an unstable capsid that induces a strong IFNβ antiviral response, we identify three sensors, IFI203, DDX41, and cGAS, required for MLV nucleic acid recognition. These sensors then signal using the adaptor STING, leading to increased production of IFNβ and other targets downstream of the transcription factor IRF3. Using knockout and mutant mice, we show that APOBEC3 limits the levels of reverse transcripts that trigger cytosolic sensing, and that nucleic acid sensing in vivo increases expression of IFN-regulated restriction factors like APOBEC3 that in turn reduce viral load. These studies underscore the importance of the multiple layers of protection afforded by host factors. 10.1016/j.chom.2015.02.021
    AID/APOBEC deaminases and cancer. Rebhandl Stefan,Huemer Michael,Greil Richard,Geisberger Roland Oncoscience Mutations are the basis for evolution and the development of genetic diseases. Especially in cancer, somatic mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes alongside the occurrence of passenger mutations have been observed by recent deep-sequencing approaches. While mutations have long been considered random events induced by DNA-replication errors or by DNA damaging agents, genome sequencing led to the discovery of non-random mutation signatures in many human cancer. Common non-random mutations comprise DNA strand-biased mutation showers and mutations restricted to certain DNA motifs, which recently have become attributed to the activity of the AID/APOBEC family of DNA deaminases. Hence, APOBEC enzymes, which have evolved as key players in natural and adaptive immunity, have been proposed to contribute to cancer development and clonal evolution of cancer by inducing collateral genomic damage due to their DNA deaminating activity. This review focuses on how mutagenic events through AID/APOBEC deaminases may contribute to cancer development. 10.18632/oncoscience.155
    APOBECs and virus restriction. Harris Reuben S,Dudley Jaquelin P Virology The APOBEC family of single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases comprises a formidable arm of the vertebrate innate immune system. Pre-vertebrates express a single APOBEC, whereas some mammals produce as many as 11 enzymes. The APOBEC3 subfamily displays both copy number variation and polymorphisms, consistent with ongoing pathogenic pressures. These enzymes restrict the replication of many DNA-based parasites, such as exogenous viruses and endogenous transposable elements. APOBEC1 and activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) have specialized functions in RNA editing and antibody gene diversification, respectively, whereas APOBEC2 and APOBEC4 appear to have different functions. Nevertheless, the APOBEC family protects against both periodic viral zoonoses as well as exogenous and endogenous parasite replication. This review highlights viral pathogens that are restricted by APOBEC enzymes, but manage to escape through unique mechanisms. The sensitivity of viruses that lack counterdefense measures highlights the need to develop APOBEC-enabling small molecules as a new class of anti-viral drugs. 10.1016/j.virol.2015.03.012
    The ssDNA Mutator APOBEC3A Is Regulated by Cooperative Dimerization. Bohn Markus-Frederik,Shandilya Shivender M D,Silvas Tania V,Nalivaika Ellen A,Kouno Takahide,Kelch Brian A,Ryder Sean P,Kurt-Yilmaz Nese,Somasundaran Mohan,Schiffer Celia A Structure (London, England : 1993) Deaminase activity mediated by the human APOBEC3 family of proteins contributes to genomic instability and cancer. APOBEC3A is by far the most active in this family and can cause rapid cell death when overexpressed, but in general how the activity of APOBEC3s is regulated on a molecular level is unclear. In this study, the biochemical and structural basis of APOBEC3A substrate binding and specificity is elucidated. We find that specific binding of single-stranded DNA is regulated by the cooperative dimerization of APOBEC3A. The crystal structure elucidates this homodimer as a symmetric domain swap of the N-terminal residues. This dimer interface provides insights into how cooperative protein-protein interactions may affect function in the APOBEC3 enzymes and provides a potential scaffold for strategies aimed at reducing their mutation load. 10.1016/j.str.2015.03.016
    APOBEC3 genes: retroviral restriction factors to cancer drivers. Henderson Stephen,Fenton Tim Trends in molecular medicine The APOBEC3 cytosine deaminases play key roles in innate immunity through their ability to mutagenize viral DNA and restrict viral replication. Recent advances in cancer genomics, together with biochemical characterization of the APOBEC3 enzymes, have now implicated at least two family members in somatic mutagenesis during tumor development. We review the evidence linking these enzymes to carcinogenesis and highlight key questions, including the potential mechanisms that misdirect APOBEC3 activity to the host genome, the links to viral infection, and the association between a common APOBEC3 polymorphism and cancer risk. 10.1016/j.molmed.2015.02.007
    APOBEC Enzymes: Mutagenic Fuel for Cancer Evolution and Heterogeneity. Swanton Charles,McGranahan Nicholas,Starrett Gabriel J,Harris Reuben S Cancer discovery UNLABELLED:Deep sequencing technologies are revealing the complexities of cancer evolution, casting light on mutational processes fueling tumor adaptation, immune escape, and treatment resistance. Understanding mechanisms driving cancer diversity is a critical step toward developing strategies to attenuate tumor evolution and adaptation. One emerging mechanism fueling tumor diversity and subclonal evolution is genomic DNA cytosine deamination catalyzed by APOBEC3B and at least one other APOBEC family member. Deregulation of APOBEC3 enzymes causes a general mutator phenotype that manifests as diverse and heterogeneous tumor subclones. Here, we summarize knowledge of the APOBEC DNA deaminase family in cancer, and their role as driving forces for intratumor heterogeneity and a therapeutic target to limit tumor adaptation. SIGNIFICANCE:APOBEC mutational signatures may be enriched in tumor subclones, suggesting APOBEC cytosine deaminases fuel subclonal expansions and intratumor heterogeneity. APOBEC family members might represent a new class of drug target aimed at limiting tumor evolution, adaptation, and drug resistance. 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-15-0344
    Characterization of the Catalytic Domain of Human APOBEC3B and the Critical Structural Role for a Conserved Methionine. Siriwardena Sachini U,Guruge Thisari A,Bhagwat Ashok S Journal of molecular biology Human APOBEC3B deaminates cytosines in DNA and belongs to the AID/APOBEC family of enzymes. These proteins are involved in innate and adaptive immunity and may cause mutations in a variety of cancers. To characterize its ability to convert cytosines into uracils, we tested several derivatives of APOBEC3B gene for their ability to cause mutations in Escherichia coli. Through this analysis, a methionine residue at the junction of the amino-terminal domain (NTD) and the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) was found to be essential for high mutagenicity. Properties of mutants with substitutions at this position, examination of existing molecular structures of APOBEC3 family members and molecular modeling suggest that this residue is essential for the structural stability of this family of proteins. The APOBEC3B CTD with the highest mutational activity was purified to homogeneity and its kinetic parameters were determined. Size-exclusion chromatography of the CTD monomer showed that it is in equilibrium with its dimeric form and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight analysis of the protein suggested that the dimer may be quite stable. The partially purified NTD did not show intrinsic deamination activity and did not enhance the activity of the CTD in biochemical assays. Finally, APOBEC3B was at least 10-fold less efficient at mutating 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to thymine than APOBEC3A in a genetic assay and was at least 10-fold less efficient at deaminating 5mC compared to C in biochemical assays. These results shed light on the structural organization of APOBEC3B catalytic domain, its substrate specificity and its possible role in causing genome-wide mutations. 10.1016/j.jmb.2015.08.006
    Guardian of the Human Genome: Host Defense Mechanisms against LINE-1 Retrotransposition. Ariumi Yasuo Frontiers in chemistry Long interspersed element type 1 (LINE-1, L1) is a mobile genetic element comprising about 17% of the human genome, encoding a newly identified ORF0 with unknown function, ORF1p with RNA-binding activity and ORF2p with endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities required for L1 retrotransposition. L1 utilizes an endonuclease (EN) to insert L1 cDNA into target DNA, which induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is activated by DSBs and subsequently the ATM-signaling pathway plays a role in regulating L1 retrotransposition. In addition, the host DNA repair machinery such as non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway is also involved in L1 retrotransposition. On the other hand, L1 is an insertional mutagenic agent, which contributes to genetic change, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Indeed, high-throughput sequencing-based approaches identified numerous tumor-specific somatic L1 insertions in variety of cancers, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In fact, L1 retrotransposition seems to be a potential factor to reduce the tumor suppressive property in HCC. Furthermore, recent study demonstrated that a specific viral-human chimeric transcript, HBx-L1, contributes to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC. In contrast, host cells have evolved several defense mechanisms protecting cells against retrotransposition including epigenetic regulation through DNA methylation and host defense factors, such as APOBEC3, MOV10, and SAMHD1, which restrict L1 mobility as a guardian of the human genome. In this review, I focus on somatic L1 insertions into the human genome in cancers and host defense mechanisms against deleterious L1 insertions. 10.3389/fchem.2016.00028
    Hypermutation in the E2 gene of human papillomavirus type 16 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Kukimoto Iwao,Mori Seiichiro,Aoyama Satoru,Wakae Kousho,Muramatsu Masamichi,Kondo Kazunari Journal of medical virology Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer. However, viral genetic changes during cervical carcinogenesis are not fully understood. Recent studies have revealed the presence of adenine/thymine-clustered hypermutation in the long control region of the HPV16 genome in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions, and suggested that apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) proteins, which play a key role in innate immunity against retroviral infection, potentially introduce such hypermutation. This study reports for the first time the detection of adenine/thymine-clustered hypermutation in the E2 gene of HPV16 isolated from clinical specimens with low- and high-grade CIN lesions (CIN1/3). Differential DNA denaturation PCR, which utilizes lower denaturation temperatures to selectively amplify adenine/thymine-rich DNA, identified clusters of adenine/thymine mutations in the E2 gene in 4 of 11 CIN1 (36.4%), and 6 of 27 CIN3 (22.2%) samples. Interestingly, the number of mutations per sample was higher in CIN3 than in CIN1. Although the relevance of E2 hypermutation in cervical carcinogenesis remains unclear, the observed hypermutation patterns strongly imply involvement of APOBEC3 proteins in editing the HPV16 genome during natural viral infection. 10.1002/jmv.24215
    Detection of hypermutated human papillomavirus type 16 genome by Next-Generation Sequencing. Wakae Kousho,Aoyama Satoru,Wang Zhe,Kitamura Kouichi,Liu Guangyan,Monjurul Ahasan Md,Koura Miki,Imayasu Mieko,Sakamoto Naoya,Nakamura Mitsuhiro,Kyo Satoru,Kondo Satoru,Fujiwara Hiroshi,Yoshizaki Tomokazu,Kukimoto Iwao,Yamaguchi Katsushi,Shigenobu Shuji,Nishiyama Tomoaki,Muramatsu Masamichi Virology Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is a major cause of cervical cancer. We previously demonstrated that C-to-T and G-to-A hypermutations accumulated in the HPV16 genome by APOBEC3 expression in vitro. To investigate in vivo characteristics of hypermutation, differential DNA denaturation-PCR (3D-PCR) was performed using three clinical specimens obtained from HPV16-positive cervical dysplasia, and detected hypermutation from two out of three specimens. One sample accumulating hypermutations in both E2 and the long control region (LCR) was further subjected to Next-Generation Sequencing, revealing that hypermutations spread across the LCR and all early genes. Notably, hypermutation was more frequently observed in the LCR, which contains a viral replication origin and the early promoter. APOBEC3 expressed abundantly in an HPV16-positive cervix, suggesting that single-stranded DNA exposed during viral replication and transcription may be efficient targets for deamination. The results further strengthen a role of APOBEC3 in introducing HPV16 hypermutation in vivo. 10.1016/j.virol.2015.08.017
    APOBEC3 Proteins in Viral Immunity. Stavrou Spyridon,Ross Susan R Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) Apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 family members are cytidine deaminases that play important roles in intrinsic responses to infection by retroviruses and have been implicated in the control of other viruses, such as parvoviruses, herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, and retrotransposons. Although their direct effect on modification of viral DNA has been clearly demonstrated, whether they play additional roles in innate and adaptive immunity to viruses is less clear. We review the data regarding the various steps in the innate and adaptive immune response to virus infection in which apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 proteins have been implicated. 10.4049/jimmunol.1501504
    APOBEC3 in papillomavirus restriction, evolution and cancer progression. Warren Cody J,Pyeon Dohun Oncotarget 10.18632/oncotarget.6324
    APOBEC3A damages the cellular genome during DNA replication. Green Abby M,Landry Sébastien,Budagyan Konstantin,Avgousti Daphne C,Shalhout Sophia,Bhagwat Ashok S,Weitzman Matthew D Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) The human APOBEC3 family of DNA-cytosine deaminases comprises 7 members (A3A-A3H) that act on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The APOBEC3 proteins function within the innate immune system by mutating DNA of viral genomes and retroelements to restrict infection and retrotransposition. Recent evidence suggests that APOBEC3 enzymes can also cause damage to the cellular genome. Mutational patterns consistent with APOBEC3 activity have been identified by bioinformatic analysis of tumor genome sequences. These mutational signatures include clusters of base substitutions that are proposed to occur due to APOBEC3 deamination. It has been suggested that transiently exposed ssDNA segments provide substrate for APOBEC3 deamination leading to mutation signatures within the genome. However, the mechanisms that produce single-stranded substrates for APOBEC3 deamination in mammalian cells have not been demonstrated. We investigated ssDNA at replication forks as a substrate for APOBEC3 deamination. We found that APOBEC3A (A3A) expression leads to DNA damage in replicating cells but this is reduced in quiescent cells. Upon A3A expression, cycling cells activate the DNA replication checkpoint and undergo cell cycle arrest. Additionally, we find that replication stress leaves cells vulnerable to A3A-induced DNA damage. We propose a model to explain A3A-induced damage to the cellular genome in which cytosine deamination at replication forks and other ssDNA substrates results in mutations and DNA breaks. This model highlights the risk of mutagenesis by A3A expression in replicating progenitor cells, and supports the emerging hypothesis that APOBEC3 enzymes contribute to genome instability in human tumors. 10.1080/15384101.2016.1152426
    APOBEC3G Expression Correlates with T-Cell Infiltration and Improved Clinical Outcomes in High-grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma. Leonard Brandon,Starrett Gabriel J,Maurer Matthew J,Oberg Ann L,Van Bockstal Mieke,Van Dorpe Jo,De Wever Olivier,Helleman Jozien,Sieuwerts Anieta M,Berns Els M J J,Martens John W M,Anderson Brett D,Brown William L,Kalli Kimberly R,Kaufmann Scott H,Harris Reuben S Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:APOBEC3 DNA cytosine deaminase family members normally defend against viruses and transposons. However, deregulated APOBEC3 activity causes mutations in cancer. Because of broad expression profiles and varying mixtures of normal and cancer cells in tumors, including immune cell infiltration, it is difficult to determine where different APOBEC3s are expressed. Here, we ask whether correlations exist between APOBEC3 expression and T-cell infiltration in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), and assess whether these correlations have prognostic value. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Transcripts for APOBEC3G, APOBEC3B, and the T-cell markers, CD3D, CD4, CD8A, GZMB, PRF1, and RNF128 were quantified by RT-qPCR for a cohort of 354 HGSOC patients. Expression values were correlated with each other and clinical parameters. Two additional cohorts were used to extend HGSOC clinical results. Immunoimaging was used to colocalize APOBEC3G and the T-cell marker CD3. TCGA data extended expression analyses to additional cancer types. RESULTS:A surprising positive correlation was found for expression of APOBEC3G and several T cell genes in HGSOC. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent imaging showed protein colocalization in tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes. High APOBEC3G expression correlated with improved outcomes in multiple HGSOC cohorts. TCGA data analyses revealed that expression of APOBEC3D and APOBEC3H also correlates with CD3D across multiple cancer types. CONCLUSIONS:Our results identify APOBEC3G as a new candidate biomarker for tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes and favorable prognoses for HGSOC. Our data also highlight the complexity of the tumor environment with respect to differential APOBEC family gene expression in both tumor and surrounding normal cell types. Clin Cancer Res; 22(18); 4746-55. ©2016 AACR. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2910
    DNA replication stress mediates APOBEC3 family mutagenesis in breast cancer. Kanu Nnennaya,Cerone Maria Antonietta,Goh Gerald,Zalmas Lykourgos-Panagiotis,Bartkova Jirina,Dietzen Michelle,McGranahan Nicholas,Rogers Rebecca,Law Emily K,Gromova Irina,Kschischo Maik,Walton Michael I,Rossanese Olivia W,Bartek Jiri,Harris Reuben S,Venkatesan Subramanian,Swanton Charles Genome biology BACKGROUND:The APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases mutate the cancer genome in a range of cancer types. Although many studies have documented the downstream effects of APOBEC3 activity through next-generation sequencing, less is known about their upstream regulation. In this study, we sought to identify a molecular basis for APOBEC3 expression and activation. RESULTS:HER2 amplification and PTEN loss promote DNA replication stress and APOBEC3B activity in vitro and correlate with APOBEC3 mutagenesis in vivo. HER2-enriched breast carcinomas display evidence of elevated levels of replication stress-associated DNA damage in vivo. Chemical and cytotoxic induction of replication stress, through aphidicolin, gemcitabine, camptothecin or hydroxyurea exposure, activates transcription of APOBEC3B via an ATR/Chk1-dependent pathway in vitro. APOBEC3B activation can be attenuated through repression of oncogenic signalling, small molecule inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase signalling and alleviation of replication stress through nucleoside supplementation. CONCLUSION:These data link oncogene, loss of tumour suppressor gene and drug-induced replication stress with APOBEC3B activity, providing new insights into how cytidine deaminase-induced mutagenesis might be activated in tumourigenesis and limited therapeutically. 10.1186/s13059-016-1042-9
    Analysis of APOBEC3A/3B germline deletion polymorphism in breast, cervical and oral cancers from South India and its impact on miRNA regulation. Revathidevi Sundaramoorthy,Manikandan Mayakannan,Rao Arunagiri Kuha Deva Magendhra,Vinothkumar Vilvanathan,Arunkumar Ganesan,Rajkumar Kottayasamy Seenivasagam,Ramani Rajendran,Rajaraman Ramamurthy,Ajay Chandrasekar,Munirajan Arasambattu Kannan Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine Breast cancer and cervical cancer are the leading causes of death in women worldwide as well as in India, whilst oral cancer is the top most common cancer among Asian especially in Indian men in terms of both incidence and mortality rate. Genetic factors determining the predisposition to cancer are being explored to identify the signature genetic variations associated with these cancers. Recently, a germline deletion polymorphism in APOBEC3 gene cluster which completely deletes APOBEC3B coding region has been studied for its association with cancer risk. We screened the germline deletion polymorphism in 409 cancer patients (224 breast cancer, 88 cervical cancer and 97 oral cancer samples), 478 controls and 239 cervical cancer tissue DNAs of South Indian origin. The results suggest that the APOBEC3A/3B deletion polymorphism is not significantly associated with cancer risk in our study population (OR 0.739, 95 % CI, p value 0.91457). Considering the viral restriction property of APOBEC3s, we also screened cervical cancer tissue DNAs for the human papilloma virus infection. We observed a gradual increase in the frequency of HPV16 infection from AA/BB cases (66.86 %) to AA/-- cases (71.43) which signifies the impact of this deletion polymorphism in HPV infection. In addition, we performed in silico analysis to understand the effect of this polymorphism on miRNA regulation of the APOBEC3A/3B fusion transcript. Only 8 APOBEC3B targeting miRNAs were observed to regulate the fusion transcript of which miR-34b-3p and miR-138-5p were found to be frequently downregulated in cancers suggesting miRNA-mediated deregulation of APOBEC3A expression in cancer patients harbouring this particular deletion polymorphism. 10.1007/s13277-016-5064-4
    Association of germline variants in the APOBEC3 region with cancer risk and enrichment with APOBEC-signature mutations in tumors. Middlebrooks Candace D,Banday A Rouf,Matsuda Konichi,Udquim Krizia-Ivana,Onabajo Olusegun O,Paquin Ashley,Figueroa Jonine D,Zhu Bin,Koutros Stella,Kubo Michiaki,Shuin Taro,Freedman Neal D,Kogevinas Manolis,Malats Nuria,Chanock Stephen J,Garcia-Closas Montserrat,Silverman Debra T,Rothman Nathaniel,Prokunina-Olsson Ludmila Nature genetics High rates of APOBEC-signature mutations are found in many tumors, but factors affecting this mutation pattern are not well understood. Here we explored the contribution of two common germline variants in the APOBEC3 region. SNP rs1014971 was associated with bladder cancer risk, increased APOBEC3B expression, and enrichment with APOBEC-signature mutations in bladder tumors. In contrast, a 30-kb deletion that eliminates APOBEC3B and creates an APOBEC3A-APOBEC3B chimera was not important in bladder cancer, whereas it was associated with breast cancer risk and enrichment with APOBEC-signature mutations in breast tumors. In vitro, APOBEC3B expression was predominantly induced by treatment with a DNA-damaging drug in bladder cancer cell lines, and APOBEC3A expression was induced as part of the antiviral interferon-stimulated response in breast cancer cell lines. These findings suggest a tissue-specific role of environmental oncogenic triggers, particularly in individuals with germline APOBEC3 risk variants. 10.1038/ng.3670
    APOBEC3 deletion increases the risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Han Yali,Qi Qichao,He Qin,Sun Meili,Wang Shuyun,Zhou Guanzhou,Sun Yuping Oncotarget Recently, a deletion in the human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) gene cluster has been associated with a modest increased risk of breast cancer, but studies yielded inconsistent results. Therefore we performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise conclusion. Six studies including 18241 subjects were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases from inception to April 2016. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were evaluated under allele contrast, dominant, recessive, homozygous, and heterozygous models. All the analyses suggested a correlation of APOBEC3 deletion with increased breast cancer risk (D vs I: OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.23-1.36; D/D+I/D vs I/I: OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.26-1.43; D/D vs I/D+ I/I: OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.36-1.68; D/D vs I/I: OR = 1.75, 95% CI= 1.56-1.95; I/D vs I/I: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.19-1.36). Stratified analysis by ethnicity showed that the relationship is stronger and more stable in Asians. In summary, our current work indicated that APOBEC3 copy number variations might have a good screening accuracy for breast cancer. 10.18632/oncotarget.11792
    Functions and Malfunctions of Mammalian DNA-Cytosine Deaminases. Siriwardena Sachini U,Chen Kang,Bhagwat Ashok S Chemical reviews The AID/APOBEC family enzymes convert cytosines in single-stranded DNA to uracils, causing base substitutions and strand breaks. They are induced by cytokines produced during the body's inflammatory response to infections, and they help combat infections through diverse mechanisms. AID is essential for the maturation of antibodies and causes mutations and deletions in antibody genes through somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) processes. One member of the APOBEC family, APOBEC1, edits mRNA for a protein involved in lipid transport. Members of the APOBEC3 subfamily in humans (APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, APOBEC3C, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H) inhibit infections of viruses such as HIV-1, HBV, and HCV, and retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements through mutagenic and nonmutagenic mechanisms. There is emerging consensus that these enzymes can cause mutations in the cellular genome at replication forks or within transcription bubbles depending on the physiological state of the cell and the phase of the cell cycle during which they are expressed. We describe here the state of knowledge about the structures of these enzymes, regulation of their expression, and both the advantageous and deleterious consequences of their expression, including carcinogenesis. We highlight similarities among them and present a holistic view of their regulation and function. 10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00296
    Roles of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B in Human Papillomavirus Infection and Disease Progression. Warren Cody J,Westrich Joseph A,Doorslaer Koenraad Van,Pyeon Dohun Viruses The apolipoprotein B messenger RNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) family of cytidine deaminases plays an important role in the innate immune response to viral infections by editing viral genomes. However, the cytidine deaminase activity of APOBEC3 enzymes also induces somatic mutations in host genomes, which may drive cancer progression. Recent studies of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease outcome highlight this duality. HPV infection is potently inhibited by one family member, APOBEC3A. Expression of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B is highly elevated by the HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 during persistent virus infection and disease progression. Furthermore, there is a high prevalence of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B mutation signatures in HPV-associated cancers. These findings suggest that induction of an APOBEC3-mediated antiviral response during HPV infection may inadvertently contribute to cancer mutagenesis and virus evolution. Here, we discuss current understanding of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B biology in HPV restriction, evolution, and associated cancer mutagenesis. 10.3390/v9080233
    APOBEC3A is an oral cancer prognostic biomarker in Taiwanese carriers of an APOBEC deletion polymorphism. Chen Ting-Wen,Lee Chi-Ching,Liu Hsuan,Wu Chi-Sheng,Pickering Curtis R,Huang Po-Jung,Wang Jing,Chang Ian Yi-Feng,Yeh Yuan-Ming,Chen Chih-De,Li Hsin-Pai,Luo Ji-Dung,Tan Bertrand Chin-Ming,Chan Timothy En Haw,Hsueh Chuen,Chu Lichieh Julie,Chen Yi-Ting,Zhang Bing,Yang Chia-Yu,Wu Chih-Ching,Hsu Chia-Wei,See Lai-Chu,Tang Petrus,Yu Jau-Song,Liao Wei-Chao,Chiang Wei-Fan,Rodriguez Henry,Myers Jeffrey N,Chang Kai-Ping,Chang Yu-Sun Nature communications Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a prominent cancer worldwide, particularly in Taiwan. By integrating omics analyses in 50 matched samples, we uncover in Taiwanese patients a predominant mutation signature associated with cytidine deaminase APOBEC, which correlates with the upregulation of APOBEC3A expression in the APOBEC3 gene cluster at 22q13. APOBEC3A expression is significantly higher in tumors carrying APOBEC3B-deletion allele(s). High-level APOBEC3A expression is associated with better overall survival, especially among patients carrying APOBEC3B-deletion alleles, as examined in a second cohort (n = 188; p = 0.004). The frequency of APOBEC3B-deletion alleles is ~50% in 143 genotyped oral squamous cell carcinoma -Taiwan samples (27A3B :89A3B :27A3B ), compared to the 5.8% found in 314 OSCC-TCGA samples. We thus report a frequent APOBEC mutational profile, which relates to a APOBEC3B-deletion germline polymorphism in Taiwanese oral squamous cell carcinoma that impacts expression of APOBEC3A, and is shown to be of clinical prognostic relevance. Our finding might be recapitulated by genomic studies in other cancer types.Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a prevalent malignancy in Taiwan. Here, the authors show that OSCC in Taiwanese show a frequent deletion polymorphism in the cytidine deaminases gene cluster APOBEC3 resulting in increased expression of A3A, which is shown to be of clinical prognostic relevance. 10.1038/s41467-017-00493-9
    The curious case of APOBEC3 activation by cancer-associated human papillomaviruses. Wallace Nicholas A,Münger Karl PLoS pathogens 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006717
    Detection of APOBEC3 Proteins and Catalytic Activity in Urothelial Carcinoma. Jaguva Vasudevan Ananda Ayyappan,Goering Wolfgang,Häussinger Dieter,Münk Carsten Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of enzymes were shown to act in an oncogenic manner in several cancer types. Immunodetection of APOBEC3A (A3A), APOBEC3B (A3B), and APOBEC3G (A3G) proteins is particularly challenging due to the large sequence homology of these proteins and limited availability of antibodies. Here we combine independent immunoblotting with an in vitro activity assay technique, to detect and categorize specific A3s expressed in urothelial bladder cancer and other cancer cells. 10.1007/978-1-4939-7234-0_8