logo logo
Exploration of the Association Between Sucking Measures and Ability to Attain Independent Oral Feeds Among Infants Who Are Born Preterm. The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association IMPORTANCE:Infants who are born preterm often experience difficulty transitioning from full tube to independent oral feeds, which often prolongs their hospital stay. No clinical measures associated with attainment of independent oral feeds are currently available. OBJECTIVE:To identify specific nutritive sucking measures associated with time to attainment of independent oral feeds among infants who are born preterm. DESIGN:An observational cohort pilot study was undertaken. SETTING:A Level 2 to Level 3 neonatal intensive care unit. PARTICIPANTS:Fourteen infants (7 male, 7 female) born at or less than 34 wk gestation were enrolled. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:The monitored suck measures included average suck strength (millimeters of mercury), average sucking burst duration (seconds), average suck count (number of sucks), and average pause duration (seconds). Time to independent oral feeds (days) and baseline characteristics were also monitored. The nutritive sucking measures were recorded once, during the first 5 min of an oral feed, when infants were taking an average of three to four oral feeds per day using a nipple monitoring device. RESULTS:An inverse relation was found among average suck burst duration (p = .04), gestational age (p = .03), and days to attainment of independent oral feeds. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Study results suggest that average sucking burst duration, during the first 5 min of an oral feed, is associated with time to attain independent oral feeds. Plain-Language Summary: Sucking burst duration is a simple measure that may be used clinically to identify early on infants who may have trouble transitioning from full tube to independent oral feedings. The results of this study suggest that a suck burst duration in the first 5 min of an oral feeding is inversely associated with the length of time to achieve independent oral feeding. The results highlight the importance of considering an infant's nutritive sucking ability when evaluating their potential to achieve independent oral feedings. 10.5014/ajot.2024.050581
Early Intervention to Improve Sucking in Preterm Newborns: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies. Grassi Angela,Sgherri Giada,Chorna Olena,Marchi Viviana,Gagliardi Luigi,Cecchi Francesca,Laschi Cecilia,Guzzetta Andrea Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses BACKGROUND:Premature birth is associated with feeding difficulties due to inadequate coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing. Nonnutritive sucking (NNS) and oral stimulation interventions may be effective for oral feeding promotion, but the mechanisms of the intervention effects need further clarifications. PURPOSE:We reviewed preterm infant intervention studies with quantitative outcomes of sucking performance to summarize the evidence of the effect of interventions on specific components of sucking. METHODS:PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PSYCOLIST databases were searched for English language publications through August 2017. Studies were selected if they involved preterm infants, tested experimental interventions to improve sucking or oral feeding skills, and included outcome as an objective measure of sucking performance. Specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms were utilized. RESULTS:Nineteen studies were included in this review: 15 randomized, 1 quasi-randomized, and 3 crossover randomized controlled trials. Intervention types were grouped into 6 categories (i) NNS, (ii) NNS with auditory reinforcement, (iii) sensorimotor stimulation, (iv) oral support, (v) combined training, and (vi) nutritive sucking. Efficiency parameters were positively influenced by most types of interventions, though appear to be less affected by trainings based on NNS alone. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:These findings may be useful in the clinical care of infants requiring support to achieve efficient sucking skills through NNS and oral stimulation interventions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH:Further studies including quantitative measures of sucking performance outcome measures are needed in order to best understand the needs and provide more tailored interventions to preterm infants. 10.1097/ANC.0000000000000543
Clinical validation of the Preterm Oral Feeding Readiness Assessment Scale. Fujinaga Cristina Ide,de Moraes Suzana Alves,Zamberlan-Amorim Nelma Ellen,Castral Thaíla Corrêa,de Almeida e Silva Andreara,Scochi Carmen Gracinda Silvan Revista latino-americana de enfermagem INTRODUCTION:Health professionals have great difficulties to establish the adequate and safe time to start breast feeding in preterm infants. There is a need to develop a standardized tool to help health professionals to comprehensively evaluate preterm infant readiness to transition preterm infants' feeding from gastric to oral, and encourage breast feeding practice in neonatal units. AIMS:To clinical validate the accuracy of a Preterm Oral Feeding Readiness Assessment Scale with 60 clinically stable preterm infants. METHODS:Global accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of Preterm Oral Feeding Readiness Assessment Scale cut-offs, compared to milk intake through translactation, were estimated through ROC curves (Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves). RESULTS:The global accuracy of Preterm Oral Feeding Readiness Assessment Scale was 74.38%. The highest sensitivity and specificity were obtained for three cut-offs: 28, 29 and 30. Since higher specificity (75.68%) for the Preterm Oral Feeding Readiness Assessment Scale was found at a score cut-off=of 30 showed higher specificity (75.68%), it should be used as a cut-off score to select initiate breastfeeding the preterm newborns' oral feeding readiness. CONCLUSION:The Preterm Oral Feeding Readiness Assessment Scale is considered valid to assist health professionals to initiate preterm feeding in view of promoting safe and objective breastfeeding. 10.1590/s0104-11692013000700018
Infant-Guided, Co-Regulated Feeding in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Part I: Theoretical Underpinnings for Neuroprotection and Safety. Shaker Catherine S Seminars in speech and language The rapid progress in medical and technical innovations in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has been accompanied by concern for outcomes of NICU graduates. Although advances in neonatal care have led to significant changes in survival rates of very small and extremely preterm neonates, early feeding difficulties with the transition from tube feeding to oral feeding are prominent and often persist beyond discharge to home. Progress in learning to feed in the NICU and continued growth in feeding skills after the NICU may be closely tied to fostering neuroprotection and safety. The experience of learning to feed in the NICU may predispose preterm neonates to feeding problems that persist. Neonatal feeding as an area of specialized clinical practice has grown considerably in the last decade. This article is the first in a two-part series devoted to neonatal feeding. Part 1 explores factors in NICU feeding experiences that may serve to constrain or promote feeding skill development, not only in the NICU but long after discharge to home. Part II describes approaches to intervention that support neuroprotection and safety. 10.1055/s-0037-1599107
The Effects of Non-Nutritive Sucking and Pre-Feeding Oral Stimulation on Time to Achieve Independent Oral Feeding for Preterm Infants. Asadollahpour Faezeh,Yadegari Fariba,Soleimani Farin,Khalesi Nasrin Iranian journal of pediatrics BACKGROUND:The survival rates of preterm infants has increased over the last years, but oral feeding difficulties are the most common problems encountered by them. OBJECTIVES:This study aimed at comparing the effects of non-nutritive sucking (NNS) and pre-feeding oral stimulation on feeding skills, length of hospital stay and weight gain of 26-32 weeks gestational age preterm infants in NICU, to determine the more effective intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Thirty-two preterm infants were assigned randomly into three groups. One intervention group received pre-feeding oral stimulation program and the other received non-nutritive sucking stimulation, while the control group received a sham intervention. Gestational age of infants was calculated during 1, 4 and 8 oral feeding and discharge time from NICU. The infants' weights were measured weekly from birth and at discharge time. RESULTS:Mean gestational age on 8 time oral feeding per day, in 3 groups was not significant (P = 0.282). Although NNS and pre-feeding oral stimulation groups has fulfilled this criterion 7.55 and 6.07 days sooner than the control group, respectively (a result which is of great clinical and economic importance), but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Weight gaining at discharge time in NNS group was significantly higher than control and pre-feeding oral stimulation groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:This study revealed that pre-feeding oral stimulation and NNS programs both were effective on oral feeding skills and weight gaining of the immature newborns. Yet, it seems that NNS program was more effective than pre-feeding oral stimulation on weight gaining. 10.5812/ijp.25(3)2015.809
Feeding Problems Score and Its Related Factors in Two-Year-Old Children Born Very-Preterm and Full-Term. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research BACKGROUND:Many very-preterm infants have difficulty in oral feeding during the first months of life after discharge. Since studies surveying the presence of feeding problems after the first year of life are limited and cultural/psychosocial differences can affect results, so the aim of this study was to compare scores of a feeding problems test between very-preterm and full-term born children at the age of 2 and study the relationship between obtained scores and explanatory variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This is a retrospective descriptive-analytic study conducted in 2014 in Semnan city of Iran. Thirty-eight 2-year-old children with the history of very-preterm birth were selected by census sampling method and 38 full-term babies born in the same hospital were selected randomly. The Iranian version of Lewinhson Feeding Disorders questionnaire was used and the relationship between explanatory variables and the total score of the questionnaire was surveyed in each group by Mann-Whitney and linear regression tests. RESULTS:Mean (SD) gestational age and weight of birth were 30.47 (1.63) weeks and 1630 (310) grams respectively in the very-preterm group. Feeding scores were not significantly higher in very-preterm babies, neither in total score ( > 0.05) nor in subtests. A relationship was just found between total feeding score and female gender both in the exposed group (β = -0.36, = 0.01) and non-exposed group (β = -0.49, = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS:Two-year-old children born very preterm did not have higher feeding problems scores than full-term born peers. Male gender was related to more feeding problems at 2 years of age. 10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_158_18
Prevalence of Early Feeding Alterations Among Preterm Infants and Their Relationship to Early Neurobehavior. The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association IMPORTANCE:Feeding difficulties are common among preterm infants during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. Although most preterm infants achieve full oral feeding by term-equivalent age, whether feeding difficulties persist despite the infant taking full volume and whether these difficulties may relate to other neurobehavioral challenges remain unclear. OBJECTIVE:To identify the prevalence of feeding problems among preterm infants and the relationships between infant feeding behaviors and neurobehavior at term-equivalent age. DESIGN:Cohort study. SETTING:Level 4 NICU with 85 beds. PARTICIPANTS:Thirty-nine very preterm infants born ≤32 wk gestation (range = 22-32 wk). Exclusion criteria were congenital anomalies, >32 wk gestation at birth, and lack of feeding or neurobehavioral assessment at term-equivalent age. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Standardized feeding assessments using the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment and standardized neurobehavioral evaluation using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. RESULTS:Thirty-nine infants (21 female) were included in the final analysis. The mean Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment score was 66.6 (SD = 13.3). At term-equivalent age, 10 infants (26%) demonstrated feeding challenges, 21 (54%) demonstrated questionable feeding issues, and 8 (21%) demonstrated normal feeding performance. Lower Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment scores (poorer feeding performance) at term-equivalent age were associated with more suboptimal reflexes (p = .04) and hypotonia (p < .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Feeding challenges and questionable feeding performance were prevalent among preterm infants at term-equivalent age and appeared in conjunction with suboptimal reflexes and hypotonia. Understanding this finding enables therapists to take a holistic approach to addressing feeding difficulties. What This Article Adds: Elucidating the relationships between feeding performance and neurobehavior during the neonatal period allows for a better understanding of potential contributors to early feeding challenges and identifies targets for intervention. 10.5014/ajot.2023.050123
Feeding Methods at Discharge Predict Long-Term Feeding and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Preterm Infants Referred for Gastrostomy Evaluation. Jadcherla Sudarshan R,Khot Tanvi,Moore Rebecca,Malkar Manish,Gulati Ish K,Slaughter Jonathan L The Journal of pediatrics OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that oral feeding at first neonatal intensive care unit discharge is associated with less neurodevelopmental impairment and better feeding milestones compared with discharge with a gastrostomy tube (G-tube). STUDY DESIGN:We studied outcomes for a retrospective cohort of 194 neonates <37 weeks' gestation referred for evaluation and management of feeding difficulties between July 2006 and July 2012. Discharge milestones, length of hospitalization, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition scores at 18-24 months were examined. χ, Mann-Whitney U, or t tests and multivariable logistic regression models were used. RESULTS:A total of 60% (n = 117) of infants were discharged on oral feedings; of these, 96% remained oral-fed at 1 year. The remaining 40% (n = 77) were discharged on G-tube feedings; of these, 31 (40%) remained G-tube dependent, 17 (22%) became oral-fed, and 29 (38%) were on oral and G-tube feedings at 1 year. Infants discharged on a G-tube had lower cognitive (P <.01), communication (P = .03), and motor (P <.01) composite scores. The presence of a G-tube, younger gestation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or intraventricular hemorrhage was associated significantly with neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSIONS:For infants referred for feeding concerns, G-tube evaluations, and feeding management, the majority did not require a G-tube. Full oral feeding at first neonatal intensive care unit discharge was associated with superior feeding milestones and less long-term neurodevelopmental impairment, relative to full or partial G-tube feeding. Evaluation and feeding management before and after G-tube placement may improve long-term feeding and neurodevelopmental outcomes. 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.10.065
Impact of a nurse education programme on oral feeding in a neonatal unit. Nursing in critical care BACKGROUND:Premature neonates often experience feeding difficulties during their hospital stay, and evidence-based interventions have been shown to improve feeding outcomes. AIM:This study investigated whether an infant-cue based nurse educational feeding bundle accelerates the achievement of independent oral feeding in neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit. STUDY DESIGN:A quality improvement study with a pre, during and post intervention test design. All premature neonates admitted to the unit were eligible. The feeding programme included a four-month nurse training module and nurse coaching. RESULTS:A hundred and twenty-five nurses or nurse assistants attended the programme and 706 neonates were included. The median time to independent oral feeding (IOF) was 40, 36 and 37 days, respectively, for pre, during and post intervention. The reduction in time to IOF observed during the post-intervention period compared with the baseline period was significant (HR = 1.32, CI 95%: 1.01-1.74). No difference was noted in the length of hospital stay between the three study periods. CONCLUSIONS:An infant-cue based nurse educational feeding bundle can promote earlier achievement of IOF in preterm neonates. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:This quality improvement study demonstrates the impact that a nurse-driven intervention in neonatal care can have on improving practice. Feeding interventions involve the early introduction of oral feeding, non-nutritive sucking (NNS), and oral motor stimulation, and should be individualized for each neonate. These individualized feeding interventions applied by all nurses and assistant nurses, can facilitate the achievement of earlier independent oral feeding in preterm infants and should be included in neonatal critical care nurse education programs. 10.1111/nicc.12840
Impact of Oral Sensory Motor Stimulation on Feeding Performance, Length of Hospital Stay, and Weight Gain of Preterm Infants in NICU. Younesian Sharife,Yadegari Fariba,Soleimani Farin Iranian Red Crescent medical journal BACKGROUND:One of the limiting factors for early hospital discharge in preterm infants is their inability to feed sufficiently to obtain consistent weight gain. Therefore, feeding difficulty is one of the most significant issues with which a preterm infant is faced. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of oral sensory motor stimulation on feeding performance, length of hospital stay, and weight gain in preterm infants at 30 - 32 weeks of gestational age. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Premature infants (n = 20) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received oral sensory motor stimulation of the oral structures (15 minutes / day) for 10 successive days, while these stimulations were not offered to the control group. Days elapsed to achieve oral feeding, length of hospital stay, and weight gain in the two groups were assessed. RESULTS:Transition to oral feeding was acquired significantly earlier in the infants in the experimental group than in the controls: 13 and 26 days, respectively (P < 0.001). Likewise, the length of hospitalization was significantly shorter in the experimental group than in the control group: 32 days and 38 days, correspondingly (P < 0.05). The two groups showed no significant difference in terms of weight gain in the first, second, third, and fourth weeks of birth: first week: 100 vs. 110; second week: 99 vs. 111; third week: 120 vs. 135; and fourth week: 129 vs. 140. CONCLUSIONS:The present research revealed that the number of days to reach oral feeding in our preterm babies was decreased by oral motor stimulation, which in turn conferred earlier hospital discharge. 10.5812/ircmj.17(5)2015.13515
Usefulness of the Infant Driven Scale in the early identification of preterm infants at risk for delayed oral feeding independency. Giannì Maria Lorella,Sannino Patrizio,Bezze Elena,Plevani Laura,Esposito Chiara,Muscolo Salvatore,Roggero Paola,Mosca Fabio Early human development BACKGROUND:Very preterm infants frequently experience difficulties in achieving feeding independency. The availability of feeding assessment instruments has been recommended to evaluate an infant's readiness for oral feeding and enable preterm infants' caregivers to document each infant's feeding readiness and advancements. AIMS:To investigate the implementation of the Infant Driven Scale in neonatal intensive care units and to identify a cut off value associated with delayed feeding independency. STUDY DESIGN:Prospective, observational, single-centre study. SUBJECTS:A total of 47 infants born at a gestational age≤32weeks, consecutively admitted to a tertiary neonatal unit between July 2015 and March 2016. OUTCOMES MEASURES:The infant's feeding readiness and the postmenstrual age at achievement of feeding independency. RESULTS:Mean postmenstrual age at feeding independency was 35.6±1.34weeks. A linear regression analysis showed that a score≤8 at 32weeks of postmenstrual age was associated with a delay of 1.8weeks in achieving feeding independency. CONCLUSION:The Infant Driven Scale appears to be a useful additional instrument for the assessment of preterm infants' oral feeding readiness and the early identification of the infants at risk for delayed feeding independency. 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2017.08.008
Factors associated with feeding difficulties in the very preterm infant. Crapnell T L,Rogers C E,Neil J J,Inder T E,Woodward L J,Pineda R G Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) AIM:To investigate early medical and family factors associated with later feeding risk in preterm infants. METHODS:For this longitudinal study, 136 infants born ≤30 weeks gestation were enrolled. Medical and social background factors were assessed at term equivalent age. Infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging, neurobehavioral evaluation and feeding assessment. Parent involvement in the neonatal intensive care unit was tracked, and maternal mental health was assessed at neonatal intensive care unit discharge. At age 2 years, feeding outcome was assessed using the Eating Subscale of the Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (n = 80). Associations between feeding problems at age 2 years and (i) early medical factors, (ii) neurobehavioral functioning and feeding at term equivalent age, (iii) cerebral structure and (iv) maternal mental health were investigated using regression. RESULTS:Eighteen (23%) children had feeding problems at age 2 years. Feeding problems were associated with early hypotonia (p = 0.03; β = 0.29) and lower socio-economic status (p = 0.046; β = -0.22). No associations were observed between early medical factors, early feeding performance, cerebral structure alterations or maternal well-being and feeding outcome. CONCLUSION:Early hypotonia may disrupt the development of oral-motor skills. Hypotonia and poor feeding also may share a common aetiology. Associations with lower socio-economic status highlight the potential influence of family background factors in feeding problems in the preterm infant. 10.1111/apa.12393
Gastrostomy Tube Feeding in Extremely Low Birthweight Infants: Frequency, Associated Comorbidities, and Long-term Outcomes. The Journal of pediatrics OBJECTIVE:To assess the frequency of gastrostomy tube (GT) placement in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, associated comorbidities, and long-term outcomes. STUDY DESIGN:Analysis of ELBW infants from 25 centers enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network's Generic Database and Follow-up Registry from 2006 to 2012. Frequency of GT placement before 18-22 months, demographic and medical factors associated with GT placement, and associated long-term outcomes at 18-22 months of corrected age were described. Associations between GT placement and neonatal morbidities and long-term outcomes were assessed with logistic regression after adjustment for center and common co-variables. RESULTS:Of the 4549 ELBW infants included in these analyses, 333 (7.3%) underwent GT placement; 76% had the GT placed postdischarge. Of infants with GTs, 11% had birth weights small for gestational age, 77% had bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and 29% severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia. At follow-up, 56% of infants with a GT had weight <10th percentile, 61% had neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), and 55% had chronic breathing problems. After adjustment, small for gestational age, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage/periventricular leukomalacia, poor growth, and NDI were associated with GT placement. Thirty-two percent of infants with GTs placed were taking full oral feeds at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:GT placement is common in ELBW infants, particularly among those with severe neonatal morbidities. GT placement in this population was associated with poor growth, NDI, and chronic respiratory and feeding problems at follow-up. The frequency of GT placement postneonatal discharge indicates the need for close nutritional follow-up of ELBW infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00063063. 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.06.066
The effect of oral motor intervention with different initiation times to improve feeding outcomes in preterm infants: protocol for a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Trials BACKGROUND:Premature infants commonly encounter difficulties with oral feeding, a complication that extends hospital stays, affects infants' quality of life, and imposes substantial burdens on families and society. Enhancing preterm infants' oral feeding skills and facilitating their transition from parenteral or nasal feeding to full oral feeding pose challenges for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) healthcare professionals. Research indicates that oral motor interventions (OMIs) can enhance preterm infants' oral feeding capabilities and expedite the transition from feeding initiation to full oral feeding. Nonetheless, the most suitable timing for commencing these interventions remains uncertain. METHODS:This is a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Preterm with a gestational age between 29 to 34 weeks will be eligible for the study. These infants will be randomized and allocated to one of two groups, both of which will receive the OMIs. The intervention commences once the infant begins milk intake during the early OMIs. Additionally, in the late OMIs group, the intervention will initiate 48 h after discontinuing nasal continuous positive airway pressure. DISCUSSION:OMIs encompass non-nutritive sucking and artificial oral stimulation techniques. These techniques target the lips, jaw, muscles, or tongue of premature infants, aiming to facilitate the shift from tube feeding to oral feeding. The primary objective is to determine the ideal intervention timing that fosters the development of oral feeding skills and ensures a seamless transition from parenteral or nasal feeding to full oral feeding among preterm infants. Furthermore, this study might yield insights into the long-term effects of OMIs on the growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants. Such insights could bear substantial significance for the quality of survival among preterm infants and the societal burden imposed by preterm birth. TRIAL REGISTRATION:chictr.org.cn ChiCTR2300076721. Registered on October 17, 2023. 10.1186/s13063-024-08131-8
Effect of Unimodal and Multimodal Sensorimotor Interventions on Oral Feeding Outcomes in Preterm Infants: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review. Rhooms Latisha,Dow Kimberly,Brandon Cara,Zhao Grace,Fucile Sandra Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses BACKGROUND:Preterm infants often experience difficulty with the transition from tube to oral feeding. While many unimodal and multimodal sensorimotor interventions have been generated to optimize oral feeding skills, there has been little cohesion between interventions. PURPOSE:The aims of this systematic review were to examine the effect of sensorimotor interventions on oral feeding outcomes and to determine whether multimodal interventions lead to better oral feeding performances than unimodal interventions. SEARCH STRATEGY:A systematic search of CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases was conducted. Studies were reviewed to assess the types of interventions used to improve transition to full oral feeding, volume intake, weight gain, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS:The search identified 35 articles. Twenty-six studies examined a unimodal intervention, with the majority focusing on oral sensorimotor input and the others on tactile, auditory, and olfactory input. Nine studies assessed multimodal interventions, with the combination of tactile and kinesthetic stimulation being most common. Results varied across studies due to large differences in methodology, and caution is warranted when interpreting results across studies. The heterogeneity in the studies made it difficult to make any firm conclusions about the effects of sensorimotor interventions on feeding outcomes. Overall, evidence on whether multimodal approaches can lead to better oral feeding outcomes than a unimodal approach was insufficient. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:The use of sensorimotor interventions to optimize feeding outcomes in preterm infants varies based on methods used and modalities. These factors warrant caution by clinicians who use sensorimotor interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH:Large randomized clinical trials using a standardized approach for the administration of sensorimotor input are needed to further establish the effects on feeding outcomes in preterm infants. 10.1097/ANC.0000000000000546
Early feeding behaviours of extremely preterm infants predict neurodevelopmental outcomes. Early human development BACKGROUND:Infants born extremely preterm are at high risk for early feeding difficulties, as well as poor neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood. Feeding, a complex motor skill, may be predictive of later neuromotor outcomes. AIMS:To determine the relationship between feeding behaviours of extremely preterm-born infants (<28 weeks gestational age) at 4-months corrected age (CA) and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 4-5 years. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort design with prospectively collected data. SUBJECTS:Infants born extremely preterm from September 1999 - October 2013 [n = 412, mean gestational age 25.4 (1.3) weeks; mean birth weight 771 (168) grams]. Oral feeding was assessed at 4-months CA by an experienced occupational therapist; infants were classified as either having poor suck-swallow ('feeding difficulties') or no feeding difficulties. OUTCOME MEASURES:Motor outcomes were assessed at 4-5 years using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Children were categorized as: (1) typical motor development (TMD; n = 214); (2) Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD; n = 116); or (3) major neurodevelopmental disorder (MND; n = 82). RESULTS:Feeding behaviour at 4-months CA predicted DCD (OR = 2.95, CI 1.13-7.68) and MND (OR = 3.67, CI 1.35-9.96) after controlling for confounders. Infants with feeding difficulties were more likely to be diagnosed with DCD (40 % of poor feeders) or MND (36 %) at 4-5 years, compared to infants without feeding issues. CONCLUSIONS:Early feeding behaviours significantly predicted motor outcomes at 4-5 years. Infants born extremely preterm with early feeding difficulties should be identified as at high risk for poor motor outcomes later in childhood and screened for early diagnosis and intervention. 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2022.105647
Feeding Difficulties in Late Preterm Infants and Their Impact on Maternal Mental Health and the Mother-Infant Relationship: A Literature Review. Nutrients Late preterm infants constitute the largest subset of premature infants and are more likely to experience feeding issues leading to delayed oral feeding independence and low breastfeeding rates. Considering the increased parental concern about their infants' nutrition and growth, we performed a literature review to provide an update on the feeding challenges faced by late preterm infants and the impact of these issues on maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship. Based on our findings, late preterm infants have a high prevalence of feeding difficulties which need to be addressed by targeted support interventions to promote breastfeeding success and the establishment of a harmonious dyadic interaction between the mother and her infant, all of which contribute to the prevention of altered feeding behavior later in life. There is still a need for additional research to develop a standardized and shared strategy that can be proven to be effective. Should this be accomplished, it will be possible to offer appropriate support for mothers, encourage the oral skills and maturation of late preterm infants, and improve the relationship quality within the dyad. 10.3390/nu15092180
Dietary transition difficulties in preterm infants: critical literature review. Pagliaro Carla Lucchi,Bühler Karina Elena Bernardis,Ibidi Silvia Maria,Limongi Suelly Cecília Olivan Jornal de pediatria OBJECTIVE:To analyze the scientific literature on dietary changes in preterm children during the first years of life. DATA SOURCE:The PubMed database was used for article selection. The texts were analyzed according to their objectives, research design, and research group characteristics. The following were selected to comprise the criteria: (1) publications in the period from 1996 to 2014; (2) participation of infants and children from birth to 10 years of age; (3) development of oral motor skills necessary for feeding; (4) development of the feeding process; and (5) feeding difficulties during childhood. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS:There were 282 studies identified, of which 17 were used in the review, and five more articles were identified through the reference list of selected articles, totaling 22 references. CONCLUSION:Very low birth weight preterm newborns are more likely to have feeding problems in early postnatal stages and during childhood when compared with full-term infants. Monitoring the feeding of these infants after hospital discharge is strictly recommended in an early intervention program aiming at better development of feeding skills. 10.1016/j.jped.2015.05.004
Early skin contact combined with mother's breastfeeding to shorten the process of premature infants ≤ 30 weeks of gestation to achieve full oral feeding: the study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Li Liling,Wang Li,Niu Conway,Liu Chan,Lv Tianchan,Ji Futing,Yu Ling,Yan Weili,Dou Ya Lan,Wang Yin,Cao Yun,Huang Guoying,Hu Xiaojing Trials BACKGROUND:Most hospitalized preterm infants experience difficulties in transitioning from tube feeding to full oral feeding. Interventions to promote full oral feeding in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are limited to pacifier use or bottle-feeding exercises. Skin contact has been shown to be beneficial to start and maintain lactation and provide preterm infants with the opportunity to suck on the mother's breast, which may promote further development of the preterm infant's suckling patterns. The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the effects of skin contact combined with breastfeeding (suck on the mother's empty breast) as compared to the routine pacifier suckling training model in achieving full oral feeding for infants whose gestational age are ≤ 30 weeks. METHODS:This is a single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial conducted in the NICU and designed according to the SPIRIT Statement. The subjects included in the study are premature infants born between April 2020 and July 2021 with a gestational age of ≤30 weeks, birth weight of <1500 g, admission age of <72 h, and absence of congenital malformations. Those with oxygenation indices of >40 and those born to mothers with poor verbal communication skills will be excluded. A sample of 148 infants is needed. The infants will be randomized to the intervention (skin contact combined with mother's breastfeeding model) or control group (routine pacifier sucking training model). The primary outcome is the time required to achieve full oral feeding. The secondary outcomes are the breastfeeding abilities of preterm infants as assessed by the Preterm Infant Breastfeeding Behavior Scale (PIBBS), breastfeeding rates at 3 and 6 months corrected gestational age, complication rates, duration of oxygen requirement, days of hospital stay, and satisfaction of parents. DISCUSSION:This paper describes the first single-center, open-label, randomized clinical trial on this topic and will provide crucial information to support the implementation of skin contact combined with the breastfeeding model in the NICU setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04283682. Registered on 8 February 2020. 10.1186/s13063-021-05605-x
To Individualize the Management Care of High-Risk Infants With Oral Feeding Challenges: What Do We Know? What Can We Do? Frontiers in pediatrics The increase in preterm infants' survival over the last 30 years has shed light over their inability to feed by mouth safely and efficiently. With adverse events such as increased risks for oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, penetration/aspiration, infants' hospitalization in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are understandably prolonged. Unfortunately, this leads to delayed mother-infant reunion, maternal stress, breastfeeding obstacles, and increased medical costs. Such impediments have stimulated clinicians and researchers to better understand the underlying causes and develop evidence-based solutions to assist these infants. However, it is notable that the research-to-practice translation of this knowledge has been limited as there are still no validated guidelines or protocols as how to best diagnose and care for these infants. This report revisits the immature physiologic functions at the root of these infants' oral feeding difficulties, the current practices, and the recent availability of evidence-based efficacious tools and interventions. Taking advantage of the latter, it presents a renewed perspective of how management strategies can be tailored to the specific needs of individual patients. 10.3389/fped.2020.00296
Factors Impacting Long-Term Gastrostomy Tube Dependence in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease. Mahdi Elaa M,Tran Nhu N,Ourshalimian Shadassa,Sanborn Stephanie,Alquiros Maria Theresa,Squillaro Anthony,Lascano Danny,Herrington Cynthia,Kelley-Quon Lorraine I The Journal of surgical research BACKGROUND:Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) often experience oral feeding intolerance requiring gastrostomy (GT). Complications related to GT use are common. The study aim was to identify factors associated with continued GT use at one-year. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary children's hospital using the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database and patients' electronic medical record. Infants <1-year with CHD who underwent cardiac and GT surgery between January 2014-October 2019 were identified. Patient demographics, preoperative feeding, clinical variables, and GT use at one-year was evaluated. A separate cohort discharged with a nasogastric tube (NGT) was identified for longitudinal comparisons. RESULTS:Of 137 infants who received a GT, 115 (84%) continued using their GT at one-year. Factors associated with continued GT use included lower median percent of goal oral feeding before GT placement (0% IQR 0-6.5 versus 3.7% IQR 0-31), prolonged hospitalization after GT placement (36% versus 14%, P-value = 0.048), and failure to take oral feeds at discharge (69% versus 27%, P-value <0.001). There was no difference in demographics or clinical comorbidities between groups. Clinic/emergency room visits for GT complications were common (72%). Eight infants discharged with a NGT did not require GT placement. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with CHD tolerating minimal oral nutrition before GT placement, prolonged hospitalization after GT, and difficulty with oral feeds at discharge were more likely to use their GT at 1-year. Outpatient NGT feeding is feasible for select infants with CHD. Efforts to optimize care for this complex, device-dependent population are warranted to minimize risks and facilitate family engagement for long-term care. 10.1016/j.jss.2021.09.023
Growth trajectories and need for oral feeding support among infants with neonatal encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association OBJECTIVE:Identify feeding supports required among infants with neonatal encephalopathy and determine growth trajectories to 3 years. STUDY DESIGN:Single-center retrospective cohort study of 120 infants undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. Logistic regression and stratified analyses identified whether clinical factors, EEG-determined encephalopathy severity, and MRI-based brain injury predict feeding supports (nasogastric tube, oral feeding compensations) and growth. RESULTS:50.8% of infants required feeding supports in the hospital, decreasing to 14% at discharge. Moderate-to-severe encephalopathy and basal ganglia injury predicted feeding support needs. Yet, 35% of mildly encephalopathic infants required gavage tubes. Growth trajectories approximated expected growth of healthy infants. CONCLUSION:Infants with neonatal encephalopathy-even if mild-frequently experience feeding difficulties during initial hospitalization. With support, most achieve full oral feeds by discharge and adequate early childhood growth. Clinical factors may help identify infants requiring feeding support, but do not detect all at-risk infants, supporting routine screening of this high-risk population. 10.1038/s41372-024-01983-7
Evolution of Feeding and Developmental Outcomes in Infants With Moderate Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Pilot Study. Neonatal network : NN The purpose of the study was to describe the evolution of outcomes among full-term infants with moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE); from their early swallowing and feeding abilities during hospitalization, to their later developmental outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Four participants with moderate HIE were recruited. Early feeding and swallowing were assessed using the Neonatal Feeding Assessment Scale and video fluoroscopic swallow studies. Developmental assessments were conducted at 6 and 12 months using the Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale and Vineland-3 Scale. All participants displayed atypical outcomes throughout the study, including oropharyngeal dysphagia initially during hospitalization. All participants were discharged on oral feeds but some breastfeeding difficulties persisted. Variable but pervasive developmental delays were found among all participants at 6 and 12 months. This study emphasizes the need for consistent early intervention from the neonatal period onward, for all infants with moderate HIE. Future studies should use larger cohorts, longer follow-up, and correlational designs. 10.1891/NN-2023-0003
The development of normal feeding and swallowing. Stevenson R D,Allaire J H Pediatric clinics of North America The development of feeding skills is an extremely complex process influenced by multiple anatomic, neurophysiologic, environmental, social, and cultural factors. Most children negotiate the necessary developmental sequence without significant difficulties. An understanding of the development of normal feeding abilities aids the pediatrician in monitoring this remarkable process in his or her normal patients. This understanding also helps equip the pediatrician who is challenged by a child with complex feeding problems. The following statements summarize the major elements of feeding development. 1. Structural integrity is essential to the development of normal feeding and swallowing skills. Infant anatomy differs from adult anatomy. Anatomic changes associated with growth affect feeding function. 2. Normal infant feeding is reflexive, under brainstem control, and does not require suprabulbar input. As feeding development progresses, basic brainstem-mediated responses come under voluntary control through the process of encephalization. 3. The mature swallow consists of a voluntary oral-preparatory phase, a voluntary oral phase, and involuntary pharyngeal and esophageal phases. The infant swallow does not have a voluntary oral-preparatory and oral phase but is otherwise similar. 4. The neurophysiologic control of feeding and swallowing is complex and involves sensory afferent nerve fibers, motor efferent fibers, paired brainstem swallowing centers, and suprabulbar neural input. Close integration of sensory and motor functions is essential to the development of normal feeding skills. 5. Feeding development, although dependent on structural integrity and neurologic maturation, is a learned progression of behaviors. This learning is heavily influenced by oral sensation, fine and gross motor development, and experiential opportunities. 6. The basic physiologic complexity of feeding is compounded by individual temperament, interpersonal relationships, environmental influences, and culture. 7. The main goal of feeding is the acquisition of sufficient nutrients for optimal growth and development. Malnutrition may result directly from feeding problems and may also help perpetuate them. 8. Protection of the airway during swallow is a reflexive, multileveled function consisting of the apposition of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds and the adduction of both false and true vocal folds.
The Impact of Nasal Intubation on Feeding Outcomes in Neonates Requiring Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Control Trial. Pediatric cardiology Neonates who require surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) frequently have difficulty with oral feeds post-operatively and may require a feeding tube at hospital discharge. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral or nasal intubation route on feeding method at hospital discharge. This was a non-blinded randomized control trial of 62 neonates who underwent surgery for CHD between 2018 and 2021. Infants in the nasal (25 patients) and oral (37 patients) groups were similar in terms of pre-operative risk factors for feeding difficulties including completed weeks of gestational age at birth (39 vs 38 weeks), birthweight (3530 vs 3100 g), pre-operative PO intake (92% vs 81%), and rate of pre-operative intubation (22% vs 28%). Surgical risk factors were also similar including Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery category (3.9 vs 4.1), shunt placement (32% vs 41%), cardiopulmonary bypass time (181 vs 177 min), and cross-clamp time (111 vs 105 min). 96% of nasally intubated patients took full oral feeds by discharge as compared with 78% of orally intubated infants (p = 0.05). Nasally intubated infants reach full oral feeds an average of 3 days earlier than their orally intubated peers. In this cohort of patients, nasally intubated infants reach oral feeds more quickly and are less likely to require supplemental tube feeding in comparison to orally intubated peers. Intubation route is a potential modifiable risk factor for oral aversion and appears safe in neonates. The study was approved by the University of Virginia Institutional Review Board for Health Sciences Research and was retrospectively registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT05378685) on May 18, 2022. 10.1007/s00246-023-03322-7
Comparing the effects of 5-minute premature infant oral motor intervention with 15-minute Fucile treatment in term infants with feeding difficulties: A multi-arm randomised clinical trial. International journal of speech-language pathology PURPOSE:The aim of the present study was to investigate whether term infants with feeding difficulties who received either a 5-minute premature infant oral motor intervention (PIOMI) or a 15-minute Fucile treatment had different outcomes, compared to term infants in a nontreatment group. METHOD:Stable term infants ( = 51) born between 37-41 weeks of gestational age with feeding difficulties were randomly assigned into one of two intervention groups and a control group. One intervention group received PIOMI and the other group received Fucile treatment once a day for seven consecutive days; the control group received usual care only. The volume of milk intake, the amount of weight gain, and the length of hospital stay were compared across all groups. RESULT:Findings indicated that the volume of milk intake and weight gain showed significant improvement in all three groups. However, pairwise comparison revealed that infants in the Fucile group had significantly higher volume of milk intake and weight gain compared to infants in both the control and PIOMI groups. Length of hospital stay was not significantly different amongst all groups. CONCLUSION:The effects of Fucile treatment were more considerable than for usual care or PIOMI. This finding raises the possibility that prolonged exercise may facilitate improvement in feeding skills for term infants with feeding difficulties. 10.1080/17549507.2024.2311937
Developing a Quality Improvement Feeding Program for NICU Patients. Osborn Erika K,Jadcherla Sudarshan R NeoReviews Practices in NICUs vary widely, particularly when clinical decisions involve complex tasks and multiple disciplines, which occurs with feeding preterm infants. Neonatal feeding difficulties in preterm infants often lead to prolonged tube feeding and therefore lengthened hospital stays. Education and compliance with evidence-based protocols and guidelines are needed on the initiation of feedings and feeding advancement to transform enteral and oral feeding practices and thus reduce practice variation and improve clinical outcomes. 10.1542/neo.23-1-e23
Does parental involvement affect the development of feeding skills in preterm infants? A prospective study. Giannì Maria Lorella,Sannino Patrizio,Bezze Elena,Comito Carmela,Plevani Laura,Roggero Paola,Agosti Massimo,Mosca Fabio Early human development BACKGROUND:Feeding difficulties frequently occur in preterm infants, thus contributing to delayed growth and hospital discharge. AIMS:To evaluate the effect of Kangaroo mother care implementation and parental involvement in infants' feeding on the timing of achievement of full oral feeding in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN:Prospective, observational, single-centre study. SUBJECTS:A total of 81 infants born at a gestational age ≤32weeks, consecutively admitted to a tertiary neonatal unit between June 2014 and May 2015. OUTCOME MEASURES:The timing of the achievement of full oral feeding of preterm infants. RESULTS:Full oral feeding was achieved at a mean postmenstrual age of 35.5±2.1weeks. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that a low birth weight, the occurrence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and the need for gastrointestinal surgical procedures were associated with a higher postmenstrual age at achievement of full oral feedings. By contrast, the earlier that parents fed their infants and the earlier that Kangaroo mother care was started, the lower the postmenstrual age at the achievement of full oral feeding. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that an early start of Kangaroo mother care and early parental involvement in infants' feeding positively affect the achievement of independent oral feeding. 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2016.08.006
Effect of the premature infant oral motor intervention on feeding progression and length of stay in preterm infants. Lessen Brenda S Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses PURPOSE:Preterm infants frequently experience oral feeding difficulties due to underdeveloped oral motor skills and the lack of coordination of sucking, swallowing, and respiration. The infants' ability to consume all feedings orally while maintaining physiologic stability and weight gain is necessary for their discharge. Therefore, difficulty with oral feeding leads to longer hospital stays and higher costs. For example, with more than half a million of premature infants born each year, a 3-day decrease in hospital stay would save more than 2 billion dollars annually. There is a need for evidenced-based interventions that facilitate development of oral-motor skills, leading to improved oral feeding, thus shortening hospital stays and lowering costs. The purpose of this research was to test the newly developed Premature Infant Oral Motor Intervention (PIOMI) beginning at 29 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), before oral feedings were introduced, to determine whether the prefeeding intervention would result in a shorter transition from gavage to total oral feedings and a shorter length of hospital stay (LOS). The PIOMI is a 5-minute oral motor intervention that provides assisted movement to activate muscle contraction and provides movement against resistance to build strength. The focus of the intervention is to increase functional response to pressure and movement and control of movements for the lips, cheeks, jaw, and tongue. The cheeks (internal and external), lips, gums, tongue, and palate were stimulated per specific protocol with finger stroking. SUBJECTS:A total of 19 infants from 1 level III NICU born between 26 and 29 weeks PMA: 10 in the experimental group and 9 in the control group. DESIGN:A randomized, blinded, clinical trial was conducted to examine outcomes related to the newly developed PIOMI. METHODS:Beginning at 29 weeks PMA (and before the introduction of oral feeding), the experimental group received the PIOMI for 5 minutes per day for 7 consecutive days. The control group received a sham intervention to keep staff and parents blinded to the infants' group assignment. Physiological and behavioral stabilities were continually assessed throughout the intervention. A chart review was then conducted to compare the transition from gavage feeding to total oral feedings between the experimental and control group, as well as LOS. RESULTS:The PIOMI was well tolerated by 29-week PMA infants, as evidenced by physiological and behavioral cues. Infants who received the once-daily PIOMI transitioned from their first oral feeding to total oral feedings 5 days sooner than controls (P = .043) and were discharged 2.6 days sooner than controls. CONCLUSION:This pilot work supports further study on the use of the PIOMI with preterm infants to enhance oral-feeding skills and decrease LOS. 10.1097/ANC.0b013e3182115a2a
Oral feeding trajectories and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 12 and 24 month follow-up for preterm infants. Journal of neonatal-perinatal medicine BACKGROUND:Few studies characterize feeding performance in the NICU when predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between time to full oral feeds (FULL-PO) and neurodevelopmental and feeding outcomes in the first 2 years in preterm infants admitted to the NICU. METHODS:This retrospective study included infants born between 01/01/2014-07/31/2017, gestational age < 32 weeks and/or birth weight < 1500 g. We examined feeding difficulties, cerebral palsy, and Bayley scores for those reaching FULL-PO at a post menstrual age (PMA)≤38.0 weeks (EARLY) vs.>38.0 weeks (LATE). Additionally, the oral feeding achieved at various timepoints between 36- and 42-weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) was measured to construct a timeline of oral feeding acquisition. RESULTS:Of 192 infants, 147(77%) achieved FULL-PO EARLY and 45(23%) LATE. Comorbidities and length of stay were higher and unadjusted Bayley scores were lower at 12 months corrected age (CA) and 24 months chronological age (CH) in the LATE group. Feeding difficulties were higher in the LATE group at 24 months CH. Infants born < 27-28 weeks GA were more likely to achieve oral feeding at a later PMA. Infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) had significant feeding and developmental delays. CONCLUSIONS:Establishing full oral feeds by 38.0 weeks PMA may be used as a predictor for feeding difficulties at 24 months CH. Infants born < 27-28 weeks GA and those with BPD are more likely to take extended amounts of time to achieve full oral feeding and need additional feeding support. Infants with BPD are high risk for neurodevelopmental delays. 10.3233/NPM-230088
[Oral feeding difficulties in neonatal medicine and intensive care]. Ratet Isabelle,Touzet Marie,Demouy Julie,Da Costa Lise Soins. Pediatrie, puericulture Oral feeding difficulties represent a major health issue for the future of babies born prematurely. In a neonatal intensive care unit at the Hôpital Cochin, a multi-disciplinary group of professionals regularly meet to initiate team actions. Infants vulnerabilities and quality of life and parents supports are essential for patient management. 10.1016/j.spp.2017.09.005
Physiological Basis of Neonatal Aerodigestive Difficulties in Chronic Lung Disease. Hasan Shabih U,Lodha Abhay K,Yusuf Kamran,Dalgleish Stacey Clinics in perinatology In the United States, preterm birth rates have steadily increased since 2014. Despite the recent advances in neonatal-perinatal care, more than 40% of very low-birth-weight infants develop chronic lung disease (CLD) and almost 25% have feeding difficulties resulting in delayed achievement of full oral feeds and longer hospital stay. Establishment of full oral feeds, a major challenge for preterm infants, becomes magnified among those on respiratory support and/or with CLD. The strategies to minimize aerodigestive disorders include supporting nonnutritive sucking, developing infant-directed feeding protocols, sensory oromotor stimulation, and early introduction of oral feeds. 10.1016/j.clp.2020.03.001
Risk Factors Associated With Long-term Feeding Problems in Preterm Infants: A Scoping Review. Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses BACKGROUND:Infants who are born preterm are at a high risk of encountering feeding problems. PURPOSE:The aim of this scoping review is to identify risk factors associated with feeding problems that persist beyond infancy in children (aged 1-6 years) who were born preterm (<37 weeks' gestation). METHODS:To perform this scoping review, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework was applied. To be included in this study, articles had to be published in peer-reviewed journals, had an empirical study design, examined feeding problems relating to the child's feeding ability or refusal to eat certain texture of foods, and assessed risk factors (age, weight, and medical conditions) associated with long-term feeding problems in children who were born preterm. RESULTS:After abstract and full-text screening, a total of 9 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this study. Findings from this study identified that gestational age and birth weight are significant risk factors and that sex, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of tube feedings are potential risk factors. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:This study confirms that younger and smaller infants are at a high risk of encountering oral feeding difficulties and early interventions services should be focused on these preterm infants. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH:Evaluation of timing and intensity (dose) of early interventions strategies should be investigated to provide more targeted and effective interventions for younger and smaller preterm infants. 10.1097/ANC.0000000000000864
[Development of oral feeding skills in the preterm infant]. Lau C Archives de pediatrie : organe officiel de la Societe francaise de pediatrie Preterm infants cannot readily transition from tube to oral feeding. Such difficulty often delays their discharge from the hospital and mother-infant reunion. Therefore, understanding the development of the necessary skills preterm infants need to acquire for safe and successful oral feeding is essential. It is now recognized that a mature sucking pattern consisting of the rhythmic alternation of suction and expression is not sufficient for an infant to feed by mouth safely. Rather, an adequate coordination of sucking, swallowing, and respiration appear to be crucial if the infant is to feed with no episodes of desaturation, apnea, bradycardia, and/or aspiration. Studies have shown the benefits of some interventions in facilitating oral feeding in the preterm infant. However, it remains to be determined whether these effects can be generalized.
Nonnutritive Sucking at the Mother's Breast Facilitates Oral Feeding Skills in Premature Infants: A Pilot Study. John Hima B,Suraj Charis,Padankatti Sanjeev M,Sebastian Tunny,Rajapandian Earnest Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses BACKGROUND:Premature infants have difficulties in transitioning from gavage to breastfeeding. Targeted interventions to support breastfeeding in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are scarce. PURPOSE:This pilot study evaluates the effectiveness of nonnutritive sucking at the mother's breast in premature infants to facilitate breastfeeding performance and exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS:The study design constituted a single-blinded randomized control trial, with 9 participants randomly allocated into experimental (n = 4) and control (n = 5) groups. The intervention, nonnutritive sucking at the mother's breast thrice a day for 5 minutes, till nutritive breastfeeding was started, was done in addition to standard care, which was nonnutritive sucking on a finger during gavage feeds. The control group received only standard care. Nonnutritive sucking was assessed using "Stages of Nonnutritive Sucking Scale," and breastfeeding performance was assessed using the "Preterm Infant Breastfeeding Behavior Scale" by a blinded assessor unaware of the infants' allocation. RESULTS:Five infants in the control arm and 4 in the intervention arm completed the study. The infants in the intervention group showed faster transition to mature stages of nonnutritive sucking (P = .05) and had longer sucking bursts during breastfeeding (P = .06) than those in the control group. There was no difference in the rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months in the intervention and control groups. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Early initiation of nonnutritive sucking at the mother's breast in very preterm infants is a safe and effective intervention to facilitate maturation of oral feeding and breastfeeding behavior. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH:Nonnutritive sucking at the mother's breast can be explored as an intervention, with a larger sample, to facilitate exclusive breastfeeding and to establish intervention fidelity. 10.1097/ANC.0000000000000545
Establishing a Foundation for Optimal Feeding Outcomes in the NICU. Pados Britt F,Fuller Kristy Nursing for women's health Many infants in the NICU experience difficulties with oral feeding, which contribute to prolonged length of stay. Oral feeding is a complex task involving sensorimotor functioning of the face, mouth, and larynx, as well as coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing. The care provided in the NICU starting at birth sets the stage for future oral feeding. The purpose of this article is to describe strategies that will establish a positive foundation to support optimal oral feeding. Nurses can use these strategies to protect newborns from noxious stimuli and promote positive auditory, tactile, gustatory, and olfactory experiences to optimize neurodevelopment for the complex task of feeding. 10.1016/j.nwh.2020.03.007
Management of Oral Feeding Challenges in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs): A National Survey in China. Lyu Tianchan,Zhang Yuxia,Hu Xiaojing,Gu Ying,Li Liling,Lau Chantal Frontiers in pediatrics To investigate the current practices of oral feeding difficulties facing high-risk infants in Chinese NICUs. A questionnaire to survey infant oral feeding practices was distributed to 100 level II and III Chinese neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Responses were obtained from 88 NICUs. No Units had any structured guidelines regarding the management of infant oral feeding as they transitioned from tube to independent oral feeding. In 54 (61.4%) NICUs, nurses and physicians made shared decisions on when oral feeding were to be initiated. Fifty-four (61.4%) and 22 (25.0%) NICUs used postmenstrual age (PMA) or weight at PMA as a criterion for initiating oral feedings, respectively. The top three criteria to determine introduction of oral feeding were severity of disease, presence of sucking reflex, and trial feeding success. Adverse events were used by 78 Units as indices of oral feeding difficulty. Twenty (22.7%) and 25 (28.4%) Units had access to occupational therapists or nurses who provided oral motor interventions during feeding, i.e., oral support (chin and cheek support, aid to deglutition), non-nutritive sucking with pacifier, and oral stimulation. The management of oral feeding issues in NICUs vary widely in China in relation to the assessment of readiness to oral feeding, daily oral feeding practices and interventions used by staff. It is proposed that an educational program focused on the physiology of infant oral feeding, available evidence-based tools and interventions would assist NICU caregivers develop structured guidelines to improve infants' safe and efficient attainment of independent oral feeding. 10.3389/fped.2020.00336
Development of infant oral feeding skills: what do we know? The American journal of clinical nutrition The hospital discharge of premature infants in neonatal intensive care units is often delayed due to their inability to feed by mouth safely and competently. With immature physiologic functions, infants born prematurely cannot be expected to readily feed by mouth at the equivalent age of a third trimester of gestation as the majority of their term counterparts do. Consequently, it is crucial that health care professionals gain an adequate knowledge of the development of preterm infants' oral feeding skills so as to optimize their safety and competency as they transition to oral feeding. With a greater sensitivity toward their immature skills, we can offer these infants a safer and smoother transition to independent oral feeding than is currently observed. This review article is an overview of the evidence-based research undertaken over the past 2 decades on the development of very-low-birth-weight infants' oral feeding skills. The description of the different functional levels where these infants can encounter hurdles may assist caregivers in identifying a potential cause or causes for their individual patients' oral feeding difficulties. 10.3945/ajcn.115.109603
Variation in Oxygen Saturation by Pulse Oximetry During and After Breastfeeding Among Healthy Term Neonates During Early Postnatal Life at Tertiary Care Hospital. Niaz Sana,Kumar Vikram,Rahim Anum,Khan Azeem,Bham Asma,Ali Syed Rehan Cureus Background Breastfeeding plays a vital role in a newborn's life as it increases its chances of survival and is considered the optimal nutritional source for newborns. All newborns must have developed the suck, swallow, and breathe coordination in order to safely breastfeed. Studies conducted on breastfeeding in healthy term babies are limited as most studies available on breastfeeding focus on preterm babies. Full-term healthy infants can also present with feeding difficulties but due to a lack of studies conducted on them, there is no existing oxygen saturation pattern for healthy term infants. Thus, our study is designed to observe variations in the oxygen saturation of healthy term infants during breastfeeding. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from March 2021 to April 2021. Using a non-probability consecutive sampling technique, 60 neonates were enrolled in the study. The baby was monitored for heart rate and oxygen saturation before, during, and after feeding. Results The oxygen saturation levels were lower during feed while it was significantly high after a feed (p < 0.001). No significant variation was seen between saturation before feeding and during feed (0.635) or before feeding with after feed (p = 0.108). Maximum oxygen saturation drop was observed in 21% at the first minute and cumulatively 73% of neonates within the first five minutes of feeding. Heart rate remained in the physiological range (120-160 b/min) in 85%, above 160 in just 11.6% of the babies. Conclusion Effective breastfeeding is crucial for the growth and development of every infant, which is why there is a need to have an understanding of how infants develop suck, swallow, and breathe coordination. Having breathing and sucking patterns for infants can help medical personal identify when an infant is having difficulty with oral feeding and suggest safer, more effective methods of breastfeeding. 10.7759/cureus.16564
Feeding outcomes in infants after supraglottoplasty. Eustaquio Marcia,Lee Erika Nevin,Digoy G Paul Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery OBJECTIVE:Review the impact of bilateral supraglottoplasty on feeding and compare the risk of postoperative feeding difficulties between infants with and without additional comorbidities. STUDY DESIGN:Case series with chart review. SETTING:Children's hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:The medical records of all patients between birth and 12 months of age treated for laryngomalacia with bilateral supraglottoplasty by a single surgeon (GPD) between December 2005 and September 2009 and followed for a minimum of 1 month were reviewed. Infants with significant comorbidities were evaluated separately. Nutritional intake before and after surgery, as well as speech and language pathology reports, was reviewed to qualify any feeding difficulties. Age at the time of surgery, additional surgical interventions, medical comorbidities, and length of follow-up were also noted during chart review. RESULTS:Of 81 infants who underwent bilateral supraglottoplasty, 75 were eligible for this review. In the cohort of infants without comorbidities, 46 of 48 (96%) had no change or an improvement in their oral intake after surgery. Of the 2 patients with initial worsening of feeding, all resumed oral intake within 2 months. In the group of patients with additional medical comorbidities, 22% required further interventions such as nasogastric tube, dietary modification, or gastrostomy tube placement. CONCLUSIONS:Supraglottoplasty in infants has a low incidence of persistent postoperative dysphagia. Infants with additional comorbidities are at a higher risk of feeding difficulty than otherwise healthy infants. 10.1177/0194599811414513
Functional Evaluation of Eating Difficulties Scale to predict oral motor skills in infants with neurodevelopmental disorders: a longitudinal study. Cavallini Anna,Provenzi Livio,Scotto Di Minico Giunia,Sacchi Daniela,Gavazzi Lidia,Amorelli Valeria,Borgatti Renato Developmental medicine and child neurology AIM:To assess the predictive validity of the Functional Evaluation of Eating Difficulties Scale (FEEDS) on long-term eating developmental outcomes in infants with neurodevelopmental disorders. METHOD:In total, 144 infants (69 females, 75 males) aged 0 to 12 months (mean [SD] 5.34mo [3.42]) with neurodevelopmental disorders and requiring enteral nutrition support, hospitalized between January 2004 and December 2017, were included. The FEEDS was administered at the onset of hospitalization. Follow-up evaluations of feeding modalities occurred at discharge and at 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after discharge. FEEDS score was tested as a predictor of infants' feeding modality (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, nasogastric tube, mixed, oral feeding) and time to autonomous oral feeding. Percentages of false-positive and negative cases were checked. RESULTS:Lower FEEDS scores significantly predicted infants' feeding modality (0.40≤R ≤0.61). A 1-point increase in FEEDS score was associated with increased risk (6%-14%; p<0.05) of being non-autonomous feeders at the different follow-up points in infants who had a FEEDS score above the clinical cut-off. INTERPRETATION:The FEEDS appears to be a clinically valid assessment to predict the presence of eating difficulties in infants with neurodevelopmental disabilities. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS:Functional Evaluation of Eating Difficulties Scale (FEEDS) significantly predicted eating difficulties in infants with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Lower FEEDS score is significantly associated with autonomous feeding at the 24-month follow-up. FEEDS cut-off identified infants at low-risk and high-risk for eating disorder. 10.1111/dmcn.14154
Risk of dysphagia in a population of infants born pre-term: characteristic risk factors in a tertiary NICU. Jornal de pediatria OBJECTIVE:To examine the prevalence and characteristics of dysphagia and suck-swallow-breath incoordination as phenotypes of oral feeding difficulties. METHOD:A cross-sectional study with secondary data collected consecutively over 2 years from October 2020 to October 2022 to measure the prevalence of swallowing and oral feeding difficulty in preterm infants using Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing examination at the tertiary Integrated Dysphagia Clinic. RESULTS:The prevalence of swallowing disorders was 25 % and the prevalence of suck-swallow-breath incoordination was 62.5 %. The significant risk factor that may show a possible correlation with oral feeding difficulty was mature post-menstrual age (p = 0.006) and longer length of stay (p = 0.004). The dominant percentage of upper airway abnormality and disorder were retropalatal collapse (40 %), laryngomalacia (42.5 %), paradoxical vocal cord movement (12.5 %), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (60 %). The dominant characteristic of oral motor examination and flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing examination was inadequate non-nutritive sucking (45 %), inadequate postural tone (35 %), and inadequate nutritive sucking (65 %). CONCLUSION:Dysphagia in preterm infants is mostly observed in those with mature post-menstrual age, longer length of stay, and the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease with inadequate non-nutritive sucking and nutritive sucking abilities. Suck-swallow-breath incoordination is primarily observed in those with immature post-menstrual age, a higher prevalence of cardiopulmonary comorbidity, and a higher prevalence of upper airway pathologies (laryngomalacia, paradoxical vocal cord movement) with inadequate nutritive sucking ability. 10.1016/j.jped.2023.09.004
Effect of co-morbidities on the development of oral feeding ability in pre-term infants: a retrospective study. Giannì Maria Lorella,Sannino Patrizio,Bezze Elena,Plevani Laura,di Cugno Nathalie,Roggero Paola,Consonni Dario,Mosca Fabio Scientific reports Pre-term infants frequently experience difficulties in attaining independent oral feeding, thus delaying the achievement of an adequate nutritional status and hospital discharge. The aim of this retrospective, single-centre, observational study was to investigate the effect of co-morbidities on the timing of the achievement of full oral feeding in pre-term infants. The neonatal and feeding data of 84 infants born at a gestational age of <32 weeks were collected, and the effect of co-morbidities on the achievement of feeding independence was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis. The mean postmenstrual age at the time of the achievement of full oral feeding was 36.7 ± 3.68 weeks (range 33-53) weeks. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that a low birth weight, the occurrence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and the need for gastrointestinal surgical procedures were independently associated with a higher postmenstrual age at achievement of full oral feedings. 10.1038/srep16603
Impact of feeding difficulties in the NICU on neurodevelopmental outcomes at 8 and 20 months corrected age in extremely low gestational age infants. Patra Kousiki,Greene Michelle M Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between neonatal risk factors and feeding difficulties (FDs) in the NICU and the impact of FD on neurodevelopmental (ND) outcome in ELGA infants. STUDY DESIGN:Two hundred and eighteen ELGA infants (59 FDs and 159 no-FDs) were compared for neonatal morbidities, feeding milestones, and Bayley-III scores at 8 and 20 mo CA. Multiple regression analyses adjusted for the effect of risk factors on FD and ND outcome. RESULTS:Twenty-seven percent of infants had FD. Postmenstrual age (PMA) at start of oral feeds was the only predictor of FD. At 8 mo CA, FD was the strongest predictor of cognitive <85 (p = 0.018) and motor index <70 (p = 0.019). In linear regression, PMA at start of oral feeds was the only predictor of 8 mo cognitive and motor index (p = 0.006). FD did not predict ND outcome at 20 months CA. CONCLUSIONS:FDs are common in ELGA infants and are associated with worse cognitive and motor outcomes in the first year of life. 10.1038/s41372-019-0428-4
Experiences of Indonesian nurses in improving preterm oral feeding readiness in special care units: A qualitative descriptive study. Belitung nursing journal Background:Many preterm infants face feeding difficulties during the transition from enteral to oral feeding due to organ immaturity, resulting in aspiration, airway instability, and oral feeding intolerance. These challenges can increase morbidity and mortality among preterm infants. Nurses play a vital role in providing interventions to minimize negative impacts and enhance the safety of preterm oral feeding. Objective:This study aimed to explore the experiences of Indonesian nurses in improving preterm oral feeding readiness. Methods:A qualitative descriptive study was conducted involving ten nurses working in intensive care units as participants through purposive sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted from January to March 2023. Thematic analysis was applied for data analysis. Results:Four key themes developed in this study: 1) comprehensive and holistic nursing assessment, 2) challenging and complex nursing issues, 3) the need for nutritional management skills, and 4) the necessity of collaborative support. Conclusion:Nurses play a pivotal role in enhancing oral feeding readiness among premature infants. Their responsibilities include assessing oral feeding readiness, addressing nursing challenges, and implementing multidisciplinary stimulation involving parents. This study provides a foundational framework for developing interventions to improve preterm oral feeding readiness. 10.33546/bnj.2772
A Unique Clinical Tool for the Evaluation of Oral Feeding Skills in Infants. Canadian journal of occupational therapy. Revue canadienne d'ergotherapie Occupational therapy practice for oral feeding assessment is based on clinical observation of infants' sucking, swallowing, and breathing ability, which is influenced by clinical experience and provides poor evidence on explanatory factors. To test the clinical utility and safety of a nipple monitoring device for the quantitative evaluation of oral feeding skills. Sixteen infants, with no severe medical complications, participated in a pre-experimental pilot study. Oral feeding performances (duration, intake volume, and rate of transfer), and occurrence of adverse events (apnea, bradycardia, and oxygen desaturations) were recorded to ensure the tool does not interfere with infant's feeding ability or does not create any adverse effects. There was no significant difference in duration, intake volume, rate of transfer between the two monitored sessions, and no occurrence in adverse events. The findings suggest that the nipple monitoring device may be used for quantitative assessment and intervention planning of oral feeding difficulties in infants. 10.1177/00084174221134738
Identification of a Pivotal Period in the Oral Feeding Progression of Preterm Infants. Fucile Sandra,Phillips Sarah,Bishop Kelly,Jackson Meagan,Yuzdepski Taylor,Dow Kimberly American journal of perinatology OBJECTIVE:Preterm infants are at risk of encountering oral feeding difficulties which impede on the transition to independent oral feeds. The objective of this study was to identify a pivotal period where regressions are most likely to occur during their oral feeding progression. STUDY DESIGN:This is a retrospective study on 101 infants born <35 weeks' gestation. The sample was separated into two groups, infants who experienced a regression during their oral feeding progression and those who did not. A pivotal period was defined as a time frame where setbacks (a decrease in oral feed attempts by one) are most likely to occur at the start (1-2 oral feed attempts per day), middle (3-5 oral feed attempts per day), or end (6-8 oral feed attempts per day) of the oral feeding progression. RESULT:Eighty-two percent of infants experienced setbacks; 45% of all setbacks occurred at the middle time frame ( = 0.03). Infants' degree of maturity and enteral tube feeding intolerances were associated with increased occurrence of setbacks ( = 0.04). CONCLUSION:The midpoint in the oral feeding progression is a pivotal period where setbacks are most likely to occur. This time frame can be used by clinicians to evaluate oral-motor skills for earlier provision of interventions to reduce the occurrence of oral feeding difficulties in this high-risk population. 10.1055/s-0038-1669947
Standardization of Early Feeding Skills (EFS) scale in preterm infants. Abarzúa P Constanza,Godoy M Ana,Rubilar P Mariana,Silva Sch María,Velásquez Z Mónica,Bustos M Luis Revista chilena de pediatria INTRODUCTION:The Early Feeding Skills (EFS) scale assessed the neonate's behavior before, during, and after the feeding process. OBJECTIVES:To determine the face and content validity, and to evaluate with this scale the feeding process in premature newborns comparing with relevant variables. PATIENTS AND METHOD:Premature newborns were evaluated; they were between 34 to 36 weeks of corrected age, without neurological damage or craniofacial malformations. Cross-sectional descriptive study. The data were obtained through the EFS scale, version corrected by face and content validation. The study variables were gender, breastfeeding achievement, and feeding skills during the feeding process, evaluated by two observers. Dispersion measures were analyzed, and the Fisher test was used at 5% significance, establishing the association of the obtained results with the variables. RESULTS:5 domains were evaluated: (1) Ability to stay focused on food, in which 75.3% have a poor performance level, and 28.6% equitable, with significant differences in the sex variable. (2) Ability to organize motor- oral functioning presents 10.5% deficient, 68.8% equitable, and 20.6% good. (3) Ability to coordinate swallowing 95.2% presents an equitable performance. (4) Ability to maintain physiological stability 96.7% was equitable; and (5) Evaluation of oral food tolerance presents 41.6% of poor performance. CONCLUSION:The EFS scale is a tool that provides relevant information to describe the oral feeding process in premature infants, allowing to identify the areas of greatest difficulty that require profes sional treatment, however, this tool is not enough by itself to carry a comprehensive evaluation of the newborn feeding process. 10.32641/rchped.v90i5.1023
Predictors of oral feeding difficulty in cardiac surgical infants. Einarson Kathleen D,Arthur Heather M Pediatric nursing PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to identify factors contributing to postoperative feeding difficulties in neonates following cardiac surgery. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study used chart audit of 101 consecutive infants who underwent cardiac surgery. Ten variables were analyzed as possible predictors of postoperative feeding difficulties including: diagnosis, demographics, details of surgery, and postoperative course. RESULTS:At hospital discharge, 72 (71.3%) infants were orally feeding and 29 (28.7%) were not. Overall mean hospital length of stay was 17.73 (+ 16.40 days). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed vocal chord injury (odds ratio 11.80), length of postoperative intubation (odds ratio 1.10 per day), and weight at surgery (odds ratio 0.34) as independent predictors of failure to feed orally at discharge from hospital. CONCLUSION:Risk factors for feeding difficulties in the postcardiac surgery infant are vocal chord injury, prolonged intubation, and low weight at surgery. Early identification of neonates at risk for feeding difficulties may lead to development of strategies to reduce morbidity, improve patient care, and provide better resource utilization.
The effects of untreated reflux on the incidence of dysphagia, oral aversion, and feeding difficulty in the NICU population. International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology OBJECTIVES:To determine whether late-preterm and full-term neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with diagnosed gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) have an increased incidence of feeding difficulties, dysphagia, and oral aversion. To determine the incidence of reflux medication use in late-preterm and full-term neonates in the NICU. METHODS:Neonates greater than 34 weeks gestational age (GA) diagnosed with reflux, who were hospitalized for at least five days, were included in the study. Neonates with anatomical anomalies that interfere with feeding are excluded. The control group included neonates greater than 34 weeks GA not diagnosed with reflux. The key outcome variables were subjective ease of feeding, oral aversion, and placement on nasogastric (NG), orogastric (OG), or requirement of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared and t-test to compare incidence of feeding difficulties between the groups. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS:In neonates with a diagnosis of reflux, 42.02% had feeding difficulties (66 patients). In the control group, 30.49% of neonates had feeding difficulties (218 patients). Feeding difficulties in neonates with reflux was 11.55% higher than in the control group (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION:Late-preterm and full-term neonates diagnosed with reflux have a higher incidence of feeding difficulties than those who did not have reflux. Only 0.86% of neonates diagnosed with reflux were treated with anti-reflux medications at this large tertiary care children's hospital. 10.1016/j.ijporl.2023.111734
The efficacy of oral motor interventions on feeding outcomes in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia. The Turkish journal of pediatrics BACKGROUND:Feeding difficulties continue to be a serious problem in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of oral motor interventions (OMI) on feeding outcomes in neonates with HIE/TH. METHODS:This was a prospective randomised control study conducted between January 2022 and September 2022. Premature Infant Oral Motor Intervention (PIOMI) was used as OMI. Newborns with HIE/TH, who underwent PIOMI, constituted the study group, and newborns, who did not receive any feeding exercise, constituted the control group. Transition time to full oral feeding (FOF) was determined as the time between initiation of tube feeding and full oral breastfeeding or bottle feeding. The day per oral (PO) feeding was started was specified as PO first, the day the infants could take half of the volume of the feedings by mouth was PO half, and the day the infants could take all the feedings by mouth was PO full. RESULTS:There were 50 neonates in each group. Time to FOF was significantly shorter in the study group than in the control group in all stages of HIE/TH (P= 0.008 for stage 1, and < 0.001 for stage 2 and 3 HIE). However, times to PO first, PO half, PO full and discharge were shorter in the study group than in the control group only in the neonates with stage 3 HIE (P= 0.003, 0.014, 0.013, 0.042, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The PIOMI, which could be named as `HIE-OMI` in our study, is an effective intervention in shortening the transition time to FOF in neonates with all stages of HIE undergoing TH. In addition, `HIEOMI` shortens the length of hospital stay, and improves feeding outcomes in neonates with severe HIE/TH. 10.24953/turkjped.2023.349
Evidence-Based Approaches to Successful Oral Feeding in Infants with Feeding Difficulties. Clinics in perinatology Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) frequently have feeding difficulties with the root cause remaining elusive to identify. Evaluation of the provider/parent/infant feeding process may provide objective clues to sources of feeding difficulty. Specialized testing may be necessary to determine if the infant's swallowing skills are dysfunctional, immature, or maldeveloped, and to determine the risk of feeding failure or chronic tube feeding. Current evidence-based diagnostic and management approaches resulting in successful oral feeding in the NICU infant are discussed. 10.1016/j.clp.2022.02.004
Oral feeding dysfunction in post-operative infants with CHDs: a scoping review. Cardiology in the young Post-operative oral feeding difficulties in neonates and infants with CHD is common. While pre-operative oral feeding may be normal, oral feeding challenges manifest in the post-operative period without a clearly defined aetiology. The objective of this scoping review was to examine post-operative oral feeding in full-term neonates and infants with a CHD. Electronic databases query (1 January 1975-31 May 2021), hand-search of the reference lists of included studies, contact with experts, and review of relevant conferences were performed to identify quantitative studies evaluating post-operative oral feeding in full-term neonates and infants with a CHD. Associations with additional quantitative variables in these studies were also examined. Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria. Eighty per cent were cohort studies that utilised retrospective chart review from a single institution. The primary variable of interest in all studies was oral feeding status upon discharge from neonatal hospitalisation. The most common risk factors evaluated with poor feeding at time of discharge were birth weight (36% of included studies), gestational age (44%), duration of post-operative intubation (48%), cardiac diagnosis (40%), and presence of genetic syndrome or chromosomal anomaly (36%). The most common health-related outcomes evaluated were length of hospital stay (40%) and length of ICU stay (16%). Only the health-related outcomes of length of hospital stay and length of ICU stay were consistently significantly associated with poor post-operative oral feeding across studies in this review. A clear aetiology of poor post-operative oral feeding remains unknown. 10.1017/S1047951122001299
Oral motor disorder and feeding difficulty during the introduction of complementary feeding in preterm infants. CoDAS PURPOSE:To investigate the association between oral-motor disorder and feeding difficulty during the process of introducing complementary feeding in preterm infants. METHODS:This is a cross-sectional, observational, and quantitative study. Preterm infants who had already begun complementary feeding and were up to 24 months corrected gestational age, were followed up at an outpatient clinic for high-risk newborns. The feeding difficulty was assessed using the mother's perception of the presence of defensive behaviors in their child. The measurement of the oral motor skills performance was obtained through the application of an adaptation of the Clinical evaluation protocol of pediatric dysphagia (PAD-PED). RESULTS:The sample consisted of 62 dyads of children with a mean corrected gestational age (CGA) of 13.5 months. Complementary feeding was introduced at the sixth month CGA by almost half of the mothers and most of them reported some sort of difficulty with this activity. Extreme prematurity revealed an association with defensive feeding behavior (p = 0.005), as well as with the initial introduction of food with liquid consistency (p = 0.001), the extended period of time using enteral tube feeding (p = 0.044), the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (p = 0.013) and parenteral nutrition (p = 0.039). CONCLUSION:There was no significant association between oral motor disorder and feeding difficulty. 10.1590/2317-1782/20202019169
Feeding and Swallowing Difficulties in Neonates: Developmental Physiology and Pathophysiology. Viswanathan Sreekanth,Jadcherla Sudarshan Clinics in perinatology Development of enteral and oral feeding milestones in infants is intricately linked to physiologic maturation of the gastrointestinal tract and its complex interplay with cardiorespiratory and central nervous system control and coordination. Assessment of an infant's developmental skills and maturation can guide us with targeted management approaches and prediction of feeding outcomes. In this article, we review and summarize the developmental aspects of oral feeding and swallowing physiology, and current understanding of the pathophysiological changes associated with feeding difficulties in infants. 10.1016/j.clp.2020.02.005
Development of Suck and Swallow Mechanisms in Infants. Annals of nutrition & metabolism Preterm infants' hospital discharge is often delayed due to their inability to feed by mouth safely and competently. No evidence-based supported guidelines are currently available for health-care professionals caring for these infants. Available interventions advocating benefits are not readily acknowledged for lack of rigorous documentation inasmuch as any improvements may ensue from infants' normal maturation. Through research, a growing understanding of the development of nutritive sucking skills has emerged, shedding light on how and why infants may encounter oral feeding difficulties due to the immaturity of specific physiologic functions. Unfortunately, this knowledge has yet to be translated to the clinical practice to improve the diagnoses of oral feeding problems through the development of relevant assessment tools and to enhance infants' oral feeding skills through the development of efficacious preventive and therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on the maturation of the various physiologic functions implicated in the transport of a bolus from the oral cavity to the stomach. Although infants' readiness for oral feeding is deemed attained when suck, swallow, and respiration are coordinated, we do not have a clear definition of what coordination implies. We have learned that each of these functions encompasses a number of elements that mature at different times and rates. Consequently, it would appear that the proper functioning of sucking, the swallow processing, and respiration need to occur at two levels: first, the elements within each function must reach an appropriate functional maturation that can work in synchrony with each other to generate an appropriate suck, swallow process, and respiration; and second, the elements of all these distinct functions, in turn, must be able to do the same at an integrative level to ensure the safe and efficient transport of a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. 10.1159/000381361