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Extended Scalp Expansion for Larger Defects During Staged Cranioplasty. The Journal of craniofacial surgery BACKGROUND:Secondary cranioplasty is often required following trauma, infection, radiation, or oncologic care, but is complicated by soft-tissue deficits with limited regional options. Scalp tissue expanders can provide hair-bearing, vascularized tissue for tension- free closure yielding optimal aesthetic results. However, the upper limit of safe scalp expansion has not been explored. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of extended scalp tissue expansion for challenging cranioplasties in a consecutive series. METHODS:Patients who underwent scalp tissue expansion before cranioplasty were retrospectively identified from a single institution between the years 2017 and 2020. Patient demographics, tissue expansion characteristics, and complications during expansion and after cranioplasty were collected. RESULTS:Six patients were identified who underwent staged scalp expansion for cranioplasty; 5 were male (83.3%) with a mean age of 43.8 ± 12.5 years. Indications for cranioplasty included 2 epilepsy- related procedures, 1 oligodendroglioma, 2 infectious processes, and 1 traumatic incident. A single expander was used in 5 cases, whereas 2 were used in the remaining case. The average expander fill volume was 434.3 ± 115 ccs with a mean expansion time of 3.3 ± 1.4  months. Expander infection occurred in 1 case and expander exposure in another, but adequate scalp expansion was still achieved in both. Successful closure over cranioplasty was obtained in 5 cases (83.3%); 1 patient ultimately required free flap reconstruction for soft-tissue coverage. CONCLUSIONS:In cases of extended scalp defects, scalp tissue expansion remains the preferred method for recruiting large quantities of like tissue before implant cranioplasty. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000008291
Integra as Firstline Treatment for Scalp Reconstruction in Elderly Patients. Mogedas-Vegara Alfonso,Agut-Busquet Eugènia,Yébenes Marsal Mireia,Luelmo Aguilar Jesús,Escuder de la Torre Òscar Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons PURPOSE:Large scalp defects pose a reconstructive problem especially in elderly patients. The purpose of the study is to describe our experience of oncologic scalp reconstruction using a dermal matrix (Integra). MATERIAL AND METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study (January 2007 to March 2021) of patients who had undergone scalp tumor excision and reconstruction using Integra and a split-thickness skin graft (STSG). The primary end point was Integra and STSG success (defined by ≥75% percent take) and the secondary end point was postoperative complications. Both end points were assessed by the surgeon during follow-up. Demographic data, tumor characteristics, average defect size, time between stages and full-thickness scalp defects were characterized using descriptive statistics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between variables and end points. RESULTS:The sample included 70 patients with a mean (SD) age of 83.3 (7.0) years, 75.7% men and 92.9% with comorbidities. Mean (SD) defect area was 23 (17.0) cm and the mean (SD) first-to-second phase interval was 30.6 (8.4) days. Sixty-four patients (91.4%) underwent outpatient surgery. Integra and STSG success rates were 87.1% (95% CI: 77.69 to 93.74%) and 100%, respectively. The complications rate was 18.6% (95% CI: 9 to 28%). Mean (SD) follow-up was 18 (16.7) months. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between variables and the primary and secondary end points. CONCLUSIONS:Reconstruction of oncologic scalp defects using Integra can be performed under sedation and local anesthesia. Integra should be considered as firstline treatment for the reconstruction of scalp defects in elderly patients with comorbidities, given the low postoperative major complications rate and Integra and STSG take success. 10.1016/j.joms.2021.07.009
Temporoparietal Fasciocutaneous Island Flap for Forehead and Anterior Scalp Reconstruction. Facial plastic surgery & aesthetic medicine Forehead and anterior scalp large defect reconstruction is challenging and often requires skin grafting. To measure the advancing distance and the survival of the temporoparietal fascia (TPF) island flap in forehead and anterior scalp reconstruction. The study design was a retrospective case series. Participants included all patients who had undergone TPF island flap for forehead and anterior scalp defects of 3 cm and greater from 2009 to 2021. Flap advancing distance and vascular compromise were analyzed. Patient's average age at time of surgery was 73 (standard deviation [SD] 14) years with more males ( = 24, 67%) than females ( = 12, 33%). Of 36 patients, 24 had forehead and 12 had anterior scalp defects, 26 cases had a full TPF island flap, and 10 cases underwent the partial island modification. Flap edge ischemia occurred in two cases (6%) and complete ischemia occurred in one case (3%). The median flap advancing distance was 3.7 cm (SD 1.2). In this 12-year review, we found that the TPF island flap is able to advance up to 7.5 cm and thus is an effective reconstruction for medium to large forehead and anterior scalp defects. 10.1089/fpsam.2022.0386
Scalp reconstruction: A 10-year retrospective study. Steiner D,Hubertus A,Arkudas A,Taeger C D,Ludolph I,Boos A M,Schmitz M,Horch R E,Beier J P Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery Scalp reconstruction is a challenging task for the reconstructive surgeon. In consideration of the anatomical and cosmetic characteristics, the defect depth and size, an armamentarium of reconstructive procedures ranging from skin grafts over local flaps to free tissue transfer has been described. In this 10-year retrospective study, 85 operative procedures for scalp reconstruction were performed at our department. The underlying entity, defect size/depth, reconstructive procedure, complications, and mean hospital stay were analyzed. In most cases, scalp reconstruction was necessary after oncologic resection (67%) or radiation therapy (16%). A total of 85 operative procedures were performed for scalp reconstruction including local flaps (n = 50), free tissue transfer (n = 18), and skin grafts (n = 17). Regarding the complication rate, we could detect an overall major complication rate of 16.5% with one free flap loss. Briefly, local flaps are an adequate and safe procedure for limited scalp defects. In the case of extensive scalp defects affecting the calvarium, prior multiple surgical interventions and/or radiation, we prefer free tissue transfer. 10.1016/j.jcms.2016.11.023
CSF disturbances and other neurosurgical complications after interdisciplinary reconstructions of large combined scalp and skull deficiencies. Butenschoen Vicki M,Weitz Jochen,Ritschl Lucas M,Meyer Bernhard,Krieg Sandro M Neurosurgical review Combined scalp and skull deficiency due to malignant scalp tumors or sequelae of intracranial surgery present challenging entities for both neurosurgeons and reconstructive treatment. In complex cases, an interdisciplinary approach is needed between neurosurgeons and cranio-maxillofacial surgeons. We present a considerably large series for which we identify typical complications and pitfalls and provide evidence for the importance of an interdisciplinary algorithm for chronic wound healing complications and malignomas of the scalp and skull. We retrospectively reviewed all patients treated by the department of neurosurgery and cranio-maxillofacial surgery at our hospital for complex scalp deficiencies and malignant scalp tumors affecting the skull between 2006 and 2019, and extracted data on demographics, surgical technique, and perioperative complications. Thirty-seven patients were treated. Most cases were operated simultaneously (n: 32) and 6 cases in a staged procedure. Nineteen patients obtained a free flap for scalp reconstruction, 15 were treated with local axial flaps, and 3 patients underwent full thickness skin graft treatment. Complications occurred in 62% of cases, mostly related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation disorders. New cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) disturbances occurred in 8 patients undergoing free flaps and shunt dysfunction occurred in 5 patients undergoing local axial flaps. Four patients died shortly after the surgical procedure (perioperative mortality 10.8%). Combined scalp and skull deficiency present a challenging task. An interdisciplinary treatment helps to prevent severe and specialty-specific complications, such as hydrocephalus. We therefore recommend a close neurological observation after reconstructive treatment with focus on symptoms of CSF disturbances. 10.1007/s10143-020-01347-7
Prognosis-Guided Reconstruction of Scalp and Skull Defects in Neurosurgical Patients. Annals of plastic surgery BACKGROUND:This study aimed to formulate reconstructive recommendations for neurosurgical patients presenting with scalp and/or skull defects based on outcomes in a large series of patients. METHODS:An institutional review board-approved retrospective review of patients who underwent scalp and/or calvarial reconstruction was conducted. Complications were divided into minor and major; early, intermediate, and late. Univariate logistic regression models were conducted to identify independent predictors of complications. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare survival time. Kaplan-Meier curves were developed to compare exposure of titanium and bone cranioplasties. RESULTS:One hundred seventy-one patients who underwent 418 procedures were included (median 1 [1-3] surgeries per patient). Average age was 55 ± 15 years; 53% of patients were male. Median follow-up was 25.5 months [13.9-55.6 months], and 57 patients (33%) were deceased. Complications occurred following 48% of procedures; most common were titanium hardware exposure (36%), nonhealing wounds (23%), and infection (9%). Titanium cranioplasties became exposed 0.47 months [0.3-4.0 months] postoperatively. Frontal defect location was an independent predictor of major complications (odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.39; P = 0.026). Mortality rate for malignant intracranial neoplasms was 68.4% (median survival, 4.3 months), 39.1% for malignancies of both scalp and skull (7.0 months), 37.5% for scalp cancers (16.0 months), and 16.7% for meningiomas (28.2 months). CONCLUSIONS:Neurosurgical patients requiring scalp and/or skull reconstruction are a complex population undergoing multiple procedures with high complication rates. Given high exposure rate of titanium hardware shortly after reconstruction, titanium cranioplasty is recommended for patients with a prognosis less than 2 to 8 months. 10.1097/SAP.0000000000003564
Scalp Reconstruction Strategy Based on the Etiology of the Scalp Defects. The Journal of craniofacial surgery ABSTRACT:Scalp defects of various etiologies require distinct reconstruction strategies. Therefore, the authors divided scalp defects into the following categories: scar alopecia, open scalp wound, benign or low-grade malignant tumor, and high-grade malignancy. The authors reviewed the experience with scalp reconstruction of a single center to determine the factors that affect the reconstructive choices.Patients who underwent scalp reconstruction between 2008 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Reconstruction methods were classified according to the etiology of the defect and were compared for each etiology. Accordingly, a reconstruction algorithm for scalp defects was proposed.A total of 180 patients were included in this study, and the reconstruction methods demonstrated significant differences according to etiology (P < 0.05). For scar alopecia and open scalp wounds, reconstruction methods such as direct repair, local flap transfer, and tissue expander placement were used depending on the defect size. Patients with benign or low-grade malignancies mainly underwent reconstruction with local flaps or skin grafts and tissue expanders for covering the defects. Patients with high-grade malignancies underwent reconstruction with free flaps if they were scheduled for preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy.Various factors, suchas the etiology, size, location, and depthofthe defect, should be considered in scalp reconstruction. The defect etiology is an important factor that determines the reconstructive goal. Our algorithm is based on the etiology of defects and is intended to aid physicians in choosing the appropriate treatment for various scalp defects. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000008490
Microsurgical Scalp Reconstruction: An Overview of the Contemporary Approach. Journal of reconstructive microsurgery BACKGROUND: Microsurgical scalp reconstruction has evolved immensely in the last half-century. The core concepts of microsurgical scalp reconstruction have always been to transfer soft tissue of a sufficient quality to within the defect while minimizing donor site morbidity. Refinements in scalp reconstruction consist of both improvement in reducing donor site morbidity and enhancing recipient site contour and balance. Furthermore, technical advancements and the vast experience within our field have allowed for preoperative evaluation of recipient vessels that are more favorable in proximity to the scalp. METHODS: In this review, we aim to describe the contemporary approach to microsurgical scalp reconstruction. This is to include the indications of choosing free flaps as well as how to select the ideal flap based on patient-oriented factors. The need for cranioplasty, recipient vessel selection, operative technique, and reoperations is also reviewed. In addition, our considerations and the nuances within each category are also described. SUMMARY: Scalp reconstructions involve the fundamental tenants of plastic surgery and demand application of these principles to each case on an individual basis and a successful reconstruction must consider all aspects, with backup options at the ready. Two workhorse free flaps, the anterolateral thigh perforator and latissimus dorsi muscles flaps, serve a primary role in the contemporary approach to microsurgical scalp reconstruction. CONCLUSION: We hope this review can lay the foundation for which future plastic surgeons may continue to build and advance the approach to complex microsurgical scalp reconstruction. 10.1055/s-0041-1740131
Outcome of Comparison between Partial Thickness Skin Graft Harvesting from Scalp and Lower Limb for Scalp Defect: A Clinical Trial Study. Eskandarlou Mahdi,Taghipour Mehrdad World journal of plastic surgery BACKGROUND:Partial-thickness skin graft is the cornerstone for scalp defect repair. Given the potential side effects following harvesting from these sites, this study aimed to compare the outcomes of graft harvesting from scalp and lower limb. METHODS:This clinical trial was conducted among a sample number of 40 partial thickness graft candidates (20 case and 20 control group) with scalp defect presenting to Plastic Surgery Clinic at Besat Hospital, Hamadan, Iran during 2018-2019. Sampling was done by simple randomization using random digit table. The donor site in case group and control group was scalp and lower limb respectively. RESULTS:Overall, 28 patients (70%) were male and 12 (30%) were female. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and trauma were the most common etiology for the defects. There was a statistically meaningful relationship between two groups regarding the etiology of defect (=0.02). The mean diameter of defect was 24.28±45.37 mm for all of the patients. The difference between diameters of defect in both groups were statistically meaningful while no such difference between graft diameters was seen. The graft "Take" was completely successful in both groups according to evaluations. The level of postoperative pain was lower in the case group compared to the control according to VAS scale and the satisfaction was higher in them per Likert scale. CONCLUSION:Scalp can safely be used as donor site for skin graft to be used for scalp defects associated with better results and lower complication rates compared to other donor sites. 10.29252/wjps.10.2.25
Reconstruction of Scalp with Local Axial Flaps. Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India The scalp is a unique part of the human body and various etiological factors, such as tumour extirpation, infection, burns, or trauma, can lead to scalp defects. Primary closure, skin grafting, local flaps, tissue expansion or free tissue transfer are modalities available for scalp reconstruction. In this article, the authors share their institutional experience using various local flaps concerning the size, location, depth of defect and the quality of surrounding tissue. From September 2017 to January 2020, 54 patients underwent scalp reconstruction with local flaps for a sizeable defect size of 5-150 cm in the Department of Plastic Surgery, SMS Medical College, Jaipur. Patients were identified by age, sex, cause of the scalp defect; the location, size, and depth of the defect; condition of surrounding tissue and the type of reconstruction done. The most common cause of scalp defect was excision of malignant tumour (50%). 30 patients had a large sized defect (40-90 cm) and in 28 patients had 90-150 cm defects. Surgical reconstruction was done using local flaps, transposition flap was the most used in 36 patients (66.7%) followed by rotation advancement flap in 11 patients (20.4%). The recovery was relatively quick. Minor complications happened in 5 patients (9.3%) that were managed conservatively. In the present era of microsurgical reconstruction, local options as axial flaps provide a simpler and safer method of scalp reconstruction. A carefully planned scalp flap gives healthy, robust, hair-bearing tissue coverage and requires a shorter healing time for the patients. 10.1007/s12070-020-02103-5
Modified Keystone Perforator Island Flap Techniques for Small- to Moderate-Sized Scalp and Forehead Defect Coverage: A Retrospective Observational Study. Journal of personalized medicine We aimed to demonstrate the effective application of keystone perforator island flap (KPIF) in scalp and forehead reconstruction by demonstrating the authors' experience with modified KPIF reconstruction for small- to moderate-sized scalp and forehead defects. Twelve patients who underwent modified KPIF reconstruction of the scalp and forehead from September 2020 to July 2022 were enrolled in this study. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed and evaluated the patient's medical records and clinical photographs. All defects (size range, 2 cm × 2 cm to 3 cm × 7 cm) were successfully covered using four modified KPIF techniques (hemi-KPIF, Sydney Melanoma Unit Modification KPIF, omega variation closure KPIF, and modified type II KPIF) with ancillary procedures (additional skin grafts and local flaps). All flaps (size range, 3.5 cm × 4 cm to 7 cm × 16 cm) fully survived, and only one patient developed marginal maceration that healed with conservative management. Furthermore, through the final scar evaluation with the patient satisfaction survey and Harris 4-stage scale, all patients were satisfied with their favorable outcomes at the average final follow-up period of 7.66 ± 2.14 months. The study showed that the KPIF technique with appropriate modifications is an excellent reconstructive modality for covering scalp and forehead defects. 10.3390/jpm13020329
Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin: A New Method for Scalp Defect Reconstruction. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.] 10.1097/DSS.0000000000003325
Use of xenografts and allografts in scalp reconstruction. Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Scalp reconstruction requires a full array of reconstructive options given the complex anatomy and protection of vital structures. Not all patients qualify for advanced reconstructive options and therefore rely on short, effective procedures with minimal morbidity. This review aims to focus on xenografts and allografts to achieve an adequate reconstruction while minimizing morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS:Although bovine xenografts have been used for many decades, there have been recent advances in porcine xenografts to aid in scalp defects. Similarly, new allogenic materials have emerged as additional tools in the armamentarium to promote wound healing. SUMMARY:Both xenografts and allografts offer viable options for complex scalp reconstruction. 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000753
Latissimus Dorsi-Myocutaneous Flap in the Repair of Titanium Mesh Exposure and Scalp Defect After Cranioplasty. Dong Liwei,Dong Yulin,Liu Chaohua,Geng Jian,Liu Hengxin,Pei Jiaomiao,Hao Dongyue,Ma Xianjie,Xia Wensen The Journal of craniofacial surgery Titanium mesh was widely used for cranium defect repair but associated with high complication rates. In this study, the authors describe a method using latissimus dorsi-myocutaneous flap in the repair of titanium mesh exposure and scalp defect after cranioplasty, and the plate retaining is also achieved. Fifteen patients from April 2012 to May 2016 underwent this procedure, the age ranged from 32 to 62 years and 47 years old on average, and all the patient had plate exposure combined with surgical site infection and variation of scalp defect. All the patients had fully flap survive, and follow up ranged from 6 months to 24 months, 1 patient had titanium mesh re-expose and received additional operation to remove the plate. The free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap could supply large size of bulky tissue coverage with good blood supply and strong anti-infection ability. This method was an option for retaining the titanium mesh and repairing the exposure for the mild infection with small size scalp defect patient. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006016
Free Tissue Reconstruction of the Scalp. Sokoya Mofiyinfolu,Misch Emily,Vincent Aurora,Wang Weitao,Kadakia Sameep,Ducic Yadranko,Smith Jesse Seminars in plastic surgery Reconstruction of scalp defects can be accomplished by many methods, but larger defects, especially those in which the periosteum is absent or calvarial defects are present, require free tissue transfer. Various methods of scalp reconstruction, as guided by the defect components and size, are presented herein, with a focus on free tissue transfer. Different free flaps for scalp reconstructed are described with a comparison of their advantages and disadvantages. Overall, free tissue transfer for scalp defects provides a reliable, durable, and cosmetically adequate reconstructive option. 10.1055/s-0039-1678470
Large Scalp Defect Reconstruction With Tissue Expansion, Orticochea Flap, and Acellular Dermal Matrix for Soft Tissue Augmentation: A Case Report. Cureus Reconstruction of a large scalp defect following oncologic surgical resection is a challenging task. The defect size, location, and elasticity of the soft tissue overlying the calvarium are important factors to be considered when exploring available reconstructive options. When primary closure is not feasible with a large defect, a skin flap or graft is utilized. Skin flap is advantageous as it produces a similar color and texture as the surrounding areas, thus being the favorable method. Wounds involving exposed bone, tendon, and cartilage cannot support grafts due to poor vascularity and thus require a skin flap. One of the multi-flap closure modalities, the Orticochea flap, is an excellent choice for scalp reconstruction on large defects greater than 50 cm. We present an interesting case of a patient with a large scalp defect following Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that was successfully reconstructed with tissue expansion utilizing Orticochea flap, with the addition of an acellular dermal matrix as an adjunct in such hostile scalp reconstruction. 10.7759/cureus.27723
Scalp and Forehead Injury: Management of Acute and Secondary Defects. Namin Arya W,Tassone Patrick T,Galloway Tabitha L I,Renner Gregory J,Chang C W David Facial plastic surgery : FPS The primary challenges in scalp reconstruction are the relative inelasticity of native scalp tissue and the convex shape of the calvarium. All rungs of the reconstructive ladder can be applied to scalp reconstruction, albeit in a nuanced fashion due to the unique anatomy and vascular supply to the scalp. Important defect variables to incorporate into the reconstructive decision include site, potential hairline distortion, size, depth, concomitant infection, prior radiation therapy, planned adjuvant therapy, medical comorbidities, patient desires, and potential calvarium and dura defects. 10.1055/s-0041-1722914
Management of Scalp Injuries. Yoon Joshua,Puthumana Joseph S,Nam Arthur J Oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics of North America Soft tissue wounds in the scalp are a common occurrence after trauma or resection of a malignancy. The reconstructive surgeon should strive to use the simplest reconstructive technique while optimizing aesthetic outcomes. In general, large defects with infection, previous irradiation (or require postoperative radiation), or with calvarial defects usually require reconstruction with vascularized tissue (ie, microvascular free tissue transfer). Smaller defects greater than 3 cm that are not amenable to primary closure can be treated with local flap reconstruction. In all cases, the reconstruction method will need be tailored to the patient's health status, desires, and aesthetic considerations. 10.1016/j.coms.2021.05.001
Reconstruction of a secondary scalp defect using the crane principle and a split-thickness skin graft. Lu Yi,Chang Ke-Chung,Chang Che-Ning,Chang Dun-Hao BMC surgery BACKGROUND:Scalp reconstruction is a common challenge for surgeons, and there are many different treatment choices. The "crane principle" is a technique that temporarily transfers a scalp flap to the defect to deposit subcutaneous tissue. The flap is then returned to its original location, leaving behind a layer of soft tissue that is used to nourish a skin graft. Decades ago, it was commonly used for forehead scalp defects, but this useful technique has been seldom reported on in recent years due to the improvement of microsurgical techniques. Previous reports mainly used the crane principle for the primary defects, and here we present a case with its coincidental application to deal with a complication of a secondary defect. CASE REPORT:We present a case of a 75-year-old female patient with a temporoparietal scalp squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). After tumor excision, the primary defect was reconstructed using a transposition flap and the donor site was covered by a split-thickness skin graft (STSG). Postoperatively, the occipital skin graft was partially lost resulting in skull bone exposure. For this secondary defect, we applied the crane principle to the previously rotated flap as a salvage procedure and skin grafting to the original tumor location covered by a viable galea fascia in 1.5 months. Both the flap and skin graft healed uneventfully. CONCLUSIONS:Currently, the crane principle is a little-used technique because of the familiarity of microsurgery. Nevertheless, the concept is still useful in selected cases, especially for the management of previous flap complications. 10.1186/s12893-021-01056-y
Large Scalp Defect Repair with Flap Reconstruction Using Tissue Expander After Combined Bypass in Case of Moyamoya Disease. Jayapaul Pushkaran,Lee Jung Ho,Park Ik Seong World neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Combined revascularization is the preferred surgical management of adult Moyamoya disease. However, postoperative flap necrosis of the scalp is not an uncommon complication. We investigated the role of scalp incision design on the basis of the course of the superficial temporal artery (STA) to prevent postoperative scalp necrosis. The utility of tissue expander in wide scalp defect repair is explored. CASE DESCRIPTION:A 13-year-old female patient underwent STA-to-middle cerebral artery anastomosis and encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis due to ischemic symptoms. However, she suffered from wide scalp necrosis measuring 10.5 × 10 cm after bypass surgery. Conventional rotational scalp flap reconstruction was impossible due to the wide defect, and therefore split thickness skin graft was considered. However, aesthetic compromise or hair loss is a psychologic burden in an adolescent female. Two tissue expanders were inserted under the contralateral normal scalp, and a gradual expansion was achieved by saline infusion for 3 months. Finally, a wide scalp flap, which covered the large defect, was obtained using this procedure. The patient underwent rotational flap advancement and was discharged without any hair loss wound. CONCLUSIONS:Miserable scalp flap design results in a large scalp defect during combined bypass surgery. However, tissue expanders aided the reconstruction of a large scalp defect. Reconstruction using tissue expanders and advancement of local rotation flap is recommended in case of large scalp necrosis. The procedure yields cosmetically superior outcomes due to scalp hair conservation and concealment of postoperative scar behind the hair line. 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.08.221
Customized polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants are associated with similar hospital length of stay compared to autologous bone used in cranioplasty procedures. Journal of the neurological sciences OBJECTIVE:Cranioplasty is the surgical repair of cranial defects. Throughout its history, a number of different materials have been used, however, there is still no consensus on which material or method is best. The purpose of this study was to analyze the viability of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cranioplasty to autologous cranioplasty modalities. METHODS:A single-institution retrospective analysis of patients undergoing cranioplasties was performed. Patients were divided to PEEK and autologous cranioplasty cohorts. Parameters of interest included patient demographics and perioperative outcomes. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:A total of 66 patients met the inclusion criteria (PEEK: 22, autologous: 44). There were 36 males (54.5%) and 30 females (45.5%). Mean age of the entire cohort was 51.7 years (range 19-85 years). Baseline demographics were similar in both cohorts as measured by the modified frailty index (mFI) (p = 0.67). Univariate analysis revealed a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LoS) associated with the autologous group (p = 0.02). However, multivariate analysis did not yield such an association (p = 0.06) after controlling for mFI. Although the individual postoperative complication rates were similar between the two cohorts, autologous cranioplasty was associated with a significantly higher rate of total postoperative complications (65.9% vs 36.4%, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION:Overall, PEEK biomaterials may offer a superior complication profile with similar hospital LoS compared to autologous bone implants used in cranioplasty. Future studies are warranted to validate our findings and further evaluate the utility of PEEK in cranioplasty. 10.1016/j.jns.2022.120169
Surgical repair and secondary cranioplasty of poly-ether-ether-ketone implants in an infant with occipital meningoencephalocele. Asian journal of surgery 10.1016/j.asjsur.2023.03.006
Perioperative management and prevention of postoperative complications in patients undergoing cranioplasty with polyetheretherketone. Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to compare the incidence of postoperative complications in patients undergoing cranioplasty with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) materials under different perioperative management schemes and summarize and describe a perioperative bundle to reduce patients' postoperative complications and improve patient outcomes. METHOD:We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 69 patients who had undergone craniotomy with PEEK materials in the neurosurgery department of our hospital between June 2017 and June 2021. Patients who had received conventional treatment were defined as the conventional group (29 cases), and those who had received the improved scheme were defined as the improved group (40 cases). The early complications of the two groups were compared, and the long-term effects were observed. RESULTS:The early total complication rates of the conventional and the improved groups were 55.2% and 32.5%, respectively, without any significant difference (P = 0.06), and the long-term complication rates were 24.1% and 7.5%, respectively, with no significant difference (P = 0.112). The incidence of epidural effusion in the improved group was significantly lower than that in the conventional group, with no significant difference in the incidence of complications, such as intracranial pneumatosis, epidural hemorrhage, new seizures and intracerebral hemorrhage. There was no difference in long-term complications, such as seizures, incision infections, and implant exposure. CONCLUSION:Epidural effusion after cranioplasty with PEEK materials is common. This study's improved perioperative bundle can effectively reduce the occurrence of epidural effusion after skull repair. 10.1016/j.bjps.2023.05.019
Additively manufactured polyether ether ketone (PEEK) skull implant as an alternative to titanium mesh in cranioplasty. International journal of bioprinting 173Cranioplasty is used for skull defects, involving lifting the scalp and restoring the contour of the skull with the original skull piece, titanium mesh, or solid biomaterial. Additive manufacturing (AM) technology, known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is now utilized by medical professionals to develop customized replicas of tissues, organs and bones, offering a valid option with perfect anatomic fitting in the individual and skeletal reconstruction. Here, we report a case that underwent titanium mesh cranioplasty 15 years ago. The poor appearance of the titanium mesh weakened the left eyebrow arch and resulted in the formation of a sinus tract. Cranioplasty was performed using an additively manufactured polyether ether ketone (PEEK) skull implant. PEEK skull implants have been successfully implanted without any complications. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of direct use of fused filament fabrication (FFF)-fabricated PEEK implant for cranial repair. The FFF-printed PEEK customized skull implant could possess simultaneously with adjustable material thickness and more complex structure, tunable mechanical properties, and low processing costs compared with traditional manufacturing processes. While meeting clinical needs, this production method is an appropriate alternative for promoting the use of PEEK materials in cranioplasty. 10.18063/ijb.v9i1.634
State-of-Art of Standard and Innovative Materials Used in Cranioplasty. Polymers Cranioplasty is the surgical technology employed to repair a traumatic head injury, cerebrovascular disease, oncology resection and congenital anomalies. Actually, different bone substitutes are used, either derived from biological products such as hydroxyapatite and demineralized bone matrix or synthetic ones such as sulfate or phosphate ceramics and polymer-based substitutes. Considering that the choice of the best material for cranioplasty is controversial, linked to the best operation procedure, the intent of this review was to report the outcome of research conducted on materials used for such applications, comparing the most used materials. The most interesting challenge is to preserve the mechanical properties while improving the bioactivity, porosity, biocompatibility, antibacterial properties, lowering thickness and costs. Among polymer materials, polymethylmethacrylate and polyetheretherketone are the most motivating, due to their biocompatibility, rigidity and toughness. Other biomaterials, with ecofriendly attributes, such as polycaprolactone and polylactic acid have been investigated, due to their microstructure that mimic the trabecular bone, encouraging vascularization and cell-cell communications. Taking into consideration that each material must be selected for specific clinical use, the main limitation remains the defects and the lack of vascularization, consequently porous synthetic substitutes could be an interesting way to support a faster and wider vascularization, with the aim to improve patient prognosis. 10.3390/polym13091452
Outcome and risk factors of complications after cranioplasty with polyetheretherketone and titanium mesh: A single-center retrospective study. Frontiers in neurology Background:To compare the incidence of complications and constructive effects of cranioplasty with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and titanium mesh after decompressive craniectomy, and to further explore potential risk factors of postoperative and post-discharge complications. Methods:A retrospective study was conducted on 211 patients who underwent PEEK or titanium mesh cranioplasty in the Department of Neurosurgery of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, between July 2017 and September 2021. Demographic data, imaging data, and postoperative complications were recorded and statistically analyzed. Long-term effects and satisfaction degree were evaluated based on following-up telephone survey. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze risk factors of postoperative and post-discharge complications of PEEK and titanium cranioplasty. Results:The total postoperative complication rates of the PEEK and titanium mesh groups were 38.7 and 51.4% ( = 0.063), and post-discharge complication rates were 34.7 and 36.0% ( = 0.703), respectively. The incidence of pneumocephalus during hospitalization (33.3% vs. 6.6%, < 0.001) and epidural effusion in the titanium mesh group were significantly higher than that in the PEEK group (18.0 vs. 6.6%, = 0.011). Patients in PEEK group were less likely to occur subcutaneous effusion after discharge than in TI group (2.0 vs. 10.5%, = 0.013). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a history of ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) before CP was an independent risk factor for postoperative overall complications ( = 0.023). Either superficial ( < 0.001) or intracranial infection ( = 0.001) was a risk factor for implant failure. Depressed skull defects ( = 0.024) and cranioplasty with titanium cranioplasty ( < 0.001) were associated with increased incidence of early pneumocephalus. Conclusion:There were no differences in overall postoperative and post-discharge complication rates between the titanium mesh and PEEK. A history of VPS before cranioplasty was an independent risk factor for postoperative overall complications, and infection was a risk factor for implant failure. Finally, depression skull defects and titanium mesh implants increased the incidence of postoperative pneumocephalus. Our results aim to promote a better understanding of PEEK and titanium cranioplasty and to help both clinicians and patients make better choices on implant materials. 10.3389/fneur.2022.926436
Split-thickness skin graft strips obtained with DermaBlade to cover large surgical defects on scalp. Querol-Cisneros Elena,Redondo Pedro Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 10.1016/j.jaad.2017.11.038
[Effects of anteriolateral thigh perforator flap and fascia lata transplantation in combination with computed tomography angiography on repair of electrical burn wounds of head with skull exposure and necrosis]. Li X Q,Wang X,Han Y L,Ji G,Chen Z H,Zhang J,Zhu J P,Duan J X,He Y J,Yang X M,Liu W J Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns To explore the effects of anteriolateral thigh perforator flap and fascia lata transplantation in combination with computed tomography angiography (CTA) on repair of electrical burn wounds of head with skull exposure and necrosis. Seven patients with head electrical burns accompanied by skull exposure and necrosis were admitted to our burn center from March 2016 to December 2017. Head CTA was performed before the operation. The diameters of the facial artery and vein or the superficial temporal artery and vein were measured, and their locations were marked on the body surface. Preoperative CTA for flap donor sites in lower extremities were also performed to track the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery with the similar diameter as the recipient vessels on the head, and their locations were marked on the body surface. Routine wound debridement and skull drilling were performed successively. The size of the wounds after debridement ranged from 12 cm×8 cm to 20 cm×12 cm, and the areas of skull exposure ranged from 8 cm×6 cm to 15 cm×10 cm. Anteriolateral thigh perforator flaps with areas from 13 cm×9 cm to 21 cm×13 cm containing 5-10 cm long vascular pedicles were designed and dissected accordingly. The fascia lata under the flap with area from 5 cm×2 cm to 10 cm×3 cm was dissected according to the length of vascular pedicle. The fascia lata was transplanted to cover the exposed skull, and the anteriolateral thigh perforator flap was transplanted afterwards. The descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery and its accompanying vein of the flap were anastomosed with superficial temporal artery and vein or facial artery and vein before the suture of flap. The flap donor sites were covered by intermediate split-thickness skin graft collected from contralateral thigh or abdomen. The descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery and its accompanying vein were anastomosed with superficial temporal artery and vein in six patients, while those with facial artery and vein in one patient. All the flaps survived after the operation, and no vascular crisis was observed. Wound healing was satisfactory. One patient was lost to follow up. Six patients were followed up for 6 to 10 months. The patients were bald in the head operation area with acceptable appearance. No psychiatric symptom such as headache or epileptic seizure was reported. The flap donor sites were normal in appearance. The muscle strength of the lower extremities all reached grade V. The sensation and movement of the lower extremities were normal. Anterolateral thigh perforator flap with fascia lata transplantation can effectively repair electrical burn wounds of head with skull exposure and necrosis. The fascia lata can be used to protect the vascular pedicle of flaps, which is beneficial to the survival of the flap. Preoperative head and lower extremities CTA can provide reference for intraoperative vascular exploration in donor site and recipient area, so as to shorten operation time. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1009-2587.2018.05.006
Reconstruction of a Complex Scalp Defect after the Failure of Free Flaps: Changing Plans and Strategy. Kim Youn Hwan,Kim Gyeong Hoe,Kim Sang Wha Archives of craniofacial surgery The ideal scalp reconstruction involves closure of the defect with similar hair-bearing local tissue in a single step. Various reconstructions can be used including primary closure, secondary healing, skin grafts, local flaps, and microvascular tissue transfer. A 53-year-old female patient suffered glioblastoma, which had recurred for the second time. The neurosurgeons performed radial debridement and an additional resection of the tumor, followed by reconstruction using a serratus anterior muscle flap with a split-thickness skin graft. Unfortunately, the flap became completely useless and a bilateral rotation flap was used to cover the defect. Two month later, seroma with infection was found due to recurrence of the tumor. Additional surgery was performed using multiple perforator based island flap. The patient was discharged two weeks after surgery without any complications, but two months later, the patient died. Radical surgical resection of tumor is the most important curative option, followed by functional and aesthetic reconstruction. We describe a patient with a highly malignant tumor that required multiple resections and subsequent reconstruction. Repeated recurrences of the tumor led to the failure of reconstruction and our strategy inevitably changed, from reconstruction to palliative treatment involving fast and stable wound closure for the patient's comfort. 10.7181/acfs.2017.18.2.112
One-Step Triple-Layer Reconstruction of an Exposed Calvarium in a Patient With Radiated Tinea Capitis. Shay Tamir,Har-Shai Lior,Cohen Avi A,Ad-El Dean D The Journal of craniofacial surgery Full-thickness large scalp defects with underlying exposed calvarium pose a significant reconstructive challenge. Traditional reconstructive techniques are usually not an option in patients with irradiated scalp with thin skin and reduced laxity.Dermal substitutes-based reconstruction techniques have been described in recent years. A common approach is the staged methodology, with the initial application of skin substitute followed by a split-thickness skin graft few weeks later; however, this method involves a prolonged period of local wound management prior to skin grafting and is often associated with complications that interfere with wound healing.This report describes a single-stage triple-layer technique for the reconstruction of a large scalp defect with exposed bone in a patient with a history of radiation treatment, using 3 turnover pericranial flaps in conjunction with a Matriderm dermal substitute and split-thickness skin graft. This immediate multilayered reconstruction provides a long-lasting structural and aesthetic outcome, with minimal donor site morbidity and reduced complications. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005754
Use of an epidermal growth factor-infused foam dressing in a complicated case of Adams-Oliver syndrome. Sezgin B,Sibar S,Findikcioglu K,Sencan A,Emmez H,Baykaner K,Ozmen S Journal of wound care Adams-Oliver syndrome is a rare disorder with varying degrees of scalp and cranial bone defects as well as limb anomalies, which can range from mild to more pronounced manifestations. In mild cases, closure of these defects can be achieved with a conservative approach. However, surgical closure is recommended in cases where the defect is extensive and includes cranial involvement. Several complicated cases of Adams-Oliver syndrome have been reported, in which flap failures were encountered and other alternatives had to be used to close critical scalp defects. Here, the case of a 4-year-old child with Adams-Oliver syndrome and a complex cranial defect with exposed titanium mesh is described. The patient was successfully treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) infused foam dressings and subsequent split-thickness skin grafting. The EGF has been highlighted for its essential role in dermal wound repair through the stimulation of the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes, and showed accelerated wound healing when used in partial or full-thickness skin wounds. 10.12968/jowc.2017.26.6.342
Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) after Hybrid Reconstruction of Occipital Pressure Sore Using Local Flap and Skin Graft. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) Pressure sores are a common medical burden among patients, particularly those who are bedridden or frail. Surgical management of occipital pressure sores poses unique challenges due to limited elasticity and the spherical shape of the scalp. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel reconstruction method utilizing a local transpositional flap and split-thickness skin graft with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for occipital pressure sore treatment. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with occipital pressure sores who underwent hybrid reconstructions using a local flap and split-thickness skin graft in conjunction with NPWT. Surgical outcomes, including flap survival rate, graft take percentage, and complications, were assessed. A comparative analysis was performed between the NPWT group and the conventional dressing group. The NPWT group ( = 24) demonstrated a significantly higher mean graft take percentage at postoperative day 14 compared with the conventional dressing group (n = 22) (98.2% vs. 81.2%, < 0.05). No significant difference in flap survival rate was observed between the two groups. As the aging population continues to grow, occipital pressure sores have gained significant attention as a crucial medical condition. The innovative surgical method incorporating NPWT offers an efficient and safe treatment option for patients with occipital pressure sores, potentially establishing itself as the future gold standard for managing this condition. 10.3390/medicina59071342
A thin superficial temporalis artery revealed by total necrosis of an island scalp flap, a case report. Amouzou Komla Séna,Mokako Jacques Lisenga,El Youssoufi Ahlam,El Harti Amine,Diouri Mounia International journal of surgery case reports INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE:The superficial temporalis artery (STA) counts as one of the most reliable blood supplies capable of supporting the vascularization of the entire scalp. Therefore, total necrosis of a scalp flap based on the superficial temporalis artery is a rare complication. CASE PRESENTATION:A 43-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and cerebral stroke presented to our consultation for fronto-parietal scalp alopecia. The scar was the result of spontaneous healing of a chemical burn that occurred eight months earlier. We performed the first step of scalp expansion and raised a parietal expanded goblet island flap based on the right STA. In the postoperative period, the flap developed progressive necrosis. Despite the release of tension and stab incisions, the flap failed in a week. An angio-MRI revealed a thin STA on the right compared to the left side. After debridement, the necrosis was superficial, deep galea, and some subcutaneous tissues were viable. We performed a split-thickness skin graft that achieved a total wound closure. CLINICAL DISCUSSION:An extensive exploration of the vascular supply of the scalp before raising a scalp flap is not a common rule. The anatomical variation that we discovered as a thin superficial temporal artery may have explained the total failure of this flap surgery. CONCLUSION:Surgeons should keep in mind the possible existence of a detrimental anatomical variation when planning a single pedicled scalp flap. 10.1016/j.ijscr.2021.105708
Effect of Unshaven Hair with Absorbable Sutures and Early Postoperative Shampoo on Cranial Surgery Site Infection. Oh Won-Oak,Yeom Insun,Kim Dong-Seok,Park Eun-Kyung,Shim Kyu-Won Pediatric neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Cranial surgical site infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. Preoperative hair shaving for cranial neurosurgical procedures is performed traditionally in an attempt to protect patients against complications from infections at cranial surgical sites. However, preoperative shaving of surgical incision sites using traditional surgical blades without properly washing the head after surgery can cause infections at surgical sites. Therefore, a rapid protocol in which the scalp remains unshaven and absorbable sutures are used for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is examined in this study. METHODS:A retrospective comparative study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 2,641 patients who underwent unshaven cranial surgery with absorbable sutures for scalp closure were enrolled in this study. Data of 1,882 patients who underwent surgery with the traditional protocol from January 2005 to December 2007 were also analyzed for comparison. RESULTS:Of 2,641 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the rapid protocol, all but 2 (0.07%) patients experienced satisfactory wound healing. Of 1,882 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the traditional protocol, 3 patients (0.15%) had infections. Each infection occurred at the superficial incisional surgical site. CONCLUSION:Unshaven cranial surgery using absorbable sutures for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is safe and effective in the cranial neurosurgery setting. This protocol has a positive psychological effect. It can help patients accept neurosurgical procedures and improve their self-image after the operation. 10.1159/000481437
Intraoperative Tissue Expansion Using a Foley Catheter for a Scalp Defect: Technical Note. Funakoshi Yusuke,Shono Tadahisa,Kurogi Ai,Maehara Naoki,Hata Nobuhiro,Mizoguchi Masahiro World neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Primary closure of the surgical wound during neurosurgical procedures is sometimes difficult because of limited ability to expand the scalp, or because the skin defect is large. Hence, our institution recently adopted the technique of intraoperative tissue expansion using a Foley catheter for these cases. We describe this easily accomplished, readily available, effective, economical technique and describe our experience performing the technique. METHODS:With this procedure, the subcutaneous tissue (usually the subperiosteal layer) surrounding the skin defect is dissected to make a subcutaneous pocket in which to place a 20-French Foley catheter. The standard expander is a 30-mL balloon. The catheter is inserted into the subcutaneous pocket, and the balloon is inflated with 10-30 mL of saline for 5 minutes, after which the balloon is deflated for 3 minutes in a cyclic loading manner. After sufficient expansion, the primary closure of the surgical wound is achieved with minimal tension on the surrounding skin. RESULTS:Between November 2018 and February 2020, we performed this technique in 5 patients, each with a large surgical defect in the scalp. Primary closure was achieved, and postoperative wound healing was excellent in all 5 patients. CONCLUSIONS:Intraoperative skin expansion using a Foley catheter-which is easily performed, readily available, and economical-can be used to achieve surgical wound closure during various neurosurgical procedures. 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.07.096
The Visor Flap: A Novel Design for Scalp Wound Closure. Hwang Lisa,Ford Ni-Ka,Spitz Jamie,Ellis Marco The Journal of craniofacial surgery Full-thickness scalp defects pose a reconstructive problem in the setting of infection, radiation, and underlying calvarial defects. Current options include dermal matrices, skin grafts, and local fasciocutaneous flaps. Free tissue transfer is frequently required when scalp-based flaps fail or the wound is significantly large or complex. The authors present 7 patients of complex scalp defect reconstruction using the novel visor flap. The visor flap is a bipedicled advancement flap with a triangular posterior extension. The flap was designed to redistribute tension over a large surface area that prioritizes tension-free closure of the wound over a relatively small remote donor site. This method achieved complete primary healing of the recipient site in all patients. This flap design is a durable adjunct to minimize donor site morbidity and avoid microsurgical reconstruction of hostile scalp wounds. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000003332
Uncommon presentations of a neurosurgical site infection: impaired wound healing with hypergranulation and crust formation. Acta neurochirurgica Hypergranulation and crust formation after cranial neurosurgery is rare. We report three patients with an uncommon form of hypergranulation with extensive crust formation after cranial neurosurgery, associated with a St. Aureus infection of the scalp, and propose that this is a form of pyogenic dermatitis, as is commonly seen among domestic animals with a coat of fur. It can be treated conservatively. We propose a treatment algorithm. 10.1007/s00701-021-05041-5
Second Intention Healing of a Large Surgical Defect of the Scalp. Barklund J Sigrid,Brown Mariah Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.] 10.1097/DSS.0000000000002267
Integra in Scalp Reconstruction After Tumor Excision: Recommendations From a Multidisciplinary Advisory Board. Magnoni Cristina,De Santis Giorgio,Fraccalvieri Marco,Bellini Pietrantonio,Portincasa Aurelio,Giacomelli Luca,Papa Giovanni The Journal of craniofacial surgery Integra is a dermal regeneration template used in the reconstruction of burns, traumatic injuries, or excision lesions in patients who present particular risk factors for traditional surgical procedures. A multidisciplinary advisory board of expert dermatologists and plastic surgeons have discussed the use of Integra in the reconstruction of scalp defects after tumor excision, focusing on the evidence derived from literature and on their experience in the treatment of approximately 400 patients. In this position paper, the authors summarize the main evidence discussed during the board, and the common practice guidelines proposed by the experts. The use of Integra is recommended in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities who have a higher risk for potential complications in traditional surgery; these patients may in fact benefit from a lower anesthetic risk, a less complicated postsurgical care and limited morbidity at the donor site obtained with the dermal template. Integra should also be used in the reconstruction of large and complex wounds and in case of bone exposure, as it helps to overcome the challenges related to wound healing in difficult areas. Notably, Integra has proven to be effective in patients who have undergone previous surgical procedures or adjuvant radiation therapy, in which previous incisions, scarring and radiation damages may hamper the effectiveness of traditional procedures. Finally, Integra is recommended in patients with recurrent and aggressive tumors who need closer tumor surveillance, as it gives easy access to the tumor site for oncologic follow-up examination. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005717
Adoption of a Newly Introduced Dermal Matrix: Preliminary Experience and Future Directions. Lisa Andrea Vittorio Emanuele,Galtelli Leonardo,Vinci Valeriano,Veronesi Alessandra,Cozzaglio Luca,Cananzi Ferdinando Carlo Maria,Sicoli Federico,Klinger Marco BioMed research international Introduction:Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) products are adopted in the management of injuries to soft tissues. ADMs have been increasingly employed for their clinical advantages, and they are acquiring relevance in the future of plastic surgery. The aim of our study is to evaluate the application of ADMs in our patients who could not undergo fast reconstruction. Materials and Methods:We performed a retrospective study on 12 patients who underwent ADM placement for scalp and limb surgical reconstructions at the Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano (Milano), Italy. Wounds resulted from 9 tumor resections and 3 chronic ulcers. The ADM substrate used to treat these lesions was PELNAC™ (Gunze, Japan), a double-layered matrix composed of atelocollagen porcine tendon and silicon reinforcement. All patients underwent a second surgical operation to complete the treatment with a full-thickness skin graft to cover the lesion. Results:In this study, 12 patients were treated with PELNAC™: 11 out of 12 patients showed a good attachment over a median time of 21.3 days (range 14-27). After almost 23 days, all patients were ready to undergo a full-thickness skin grafting. Conclusion:This study assesses the benefits of PELNAC™ and proposes this method as an alternative to traditional approaches, especially in situations where the latter techniques cannot be applied. 10.1155/2020/3261318
Bucket-Handle Bipedicled Scalp Flaps for Coverage of Cranial Constructs in Cranioplasty. Devulapalli Chris,Mercaitis Orion Paul,Orbe Maria,Salgado Christopher J The Journal of craniofacial surgery Composite frontal scalp defects involving the frontal bone and full thickness scalp can pose a reconstructive challenge. Often, they necessitate the use of microsurgical free tissue transfer, which can be physiologically demanding in high-risk patients with multiple comorbidities, with exposure to prolonged general anesthesia time and increased surgical morbidity. The experience of a single surgeon was reviewed with reconstruction of composite frontal scalp wounds in 4 patients with structural framework and a bipedicled scalp advancement (ie, "bucket handle") flap, thus obviating the need for free tissue transfer. All 4 patients demonstrated complete wound healing by final follow-up, without need for further reoperations or ulcer recurrence. In face of composite frontal scalp defects in less than ideal candidates for lengthy microsurgical flap procedures, the bucket-handle flap can provide a simple and reliable reconstructive option. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004832
Palliative Coverage of Cranial Defect following Failed Cranial Flap for Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Case Report. Makler Vyacheslav,Litt Jeffrey S,Litofsky N Scott Journal of palliative medicine INTRODUCTION:With advanced-stage head and neck cancers, patients may develop large and/or complex wounds despite multiple reconstruction attempts. Wound coverage may require novel approaches to palliate the patient. METHOD:We present the case of a 56-year-old female with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp and skull who required multiple surgical interventions. Despite our best reconstructive efforts, the patient subsequently developed scalp infection and sepsis, necessitating further debridement for source control. She then required coverage of the exposed dura and skull to prevent further infection. RESULTS:The calvarial wound was covered with a dermal regeneration template and held in place by a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device. This coverage prevented additional infection and morbidity, was relatively easy and comfortable to manage, and demonstrated healing and development of granulation. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to her systemic cancer before application of a palliative split-thickness skin graft. CONCLUSION:A VAC device and dermal regeneration template constituted an excellent modality for managing the complex calvarial wound encountered by otolaryngology, neurosurgery, and burn/wound services. The technique provided appropriate palliation for a patient with advanced head and neck cancer. 10.1089/jpm.2017.0258
Excessive Hemostasis on the Scalp Increases Superficial Surgical Site Infection Rate in Cranioplasty. Zheng Wen-Jian,Li Liang-Ming,Hu Zi-Hui,Liao Wei,Lin Qi-Chang,Zhu Yong-Hua,Lin Shao-Hua World neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Cranioplasty is a routine procedure, but it carries a significantly higher complication rate over standard clean cranial surgery. Surgical site infection is the most common but severe complication. Risk factors for surgical site infection are still debated. METHODS:A retrospective survey of 155 patients (≥16 years old) who exclusively underwent customized titanium cranioplasty from April 2014 to January 2017 was performed. Preoperative clinical parameters, surgeon's hemostasis technique, temporalis dissection, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative catheter duration and drainage, postoperative hemorrhage and extradural fluid collection (EDFC), and prophylactic antibiotics were recorded and compared between patients with superficial surgical site infection (sSSI) and patients with non-sSSI. RESULTS:Overall sSSI rate was 10.3%. Binary logistic analysis showed excessive hemostasis on scalp (odds ratio = 10.302, P = 0.000), presence of postoperative EDFC (odds ratio = 12.740, P = 0.003), and postoperative drainage >277 mL (odds ratio = 10.302, P = 0.000) were independent risk factors for sSSI. Patients who received excessive hemostasis had a longer operative time (P = 0.000). A flaccid cranial defect was a protective factor for postoperative EDFC (odds ratio = 0.130, P = 0.044), whereas presence of ventriculoperitoneal shunt could induce EDFC formation (odds ratio = 9.598, P = 0.020). Postoperative subgaleal drainage was correlated to the size of cranial defect (standardized β = 0.347, P = 0.000). Timing of cranioplasty and use of prophylactic antibiotics were not related to sSSI. CONCLUSIONS:Surgeons should lower the hemostasis standard for cranioplasty, as this would promote wound healing and reduce operative time, which subsequently decreases SSI rate. 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.08.172
Reconstruction of composite defects of the scalp and neurocranium-a treatment algorithm from local flaps to combined AV loop free flap reconstruction. Steiner Dominik,Horch Raymund E,Eyüpoglu Ilker,Buchfelder Michael,Arkudas Andreas,Schmitz Marweh,Ludolph Ingo,Beier Justus P,Boos Anja M World journal of surgical oncology BACKGROUND:Reconstruction of cranial composite defects, including all layers of the scalp and the neurocranium, poses an interdisciplinary challenge. Especially after multiple previous operations and/or radiation therapy, sufficient reconstruction is often only possible using microsurgical free flap transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyze the therapy of interdisciplinary cases with composite defects including the scalp and neurocranium. METHODS:From 2009 to 2017, 23 patients with 18 free flaps and 10 pedicled/local flaps were analyzed. First choices for free flaps were muscle flaps followed by fasciocutaneous flaps. RESULTS:Except for four patients, a stable coverage could be reached in the first operation. Three of these patients received a local scalp rotation flap in the first operation and needed an additional free flap because the local flap was no longer sufficient for coverage after wound healing deficiency or tumor relapse. The superficial temporal artery or external carotid artery served as recipient vessels. In special cases, venous grafts or an arteriovenous loop (AV loop) were used as extensions for the recipient vessels. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, an interdisciplinary approach with radical debridement of infected or necrotic tissue and the reconstruction of the dura mater are essential to reach a stable, long-lasting reconstructive result. Based on our experience, free flaps seem to be the first choice for patients after multiple previous operations and/or radiation therapy. 10.1186/s12957-018-1517-0
Non-healing surgical wound with exposed bone. Dissemond Joachim Journal of wound care 10.12968/jowc.2020.29.Sup10a.S11
Therapeutic strategies for retention of cranioplasty titanium mesh after mesh exposure. Acta neurochirurgica BACKGROUND:Titanium mesh exposure after cranioplasty is a possible complication and is usually managed by mesh removal and flap transfer, but the advantages of the rigid prosthesis are then lost. This study aimed to present our experience with negative pressure wound therapy combined with soft tissue dilation for retaining the titanium mesh in patients with mesh exposure after cranioplasty. METHODS:This retrospective study included patients treated between 01/2016 and 05/2019 at the Jiangyin Hospital Affiliated to Southeast University School of Medicine. The wound was cleaned, and a cystic space was created for the tissue dilator, which was used with a self-designed negative pressure dressing. After the target dilation was achieved, the repair was conducted while retaining the titanium mesh. RESULTS:Eight patients were included (seven males and one female; 53.6 ± 8.8 (range, 43-65) years of age). The exposed mesh area ranged from 1 × 1 to 4 × 5.5 cm. The thinning scalp area around the exposed mesh ranged from 3.6 × 3.8 to 4 × 5.5 cm. Five patients had positive wound cultures and received sensitive antibiotics. The dilator embedding time was 20-28 days. The time of negative pressure wound therapy was 25-33 days. The hospital stay was 30-41 days. Primary wound healing was achieved in all eight patients. There were no signs of recurrence after 6-18 months of follow-up. The cranial CT scans were unremarkable. CONCLUSIONS:Negative pressure wound therapy combined with soft tissue dilation for exposed titanium mesh after cranioplasty might help retain the titanium mesh. 10.1007/s00701-022-05365-w
[The application of amodified scalp retractor in the craniotomy for intracranial aneurysms]. Zhonghua yi xue za zhi To investigate the application of a modified scalp retractor in the craniotomy for intracranial aneurysms withlateral supraorbital approach. From January 2019 to April 2020, a total of 32 patients with anterior circulation aneurysms clipping by superior lateral orbital approach were selected from Beijing Tiantan Hospital and Peking University International Hospital. The subjects were randomly divided into the traditional scalp retractor group and the modified scalp retractor group utilizing a random number table, with 16 patients in each group. The number of intraoperative retractor adjustment, incision length, postoperative scalp necrosis rate, postoperative wound healing grade, postoperative neurosurgical satisfaction score and patients' satisfaction score for incision were compared between the two groups. The number of retractor adjustment in the modified scalp retractors group was significantly less than that in the traditional scalp retractor group (10.1±2.2 vs 14.2±3.6, 0.05) . Incision length was also significantly shorter than that of the conventional scalp retractor group ( (10.1±1.0) cm vs (13.9±0.9) cm, 0.05) .Neurosurgeons were significantly more satisfied with modified scalp retractors than the traditional scalp retractors (8.1±0.9 vs 6.0±0.9, 0.05). There was no significant difference in postoperative scalp necrosis rate between two groups (0.05). The modified scalp retractor group is superior to the traditional scalp retractor group in the craniotomy for intracranial aneurysms with later supraorbital approach, with shorter in cision, less retractor adjustment and shorter surgical time. 10.3760/cma.j.cn112137-20200529-01705
Reconstruction of Moderate-Sized Scalp Defects: A 1-2-3 Rule. Russo F Actas dermo-sifiliograficas BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Excision of cutaneous scalp tumors results in surgical defects that are difficult to repair because of poor distensibility in this area of the body. The main aim of this study was to develop a structured algorithm to help choose the best technique for reconstructing scalp defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Retrospective study of patients who required surgical reconstruction following excision of a cutaneous scalp tumor. We excluded patients with defects that could be closed by simple direct suture and defects for which it was initially decided to use a skin graft or healing by secondary intention. The defects were classified into 5 groups according to the minimum distance between edges. The different reconstruction techniques used were evaluated in each group. The outcomes analyzed were complete defect closure, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and final aesthetic result. RESULTS:We included 119 patients (102 men and 17 women) with a mean age of 71 years (range, 32-93 years). Mean follow-up was 42 months (range, 6-120 months). Sixty-eight patients had a moderate-sized defect with a distance between edges of 1 to 4cm. Reconstructions started with relaxation incisions in 43 defects and resulted in the successful closure of 22 of them. Defects with a distance of 1 to 2cm required a single relaxation incision. Two incisions were required for defects with a distance of 2 to 3cm, while 3 incisions were required for those with a distance of 3 to 4cm. In the 21 cases in which relaxation incisions were insufficient to close the defect, the incisions were extended to mobilize the flap to achieve closure. Relaxation incisions alone were insufficient for closing defects with a distance greater than 4cm. CONCLUSIONS:The 1-2-3 rule can help in choosing the best reconstruction technique for moderate-sized defects based on the principle that 1, 2, or 3 initial relaxation incisions are needed depending on the minimum distance between edges (1-2cm, 2-3cm, or 3-4cm). In all cases, incision extension to mobilize the corresponding flaps remains an option. 10.1016/j.ad.2019.01.002
Venous Congestion in Pedicled Frontal Branch Superficial Temporal Artery Flaps Reconstructions for Head and Neck Defects: A Review. Loh Charles Yuen Yung,Shanmugakrishnan R Raja,Nizamoglu Metin,Tan Alethea,Duarte Marco,Khan Waseem Ullah,El-Muttardi Naguib Annals of plastic surgery The superficial temporal artery (STA) flap is a versatile flap for head and neck defect reconstruction. It can be based on the frontal branch of the STA and an islanded 360-degree rotation arc for various defects on the scalp, cheek, and auricular region. It provides a nonmicrosurgical option for reconstructing such defects, which is itself relatively easy to perform. However, venous congestion is a problem than often can cause worry to the clinician and hence preclude its use. In this review, we revisit this flap in head and neck reconstruction, with case examples used for reconstruction of defects on the scalp, maxilla, lip, ear, and retroauricular area. The STA flap in our review can be used either as a fasciocutaneous flap or with its fascia alone. The main issue with the STA flap is that it is generally a high-inflow flap with variable outflow. Venous congestion is frequently encountered in our practice, and adequate management of the venous drainage in the postoperative period is crucial in ensuring its success as a versatile and viable option for head and neck reconstruction. 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001602
Complications After Scalp Suturing Posttraumatic Avulsion. Fijałkowska Marta,Antoszewski Bogusław The Journal of craniofacial surgery Scalp avulsion is a rare but severe trauma. Most cases of this injury happened as a result of hair entrapment in a high-speed rotating machine. Treatment of scalp avulsion can be challenging. Nowadays, microsurgical scalp replantation has become the treatment of choice. However, there are situations in which replantation or even usage of scalp as composite grafts is not possible. The aim of this paper is to present 2 cases of scalp avulsion, which needed split-thickness skin graft for covering posttraumatic scalp loss. Closing large scalp defects after its avulsion by skin graft is still a viable option, especially when replantation and even usage of scalp as a composite graft is not achievable. Scalp shaving is mandatory before any surgical procedures. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004764
Hyalomatrix coverage in scalp wounds with exposed cranium and dura. Journal of wound care AIM:The armamentarium of options available for soft tissue reconstruction of the scalp spans the reconstructive ladder. The purpose of this paper is to describe a case series of patients with exposed cranium and dura who were successfully reconstructed using esterified hyalomatrix (eHAM, Hyalomatrix, Medline Industries Inc., US). METHODS:After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective review of the senior author's (ALF) patient database was completed. Patients who underwent scalp reconstruction using eHAM were identified. Each patient's chart was reviewed and data collected on demographics, days to skin graft, duration of follow-up, pathology, comorbidities and complications. RESULTS:This case series consisted of five patients aged ≥18 years, with scalp wounds exposing dura or cranium, who were treated with eHAM as a bridge to definitive coverage with a skin graft. Each wound successfully granulated the exposed critical structure with the use of the eHAM. The mean time to skin graft coverage was 41 days, with a range of 13-79 days. Of the series of five patients, four had a follow-up of ≥12 weeks. The mean defect size was 90.2cm. CONCLUSION:Complex scalp reconstruction can be accomplished using healing by secondary intention, skin grafts, local flaps, tissue expansion and free tissue transfer. As shown in this case series, another option available in select patients is using a dermal substitute such as eHAM. This is one treatment option available to reconstructive surgeons in multiple specialties. 10.12968/jowc.2023.32.4.206
Trepanation of the Outer Table as a Treatment for Scalping Injuries: Historical Perspective and Modern Applications. Katsevman Gennadiy A,Brandmeir Nicholas J World neurosurgery Complex cranial wounds represent complex surgical problems. In modern times, these are mostly due to accidental trauma. During the period of the American Frontier, violent scalping was a common practice. Innovative techniques were utilized to improve outcomes for this condition that still have relevance in today's practice. We provide a historical perspective with vignettes that identify survivors of violent scalping from the American Frontier as well as the surgical techniques used to treat them. The techniques identified were then modified for modern practice and applied to a complex cranial wound. A review of primary and secondary historical sources was carried out. Nine separate incidences of violent scalping were identified from this period. Successful treatment relied on exposure of the diploe leading to granulation tissue formation and eventual scalp coverage. This was accomplished as a byproduct of the violence of the scalping or as an application of the technique first described by Augustin Belloste in 1696. Application of this technique in a modern setting may allow for improved wound healing. Trepanation of the outer table to aid in healing and closure of complex cranial wounds has a long history of successful practice and can be successfully applied to modern practice. 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.09.147
Dermatological surgery: an update on suture materials and techniques. Part 1. Ashraf I,Butt E,Veitch D,Wernham A Clinical and experimental dermatology Significant variation exists in the surgical suture materials and techniques used for dermatological surgery. Many wound-closure techniques are now practised, including use of sutures, staples and topical adhesives. The focus of our review article is to summarize the latest evidence relating to suture materials and wound-closure techniques, considering the following areas: scar/cosmesis, pain, patient satisfaction, cost, infection and wound complications. We searched the databases Medline, PubMed and Embase using the keywords 'skin surgery', 'dermatologic surgery', 'sutures', 'suture techniques', 'suturing techniques' and 'surgical techniques' to identify relevant English-language articles. Absorbable superficial sutures may be a preferred alternative to nonabsorbable sutures by both patients and surgeons. Subcuticular sutures may be preferable to simple interrupted sutures for superficial wound closure, and there may also be a role for skin staples in dermatological surgery, particularly on the scalp. However, there remains limited evidence specific to dermatological surgery supporting the use of particular suture materials and suturing techniques. Further high-quality research is required, including multicentre randomized trials with larger cohorts. 10.1111/ced.14770
Secondary Intention Healing Over Exposed Bone on the Scalp, Forehead, and Temple Following Mohs Micrographic Surgery. Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery BACKGROUND:Removal of skin cancers on the scalp, forehead, and temple can result in surgical defects with exposed bone. In such cases, reconstruction becomes challenging due to limited vascularity for flap or graft repair. OBJECTIVE:Demonstrate the usefulness of secondary intention healing of scalp, forehead, and temple defects over exposed bone. METHODS/MATERIALS:A retrospective case series of 41 patients who had Mohs Micrographic Surgery with post-surgical scalp, forehead, or temple defects involving exposed bone. These patients then underwent secondary intention healing. RESULTS:90% of patients successfully healed. Average time to complete granulation was 92 days, and average time to full re-epithelialization was 186 days. Visual analog scale assessment of final scar quality resulted in 57% being good, 35% being fair, and 8% being poor. No patient had infection or other serious complication. Mean follow-up duration was 272 days. CONCLUSION:This case series shows the viability of secondary intention healing of scalp wounds over exposed bone. Study power was not adequate to predict time to complete healing based on defect size, or allow association of patient factors with the risk of nonhealing. Managing patient expectations, and emphasizing the importance of early occlusive wound care is paramount for healing success. 10.1177/12034754221077903
Needle-tip electrocautery versus steel scalpel incision in neurosurgery: study protocol for a prospective single-centre randomised controlled double-blind trial. BMJ open INTRODUCTION:Electrocautery is used widely in surgical procedures, but making skin incision has routinely been performed with scalpel rather than electrocautery, for fear that electrocautery may cause poor incision healing, excessive scarring and increased wound complication rates. More and more studies on general surgery support the use of electrocautery for skin incision, but research comparing the two modalities for scalp incision in neurosurgery remains inadequate. This trial aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of needle-tip monopolar for scalp incision in supratentorial neurosurgery compared with steel scalpel. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:In this prospective, randomised, double-blind trial, 120 eligible patients who are planned to undergo supratentorial neurosurgery will be enrolled. Patients will be randomly assigned to two groups. In controlled group scalp incision will be made with a scalpel from the epidermis to the galea aponeurotica, while in intervention group scalp will be first incised with a steel scalpel from the epidermis to the dermis, and then the subcutaneous tissue and galea aponeurotica will be incised with needle-tip monopolar on cutting mode. The primary outcomes are scar score (at 90 days). The secondary outcomes include incision pain (at 1 day, on discharge, at 90 days) and alopecia around the incision (at 90 days), incision blood loss and incision-related operation time (during operation), incision infection and incision healing (on discharge, at 2 weeks, 90 days). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This trial will be performed according to the principles of Declaration of Helsinki and good clinical practice guidelines. This study has been validated by the ethics committee of West China Hospital. Informed consent will be obtained from each included patient and/or their designated representative. Final results from this trial will be promulgated through publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR2200063243. 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-073444
Wound healing complications after revascularization for moyamoya vasculopathy with reference to different skin incisions. Acker Güliz,Schlinkmann Nicolas,Fekonja Lucius,Grünwald Lukas,Hardt Juliane,Czabanka Marcus,Vajkoczy Peter Neurosurgical focus OBJECTIVEMoyamoya vasculopathy (MMV) is a steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease that can be treated by a surgical revascularization. All the revascularization techniques influence the blood supply of the scalp, with a risk for wound healing disorders. The authors' aim was to analyze the wound healing process in the patients who underwent a direct or combined bypass surgery with a focus on different skin incisions.METHODSThe authors retrospectively identified all the patients with MMV who were treated surgically in their institution. Subsequently, they analyzed demographic data, clinical symptoms, surgical treatment, and detailed history of complications. Based on the evolution of their surgical techniques and the revascularization strategy to be used, the authors applied the following skin incisions: linear incision, curved incision, incomplete Y incision, and complete Y incision. Group comparisons regarding wound healing disorders were performed with significance testing using Fisher's exact test.RESULTSThe authors identified 172 patients with MMV (61.6% moyamoya disease, 7% unilateral moyamoya disease, 29.7% moyamoya syndrome, and 1.7% unilateral moyamoya syndrome), of whom 124 underwent bilateral operations. One-quarter of the patients were juveniles. A total of 236 hemispheres were included in the analysis, of which 27.9% were treated by a combined procedure with encephalomyosynangiosis. Overall, 5.1% major and 1.7% minor wound complications occurred. The overall wound complication rate was lower in direct revascularization compared to combined revascularization (3% vs 15.2%). The lowest incidence of wound healing disorders was found in the linear incision group for the parietal superficial temporal artery branch (1.6%), followed by the incomplete Y incision group for the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery (3.8%) in the direct bypass group. In the combined revascularization cohort, major or minor wound disorders appeared in 14.3% and 4.8%, respectively, in the complete Y incision group and in 4.2% (for both major and minor) in the curved incision group. The complete Y incision caused significantly more wound healing disorders compared to the remaining incision types (17.1% vs 3.1%, p = 0.007).CONCLUSIONSWound healing disorders are one of the major complications of revascularization surgery. Their incidence depends on the revascularization strategy and skin incision applied, with a complete Y incision giving the worst results. 10.3171/2018.11.FOCUS18512
Surgical Treatment of Radiation-Induced Late-Onset Scalp Wound in Patients Who Underwent Brain Tumor Surgery: Lessons from a Case Series. BioMed research international Objective:The management of late-onset scalp wounds following irradiation is troublesome, especially in patients with a surgical history of intracranial neoplasms. It, insidiously, starts with wound dehiscence or discharge and never heals spontaneously without appropriate surgical treatment. Nevertheless, definite treatment guidelines have not yet been established. Here, we present our clinical experience with radiation-induced scalp wounds and suggest a surgical principle for their treatment. . The medical records of 13 patients with brain tumors, who were treated for intractable scalp wounds after irradiation between January 2000 and August 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. All the patients underwent a craniotomy for brain tumor resection. Surgical treatment for a late-onset scalp wound was decided based on the "reconstructive ladder" and according to the status of bone flap and scalp tissue. The patients' clinical characteristics and information regarding irradiation, surgery, and postoperative complications were recorded. Results:Scalp wounds developed 4.4 years, on average, after the completion of irradiation. Revision operations were performed an average of 2.3 times, and 6 patients (46%) required more than 2 operations. The bone flap was removed in 11 patients (84.6%) to achieve complete wound healing. Among them, 3 patients underwent a cranioplasty using artificial materials, but 2 patients underwent removal due to recurrent wound problems. Conclusions:Postirradiation scalp wounds are difficult to treat and have a high risk of recurrence. If osteoradionecrosis is suspected, the bone flap should be removed. It is important to debride unhealthy tissues aggressively and cover defects with robust tissue. 10.1155/2022/3541254
Long-term Effect of Cranioplasty on Overlying Scalp Atrophy. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Scalp thinning over a cranioplasty can lead to complex wound problems, such as extrusion and infection. However, the details of this process remain unknown. The aim of this study was to describe long-term soft-tissue changes over various cranioplasty materials and to examine risk factors associated with accelerated scalp thinning. METHODS:A retrospective review of patients treated with isolated cranioplasty between 2003 and 2015 was conducted. To limit confounders, patients with additional scalp reconstruction or who had a radiologic follow-up for less than 1 year were excluded. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure scalp thickness in identical locations and on the mirror image side of the scalp at different time points. RESULTS:One hundred one patients treated with autogenous bone (N = 38), polymethylmethacrylate (N = 33), and titanium mesh (N = 30) were identified. Mean skull defect size was 104.6 ± 43.8 cm. Mean length of follow-up was 5.6 ± 2.6 years. Significant thinning of the scalp occurred over all materials ( < 0.05). This was most notable over the first 2 years after reconstruction. Risk factors included the use of titanium mesh ( < 0.05), use of radiation ( < 0.05), reconstruction in temporal location ( < 0.05), and use of a T-shaped or "question mark" incision ( < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Thinning of the native scalp occurred over both autogenous and alloplastic materials. This process was more severe and more progressive when titanium mesh was used. In our group of patients without preexisting soft-tissue problems, native scalp atrophy rarely led to implant exposure. Other risk factors for scalp atrophy included radiation, temporal location, and type of surgical exposure. 10.1097/GOX.0000000000003031
Clinical decision model for the reconstruction of 175 cases of scalp avulsion/defect. Cen Hanghui,Jin Ronghua,Yu Meirong,Weng Tingting American journal of otolaryngology PURPOSE:It has been reported widely on various methods of repairing scalp avulsion/defect, including anastomotic vessels for total scalp avulsion and dermal grafts (skin grafting, latissimus dorsi or anterior serratus flap, "visor flap" repair.). The long-term retrospective study, however, with large sample size remains rare; and there is no report on decision-making tree for repairing emergency scalp avulsion/defects under critical conditions. METHODS:The decision-making model is provided for surgeons to design the scalp reconstruction based on the retrospective analysis of 175 cases of scalp avulsion/scalp defect. In this 10-year retrospective study, 175 cases of the repair of scalp avulsion and scalp defects in a single center were analyzed. The clinical decision model was generated based on representative cases. RESULTS:For patients with scalp avulsion/defects, a comprehensive examination and evaluation on systemic injury and complication should be conducted first for saving lives and reducing trauma effects. To make more reasonable clinical decisions, it is also required to determine the location, size, depth of scalp defect the injury area of cranial periosteum, injury of blood vessel or other adjacent organs, and whether the scalp can be reused. Meanwhile, it is necessary to evaluate whether the patient can tolerate long-term anastomotic vascular surgery according to the vital signs and physical status. CONCLUSION:The primary treatment goal is to decrease traumatic effects and save patient's life while repairing and reconstructing scalp avulsions and scalp defects. In addition, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the anatomical, functional and cosmetic characteristics of scalp, surgical equipment, team technical skillsets and patient's own pursuit to optimize a reasonable surgical solution. 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102752
Risk of postoperative scalp necrosis in the occipital artery region after posterior cranial fossa surgery. Neurosurgical review Ischemia-induced postoperative scalp necrosis in the superficial temporal artery (STA) region is known to occur after STA-middle cerebral artery anastomoses. However, no reports have evaluated the risk of postoperative scalp necrosis in the occipital artery (OA) region. This study examined the surgical procedures that pose a risk for postoperative scalp necrosis in the OA region following posterior cranial fossa surgery. Patients who underwent initial posterior fossa craniotomy at our institution from 2015 to 2022 were included. Clinical information was collected using medical records. Regarding surgical procedures, we evaluated the incision design and whether a supramuscular scalp flap was prepared. The supramuscular scalp flap was defined as a scalp flap dissected from the sternocleidomastoid and/or splenius capitis muscles. A total of 392 patients were included. Postoperative scalp necrosis occurred in 19 patients (4.8%). There were 296 patients with supramuscular scalp flaps, and supramuscular scalp flaps prepared in all 19 patients with postoperative necrosis. Comparing incision designs among patients with supramuscular scalp flap, a hockey stick-shaped scalp incision caused postoperative necrosis in 14 of 73 patients (19.1%), and the odds of postoperative scalp necrosis were higher with the hockey stick shape than with the retro-auricular C shape (adjusted odds ratio: 12.2, 95% confidence interval: 3.86-38.3, p = 0.00002). In all the cases, ischemia was considered to be the cause of postoperative necrosis. The incidence of postoperative necrosis is particularly high when a hockey stick-shaped scalp incision is combined with a supramuscular scalp flap. 10.1007/s10143-023-02189-9
The Use of Matriderm for Scalp Full-Thickness Defects Reconstruction: A Case Series. Journal of clinical medicine BACKGROUND:The scalp region represent a common area affected by benignant and malignant skin tumor, and it represents a surgical challenge when it is needed to be reconstructed. The aim of this study is to present our experience with full-thickness scalp skin defects, reconstructed using Matriderm dermal substitute and split-thickness skin graft (STSG). METHODS:A retrospective analysis of patients treated for scalp region reconstruction was conducted with 16 patients. All patients underwent the same procedure: scalp full-thickness tumor excision with simultaneous reconstruction with Matriderm and the application of a split-thickness skin graft in the same surgical time. During follow-ups, the surgical outcome was evaluated by accurate clinical examination of the wound, adopting the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). RESULTS:The outcomes obtained were satisfying: wound healing at the end of the procedures was optimal, grafted skin resulted similar to surrounding tissue, and pigmentation and vascularity showed a decrease in the period between 6 months and 1 follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:The use of Matriderm and split-thickness skin grafting for scalp full-thickness defects reconstruction resulted in an optimal, stable, and safe procedure, suitable for elderly patients. 10.3390/jcm11206041
Influence of Levobupivacaine Regional Scalp Block on Hemodynamic Stability, Intra- and Postoperative Opioid Consumption in Supratentorial Craniotomies: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Carella Michele,Tran Gabriel,Bonhomme Vincent L,Franssen Colette Anesthesia and analgesia BACKGROUND:The anesthetic management of supratentorial craniotomy (CR) necessitates tight intraoperative hemodynamic control. This type of surgery may also be associated with substantial postoperative pain. We aimed at evaluating the influence of regional scalp block (SB) on hemodynamic stability during the noxious events of supratentorial craniotomies and total intravenous anesthesia, its influence on intraoperative anesthetic agents' consumption, and its effect on postoperative pain control. METHODS:Sixty patients scheduled for elective CR were prospectively enrolled. Patient, anesthesiologist, and neurosurgeon were blind to the random performance of SB with either levobupivacaine 0.33% (intervention group [group SB], n = 30) or the same volume of saline (control group [group CO], placebo group, n = 30). General anesthesia was induced and maintained using target-controlled infusions of remifentanil and propofol that were adjusted according to hemodynamic parameters and state entropy of the electroencephalogram (SE), respectively. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), SE, and propofol and remifentanil effect-site concentrations (Ce) were recorded at the time of scalp block performance (Baseline), and 0, 1, 3, and 5 minutes after skull-pin fixation (SP), skin incision (SI), CR, and dura-mater incision (DM). Morphine consumption and postoperative pain intensity (0-10 visual analog scale [VAS]) were recorded 1, 3, 6, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. Propofol and remifentanil overall infusion rates were also recorded. Data were analyzed using 2-tailed Student unpaired t tests, 2-way mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) tests for post hoc comparisons as appropriate. RESULTS:Demographics and length of anesthetic procedure of group CO and SB were comparable. SP, SI, and CR were associated with a significantly higher MAP in group CO than in group SB, at least at one of the time points of recording surrounding those noxious events. This was not the case at DM. Similarly, HR was significantly higher in group CO than in group SB during SP and SI, at least at 1 of the points of recording, but not during CR and DM. Propofol and remifentanil Ce and overall infusion rates were significantly higher in group CO than in group SB, except for propofol Ce during SP. Postoperative pain VAS and cumulative morphine consumption were significantly higher in group CO than in group SB. CONCLUSIONS:In supratentorial craniotomies, SB improves hemodynamic control during noxious events and provides adequate and prolonged postoperative pain control as compared to placebo. 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005230
Successful management of complex scalp wounds with exposed calvarial bones by customized Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT): Case series and review of the literature. Tropical doctor Scalp wounds with exposed calvarial bones continue to be a challenge especially when no local flap options are available and no microvascular flaps can be performed. Our prospective study looked at 19 patients (14 males) where customized negative pressure wound treatment was used till the complex scalp wounds, mostly from animal bites, were covered with healthy granulation and grafted. Scalp wounds ranged from 6 × 4 cm to 17 × 11 cm in size whereas the area of exposed bone ranged from 1 × 2 cm to 10 × 10 cm. No major complication was seen, and wounds were rapidly healed. 10.1177/00494755211043377
Modified Antia-Buch Flap Incorporating an Extended Temporal Scalp Incision. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open The Antia-Buch flap is a popular reconstructive method for full-thickness ear defects involving the helical rim. However, scaphal or conchal resection is often required to prevent ear distortion. Noel et al described a modified technique to the Antia-Buch flap, which includes an incision in the temporal scalp and complete detachment of the preauricular helical root to increase mobility of the flap. Since then, no studies have reported on the use of this modification. We report our experience in implementing Noel et al's modification of the Antia-Buch flap for helical rim defects. Methods:The modified technique differs from the original Antia-Buch flap by completely detaching the root of the helix and adding a vertical incision to the temporal scalp to increase mobility of the flap. No scaphal resection is necessary. After complete elevation of the flaps, the flaps are advanced and inset toward each other followed by closure. Results:In our practice, 10 patients have been treated with Noel et al's modification to the Antia-Buch flap. In each of these patients, acceptable reconstruction of the helical rim was able to be achieved. All the patients were pleased with their reconstructive outcome and ear anatomy was able to be successfully maintained. Conclusions:The modified Antia-Buch flap has shown to be an excellent method for large, helical rim defects, creating versatility by adding the temporal scalp incision. Our outcomes with Noel et al's modification to the original Antia-Buch flap support this method as a versatile technique for wide full-thickness helical rim defects. 10.1097/GOX.0000000000004797
Dermal Regeneration Template and Staged Skin Grafting for Extirpative Scalp Wound Reconstruction: A 14-Year Experience. Maus Jacob C,Hemal Kshipra,Khan Mija,Calder Bennett W,Marks Malcolm W,Defranzo Anthony J,Pestana Ivo Alexander Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery OBJECTIVE:Dermal regeneration template and staged split-thickness skin grafting may mitigate the need for flap coverage of postoncologic scalp defects. This technique has been studied previously in small case series. We examine the effect of risk factors, surgical technique, irradiation, and dressing modalities on reconstructive outcomes in a highly comorbid patient cohort. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective review. SETTING:Academic medical center. METHODS:Full- and partial-thickness extirpative scalp wounds reconstructed with dermal regeneration template and staged skin grafting were reviewed over a 14-year period. Stage 1 consisted of template application following burr craniectomy in cases lacking periosteum. Stage 2 consisted of skin grafting. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was variably used to support adherence. RESULTS:In total, 102 patients were analyzed (average age 74, mean follow-up 18 months). Eighty-one percent were American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4. Defect size averaged 56 cm. Average skin graft take was 94.5% in full-thickness wounds. Seven patients failed this method. Preoperative scalp irradiation was associated with major complication and delayed graft healing. Comorbidities, wound size, and burring were not associated with complication. Patients were more likely to heal with NPWT compared to bolster (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% CI 1.01-2.77; = .046). Time between stages was 6.6 days shorter when NPWT was applied ( < .001). CONCLUSION:Dermal template and staged skin grafting is a reliable option for postcancer scalp reconstruction in poor flap candidates. Radiotherapy is associated with adverse outcomes. Negative pressure wound therapy simplifies postoperative wound care regimens and may accelerate healing. 10.1177/0194599820986582
Association of scalp block with intraoperative hemodynamic profiles and postoperative pain outcomes at 24-48 hours following craniotomy: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain BACKGROUND:Despite the demonstrated analgesic efficacy of scalp block (SB) during the immediate postoperative period, the impact of SB on pain outcomes at postoperative 24 and 48 h in adults receiving craniotomy remains unclear. METHODS:The databases of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register were searched from inception to January 2022 for available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The primary outcome was the severity of pain at postoperative 24 and 48 h, while the secondary outcomes included morphine consumption, hemodynamic profiles after surgical incision and in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), and risk of postoperative nausea/vomiting (PONV). RESULTS:Meta-analysis of 12 studies revealed a lower pain score [MD = -0.83, p = 0.03, 375 patients, certainty of evidence (COE): low] and morphine consumption (MD = -9.21 mg, p = 0.03, 246 patients, COE: low) at postoperative 24 h, while there were no differences in these pain outcomes at postoperative 48 h (COE: low). The use of SB significantly decreased intraoperative heart rate (MD = -10.9 beats/min, p < 0.0001, 189 patients, COE: moderate) and mean blood pressure (MD = -13.02 mmHg, p < 0.00001, 189 patients, COE: moderate) after surgical incision, but these hemodynamic profiles were comparable in both groups in the PACU setting. There was also no difference in the risk of PONV between the two groups (RR = 0.78, p = 0.2, 299 patients, COE: high). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis demonstrated that scalp block not only provided hemodynamic stability immediately after surgical incision but was also associated with a lower pain score and morphine consumption at postoperative 24 h. Further studies are needed for elucidation of its findings. 10.1111/papr.13167
Novel Decompressive Hemicraniectomy Technique for Traumatic Brain Injury: Technical Note. Soto Jose M,Feng Dongxia,Sun Huaiyu,Zhang Yilu,Lyon Kristopher A,Liang Buqing,Reed Laura K,Huang Jason H World neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality across all age groups. Decompressive hemicraniectomy is the treatment for TBI-related refractory intracranial hypertension. The traditional technique for this procedure can result in wound complications due to injury of the scalp flap's vascular supply, namely the superficial temporal and postauricular arteries. METHODS:In this technical note we describe our experience using a novel technique that preserves both vascular territories by placing the inferior aspect of the incision posterior to the ear as opposed to anterior to it. This modification has the potential to reduce wound healing complications, especially in those at higher risk, while also reducing operative time by avoiding temporalis muscle incision and closure during procedure. RESULTS:After performing hospital chart review, a total of 7 patients were found who underwent this hemicraniectomy technique for severe TBI. Of these, 5 patients had this performed on the left side, and 2 patients had this performed on the right side. Six of the patients had an accompanying subdural hematoma, whereas 1 patient had no intracranial hemorrhage present. CONCLUSIONS:In each case, both the superficial temporal and postauricular arteries were preserved, and rapid healing of the scalp flap occurred. In addition to providing a large bone window to allow the brain to swell, this technique has the potential to reduce complications of wound healing by preserving the vascular supply of the scalp flap and reduce operative times by minimizing temporalis muscle dissection. 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.10.054
Cranioplasty Outcomes From 500 Consecutive Neuroplastic Surgery Patients. The Journal of craniofacial surgery BACKGROUND:Cranioplasty is critical to cerebral protection and restoring intracranial physiology, yet this procedure is fraught with a high risk of complications. The field of neuroplastic surgery was created to improve skull and scalp reconstruction outcomes in adult neurosurgical patients, with the hypothesis that a multidisciplinary team approach could help decrease complications. OBJECTIVE:To determine outcomes from a cohort of cranioplasty surgeries performed by a neuroplastic surgery team using a consistent surgical technique and approach. METHODS:The authors reviewed 500 consecutive adult neuroplastic surgery cranioplasties that were performed between January 2012 and September 2020. Data were abstracted from a prospectively maintained database. Univariate analysis was performed to determine association between demographic, medical, and surgical factors and odds of revision surgery. RESULTS:Patients were followed for an average of 24 months. Overall, there was a reoperation rate of 15.2% (n = 76), with the most frequent complications being infection (7.8%, n = 39), epidural hematoma (2.2%, n = 11), and wound dehiscence (1.8%, n = 9). New onset seizures occurred in 6 (1.2%) patients.Several variables were associated with increased odds of revision surgery, including lower body mass ratio, 2 or more cranial surgeries, presence of hydrocephalus shunts, scalp tissue defects, large-sized skull defect, and autologous bone flaps. importantly, implants with embedded neurotechnology were not associated with increased odds of reoperation. CONCLUSIONS:These results allow for comparison of multiple factors that impact risk of complications after cranioplasty and lay the foundation for development of a cranioplasty risk stratification scheme. Further research in neuroplastic surgery is warranted to examine how designated centers concentrating on adult neuro-cranial reconstruction and multidisciplinary collaboration may lead to improved cranioplasty outcomes and decreased risks of complications in neurosurgical patients. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000008546
Neurosurgical and Scalp Reconstructive Challenges During Craniotomy in the Setting of Cutis Verticis Gyrata. Rallo Michael S,Nosko Michael,Agag Richard L,Xiong Zhenggang,Al-Mufti Fawaz,Roychowdhury Sudipta,Nanda Anil,Gupta Gaurav World neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Cutis verticis gyrata (CVG) is a rare condition of the scalp in which thickening of the dermis induces rigid folds and furrows resembling the cerebral cortex. Two forms of primary CVG exist: essential, in which CVG is the only presenting problem, and nonessential, in which the scalp condition occurs along with neuropsychiatric ailments. CVG can also occur secondary to a variety of causes including inflammatory, neoplastic, and metabolic conditions or drug use. A review of the available literature, including description of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, histology, and typical management of CVG, is provided. However, we identified no literature describing the complications of CVG in the setting of a craniotomy. CASE REPORT:The patient presented here is a 54-year-old man with CVG who presented with occlusion of the M2/M2 branches of the middle cerebral artery, resulting in malignant cerebral edema, requiring emergent management via decompressive craniectomy. Because of the thickening of the scalp, skin incision was complicated by bleeding and difficulty in achieving hemostasis using Raney clips. Plastic surgery was consulted intraoperatively for assistance with complex closure of the wound in a multilayered fashion. Despite this, the patient's postoperative course was complicated by cerebrospinal fluid leakage due to difficulty in approximating the incision during closure. Subsequent cranioplasty was performed jointly between neurosurgery and plastic surgery. CONCLUSIONS:Despite its rarity, CVG is an important issue for neurosurgeons to understand as it can present complications in performing craniotomy, most notably during the scalp exposure and closure. CVG may also complicate the postoperative course if adequate approximation of the tissues cannot be achieved, resulting in wound infection and/or cerebrospinal fluid leak. The presented patient benefited from a combined neurosurgical and plastic surgical approach that was implemented intraoperatively and continued through the postoperative stages and the subsequent cranioplasty. 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.01.217
Rotational Occipital Scalp Flap for Occipital Pressure Ulcer. Neurology India Occipital pressure ulcers and wound gaping may occur in unconscious and malnourished patients. Most of the time, a large defect requires wound coverage by scalp flaps. This video describes a rotational occipital scalp flap for occipital pressure ulcer and wound gaping in a patient of operated midline posterior fossa mass & ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The defect measured 2.25 × 2.5 cm with exposed inion. The wound was included in an imaginary triangle, and the horizontal and vertical incision lengths were about four times the base of the triangle. The flap was based on the left occipital artery and raised in an avascular plane above the periosteum. The wound margins were freshened and undermined. The flap was rotated to bring it over the defect, and suturing was done in the standard manner. The flap had good healing, and the patient continued to be under care for his cerebellar medulloblastoma. 10.4103/0028-3886.349590
Alopecia Following Bicoronal Incisions. Kadakia Sameep,Badhey Arvind,Ashai Sara,Lee Thomas S,Ducic Yadranko JAMA facial plastic surgery IMPORTANCE:Multiple techniques may be used to perform bicoronal incisions, and alopecia is a known postoperative complication of this procedure. To date, no large studies exist comparing alopecia outcomes among bicoronal incision techniques with and without the use of Raney clips. OBJECTIVE:To determine (1) whether postoperative alopecia is more common when bicoronal incisions are performed with monopolar cautery, Colorado microdissection tip cautery, or traditional cold steel and (2) whether this outcome is affected by the use of Raney clips. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This retrospective study of postoperative alopecia included 505 patients undergoing bicoronal incisions in a single head and neck surgery practice from 1997 to 2015 with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Patients with preexisting baldness as well as patients not following up for the minimum period were excluded. All data analysis took place between 1997 and 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Maximum alopecia width was measured in the postoperative period and compared among the technique groups both with and without Raney clip use. Raney clip duration as a product of surgery length was also compared. RESULTS:A total of 505 patients (301 male, 204 female) ranging in age from 3 to 97 years were included in the study (median age, 53.9 years). Of these, 236 underwent bicoronal incisions to approach the skull base, 78 to treat chronic frontal sinusitis unresponsive to endoscopic management or frontal sinus mucocele, 143 for trauma, and 48 for craniofacial surgery. For 173 patients, the cold steel technique was used for both skin and subcutaneous incision, 102 of whom needed Raney clips. For 161 patients, cold steel technique was used for skin incisions and monopolar cautery for subcutaneous incision; 81 of these patients required Raney clips. For 171 patients, Colorado tip microdissection cautery was used for both skin and subcutaneous incision, with Raney clips used in 66 of these patients. Incisions made with cold steel for both skin and subcutaneous tissue, regardless of Raney clip use, had lower postoperative alopecia than those made with cautery: for scalpel use for both skin and subcutaneous tissue, average alopecia width was 2.8 mm without Raney clip and 3.5 mm with Raney clip. For scalpel use with skin and monopolar cautery for subcutaneous tissue, average alopecia width was 3.8 mm without Raney clip and 4.3 mm with Raney clip. Colorado tip microdissection cautery used for skin and subcutaneous tissue was associated with the greatest alopecia width: Colorado tip for skin and subcutaneous tissue, average alopecia width, 4.9 mm; with Raney clip, 5.9 mm. Duration of Raney clip use was significantly associated with increased alopecia width: less than 3 hours, 4.1 mm; 3 hours or more, 5.2 mm (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:When performing bicoronal incisions, postoperative alopecia can be minimized by preferentially using a cold steel scalpel for skin and subcutaneous incisions. Raney clip use should be avoided when possible or used for only a short time during the procedure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:3. 10.1001/jamafacial.2016.1741
The Retroauricular Incision as an Effective and Safe Alternative Incision for Decompressive Hemicraniectomy. Dowlati Ehsan,Mortazavi Armin,Keating Gregory,Jha Ribhu Tushar,Felbaum Daniel R,Chang Jason J,Nair Mani N,Mason Robert B,Aulisi Edward F,Armonda Rocco A,Mai Jeffrey C Operative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.) BACKGROUND:The reverse question mark (RQM) incision has been traditionally utilized to perform decompressive hemicraniectomies (DHC) to relieve refractory intracranial hypertension. Alternative incisions have been proposed in the literature but have not been compared directly. OBJECTIVE:To present the retroauricular (RA) incision as an alternative incision that we hypothesize will increase calvarium exposure to maximize the removal of the hemicranium and will decrease wound-related complications compared to the RQM incision. METHODS:This study is a retrospective review of all DHCs performed at our institution over a span of 34 mo, stratified based on the type of scalp incision. The surface areas of the cranial defects were calculated, normalizing to their respective skull diameters. For those patients surviving beyond 1 wk, complications were examined from both cohorts. RESULTS:A total of 63 patients in the RQM group and 43 patients in the RA group were included. The average surface area for the RA and RQM incisions was 117.0 and 107.8 cm2 (P = .0009), respectively. The ratio of average defect size to skull size for RA incision was 0.81 compared to 0.77 for the RQM group (P = .0163). Of those who survived beyond 1 wk, the absolute risk for surgical site complications was 14.0% and 8.3% for RQM and RA group (P = .5201), respectively. CONCLUSION:The RA incision provides a safe and effective alternative incision to the traditional RQM incision used for DHC. This incision affords a potentially larger craniectomy while mitigating postoperative wound complications. 10.1093/ons/opab021
Linear Scalp Incision in Brain Tumor Surgery: Intraoperative and Postoperative Considerations. World neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Although the linear scalp incision is commonly used in neurosurgical practice, a systematic study elucidating its pros and cons in a specific surgical setting is lacking. Herein, we analyzed our experience with linear scalp incision in brain tumor surgery and the impact on intraoperative variables and postoperative complications. METHODS:Patients undergoing brain tumor surgery (January 2014-December 2021) at 2 neurosurgical departments were included and divided into 2 groups: linear or flap scalp incision. Patients' demographics characteristics, surgical variables, and wound-related complications were analyzed. RESULTS:More than a total of 1036 craniotomies, linear incision (mean length 6cm) was adopted in 282 procedures (27.2%). Mean maximum diameter of the craniotomy was 5.25 cm, with no statistical difference between the 2 groups. In emergency surgery (36 cases), the linear and flap incisions were used indifferently. Linear incision was predominant in supratentorial and suboccipital lesions. Flap incision was significantly more frequent among meningiomas (P < 0.01). Neuronavigation, operative microscope, and subgaleal drain were more frequently used in the flap scalp incision group (P = 0.01). Overall complication rate was comparable to flap scalp opening (P = 0.40). CONCLUSIONS:The use of the linear incision was broadly applied for the removal of supratentorial and suboccipital tumors granting adequate surgical exposure with a low rate of postoperative complications. Tumors skull base localization resulted the only factor hindering the use of the linear incision. The choice of 1 incision over another didn't show to have any impact on intraoperative and postoperative variables, and it remains mainly based on surgeon expertise/preference. 10.1016/j.wneu.2023.12.135