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The mangled extremity and attempt for limb salvage. Korompilias Anastasios V,Beris Alexandros E,Lykissas Marios G,Vekris Marios D,Kontogeorgakos Vasileios A,Soucacos Panayiotis N Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research BACKGROUND:The decision, whether to amputate or reconstruct a mangled extremity remains the subject of extensive debate since multiple factors influence the decision. METHODS:Sixty three patients with high energy extremity trauma and attempts at limb salvage were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed 10 cases of massive extremity trauma where there was made an attempt to salvage limbs, although there was a controversy between salvage and amputation. RESULTS:All of the patients except one had major vascular injury and ischemia requiring repair. Three patients died. All of the remaining patients were amputated within 15 days after the salvage procedure, mainly because of extremity sepsis. Seven patients required treatment at the intensive care unit. All patients had at least 2 reconstruction procedures and multiple surgical debridements. CONCLUSION:The functional outcome should be considered realistically before a salvage decision making for extremities with indeterminate prognosis. 10.1186/1749-799X-4-4
Effect of temporary shunting on extremity vascular injury: an outcome analysis from the Global War on Terror vascular injury initiative. Gifford Shaun M,Aidinian Gilbert,Clouse W Darrin,Fox Charles J,Porras Chantel A,Jones W Tracey,Zarzabal Lee Ann,Michalek Joel E,Propper Brandon W,Burkhardt Gabriel E,Rasmussen Todd E Journal of vascular surgery OBJECTIVE:Extremity vascular injury during the current war has been defined by anecdotal description and case series. These reports focused on estimation of short-term limb viability and technical description of commonly used adjuncts. Temporary vascular shunting (TVS) has been advocated in current care structures, yet mostly due to war environments, broader statistical scrutiny is lacking. This study's purpose is to provide perspective on TVS's impact on limb salvage, and estimate longer-term freedom from amputation. METHODS:Data from the Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), Balad Vascular Registry (BVR), Walter Reed Vascular Registry (WRVR), electronic medical records, and patient interviews were collected on American Troops sustaining extremity vascular injury from June 2003 through December 2007. Those in whom arterial TVS utilization was identified comprise the TVS group. These were compared with controls with similar injury date and anatomic location managed without TVS. Descriptive statistics were employed establishing overall univariate predictors of amputation and comparison between groups. Proportional-hazards modeling, with propensity score adjustment for systemic injury severity and Level 2 care, characterized risk factors of limb loss and effect of TVS. Freedom from amputation was estimated using Kaplan Meier log-rank methods. RESULTS:Cases and controls consisted of 64 and 61 extremity arterial injuries, respectively. Mean follow-up was 22 months (range: 1-54 months). The TVS group was more severely injured (mean injury severity score [ISS]: 18 [SD = 10] TVS vs. 15 [SD = 10] control, P = .05) and more likely to receive Level 2 care (TVS: 26%; control: 10%, P = .02). Overall, a total of 26 amputations occurred (21%). Penetrating blasts, compared with gunshot wounds, were associated with amputation (30% vs. 6%, P = .002). After propensity score adjustment, use of TVS suggested a reduced risk of amputation (relative risk [RR] = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.18-1.19]; P = .11). Venous repair was associated with limb salvage (RR = 0.2; 95% CI [0.04-0.99], P = .05). Associated fracture (RR = 5.0; 95% CI [1.45-17.28], P = .01), and elevated mangled extremity severity score (MESS) ([MESS 5-7] RR = 3.5, 95% CI [0.97-12.36], P = .06; [MESS 8-12] RR = 16.4; 95% CI (3.79-70.79), P < .001) predicted amputation. Amputation-free survival was 78% in the TVS group and 77% in the control group at three years (P = .5). CONCLUSION:Temporary vascular shunting used as a damage control adjunct in management of wartime extremity vascular injury does not lead to worse outcomes. Benefit from TVS is suggested, but not statistically significant. Injury specific variables of venous ligation, associated fracture, and penetrating blast mechanism are associated with amputation. Amputation-free survival after vascular injury in Operation Iraqi Freedom is 79% at three years. Further studies to statistically define any possible benefits of TVS are needed. 10.1016/j.jvs.2009.03.051
Outcomes of selective tibial artery repair following combat-related extremity injury. Burkhardt Gabriel E,Cox Mitchell,Clouse W Darrin,Porras Chantel,Gifford Shaun M,Williams Ken,Propper Brandon W,Rasmussen Todd E Journal of vascular surgery OBJECTIVE:Selective tibial revascularization refers to the practice of vessel repair vs ligation or observation based on factors observed at the time of injury. Although commonly employed, the effectiveness of this strategy and its impact on sustained limb salvage is unknown. The objective of this study is to define the factors most relevant in selective tibial artery revascularization and to characterize limb salvage following tibial-level vascular injury. METHODS:The cohort of active-duty military patients undergoing infrapopliteal artery repair comprises the tibial Bypass group. A similarly injured cohort of patients that did not undergo operative vascular intervention (No Bypass group) was identified. All tibial vessel injuries were documented by angiography. Data were compiled via medical records and patient interview. The primary outcome measure was failure of limb salvage. Multivariate regression was performed to identify factors associated with revascularization and to describe factors associated with amputation. RESULTS:Between March 2003 and September 2008, 135 of 1332 patients with battle-related vascular injuries had documented tibial vessel disruption or occlusion. Of these, 104 were included for analysis. Twenty-one underwent autologous vein bypass at the time of injury (Bypass group), and the remaining 83 patients were managed without revascularization (No Bypass group). Mean follow-up (39 vs 41 months; P = .27), age (25 vs 27 years; P = .66), and mechanism of injury (88% vs 92% penetrating blast; P = .56) were similar, but the No Bypass group had higher Injury Severity Scores (ISS; 16.3 vs 11.7; P < .01). Injury characteristics, including Gustilo III classification (49% vs 43%; P = .81) and nerve injury (55% vs 53%; P = 1.0), were similar. Subjects were more likely to receive tibial bypass with an increasing number of tibial vessel occlusions and documented ischemia on initial exam. However, of the 23 in the No Bypass group with initially unobtainable Doppler signals, 17 (74%) regained pedal flow following resuscitation and limb stabilization. Amputation rates were similar (23% vs 19%; P = .79), but the prevalence of chronic limb pain was lower in the Bypass group (10% vs 30%, respectively; P = .08). Cox regression analysis of amputation-free survival demonstrated an association between mangled extremity severity score >5 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7; P = .01) and amputation. CONCLUSIONS:This report provides outcomes data for wartime tibial vascular injury, which supports a selective approach to tibial artery revascularization. Clinical factors such as ISS and degree of ischemia guide which patients are best suited for tibial vascular repair, while injury-specific characteristics are associated with amputation regardless of revascularization status. 10.1016/j.jvs.2010.02.017
Do All-terrain or Recreational Off-highway Vehicle Crashes Have a Higher Odds of Amputation? Clinical orthopaedics and related research BACKGROUND:Riding off-road vehicles is associated with the risk of injury to the extremities. There are two main types of four-wheel recreational off-road vehicles: quads or all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), which are essentially four-wheel off-road motorcycles, and recreational off-highway vehicles (ROVs), also colloquially referred to as utility terrain vehicles, which have side-by-side seating, higher maximum speeds, and a roll cage. There are multiple orthopaedic society position statements on ATVs, but none on ROVs. Perhaps this is because the injury patterns and differences between the two vehicles have not been elucidated. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES:(1) What patient, vehicle (ROVs versus ATVs), and injury factors are associated with amputation? (2) What are the anatomic location distributions of fractures and amputations by vehicle type? METHODS:Records of all patients in our hospital's billing system who had both a diagnostic code indicating an accident related to an off-road vehicle and one indicating an extremity or pelvic fracture between February 2014 and January 2020 were screened; this resulted in the identification of 328 patients with fractures resulting from off-road vehicle collisions. A total of 16% (51 of 328) of patients were excluded from the analysis because their injury did not involve either an ATV or an ROV; 277 patients were included in the final analysis. The following variables were collected: age at time of the injury, gender, BMI, vehicle type, Gustilo-Anderson type if applicable, amputation level if applicable, anatomic locations of injuries, ethanol level, and drug screen. ATV crashes accounted for 52% (145 of 277) of patients, and ROV crashes accounted for 48% (132 of 277). Patients from ATV crashes did not differ from those in ROV crashes in terms of mean age (24 ± 16 years versus 24 ± 13 years; p = 0.82), BMI (25 ± 7 kg/m 2 versus 26 ± 6 kg/m 2 ; p = 0.18), or gender (79% [114 of 145] men/boys versus 77% [102 of 132]; p = 0.79). Among patients who had a drug or ethanol screen, there was a higher percent of ATV riders who used marijuana (39% [19 of 49] versus 17% [7 of 42]; p = 0.04), but there were no differences in abnormal blood alcohol screen or abnormal nonmarijuana drug screen; however, these results were available in only about one-third of patients (99 of 277 for ethanol and 91 of 277 for drug screen). Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis for factors associated with amputation, with p values < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS:After controlling for differences in demographic factors, the stepwise increase in Gustilo-Anderson grade of open fracture (OR 9.8 [95% CI 3.6 to 27.0]; p < 0.001) and ROV vehicle type (OR 15.7 [95% CI 3.6 to 68.5]; p < 0.001) were both associated with amputation. There was no increase in the odds of amputation associated with age (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.9 to 1.1]; p = 0.81), gender (OR 1.4 [95% CI 0.3 to 5.8]; p = 0.68), or BMI (OR 1.1 [95% CI 0.9 to 1.2]; p = 0.37). The most frequent ATV fractures occurred in the forearm and wrist (22% [45 of 203]), whereas most ROV injuries occurred through the metacarpals (41% [107 of 262] of fractures and 58% [18 of 31] of amputations). CONCLUSION:ROV crashes are associated with a higher odds of amputation when compared with ATV crashes. Because most ROV injuries were in the forearm and below, this likely occurs when upper extremities are crushed and mangled under the roll cage in rollover ROV crashes. Because of this danger, we urge our orthopaedic societies to either update current ATV position statements to include ROVs or release separate statements on ROVs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III, prognostic study. 10.1097/CORR.0000000000002436
Contemporary outcomes of traumatic popliteal artery injury repair from the popliteal scoring assessment for vascular extremity injury in trauma study. O'Banion Leigh Ann,Dirks Rachel,Saldana-Ruiz Nallely,Farooqui Emaad,Yoon William J,Pozolo Cara,Fox Charles J,Crally Alexis,Siada Sammy,Nehler Mark R,Brooke Benjamin S,Beckstrom Julie L,Kiang Sharon,Boggs Hans K,Chandra Venita,Ho Vy T,Zhou Wei,Lee Ashton,Bowens Nina,Cho Yan,Woo Karen,Ulloa Jesus,Magee Gregory A Journal of vascular surgery OBJECTIVE:Traumatic popliteal artery injuries are associated with the greatest risk of limb loss of all peripheral vascular injuries, with amputation rates of 10% to 15%. The purpose of the present study was to examine the outcomes of patients who had undergone operative repair for traumatic popliteal arterial injuries and identify the factors independently associated with limb loss. METHODS:A multi-institutional retrospective review of all patients with traumatic popliteal artery injuries from 2007 to 2018 was performed. All the patients who had undergone operative repair of popliteal arterial injuries were included in the present analysis. The patients who had required a major lower extremity amputation (transtibial or transfemoral) were compared with those with successful limb salvage at the last follow-up. The significant predictors (P < .05) for amputation on univariate analysis were included in a multivariable analysis. RESULTS:A total of 302 patients from 11 institutions were included in the present analysis. The median age was 32 years (interquartile range, 21-40 years), and 79% were men. The median follow-up was 72 days (interquartile range, 20-366 days). The overall major amputation rate was 13%. Primary repair had been performed in 17% of patients, patch repair in 2%, and interposition or bypass in 81%. One patient had undergone endovascular repair with stenting. The overall 1-year primary patency was 89%. Of the patients who had lost primary patency, 46% ultimately required major amputation. Early loss (within 30 days postoperatively) of primary patency was five times more frequent for the patients who had subsequently required amputation. On multivariate regression, the significant perioperative factors independently associated with major amputation included the initial POPSAVEIT (popliteal scoring assessment for vascular extremity injury in trauma) score, loss of primary patency, absence of detectable immediate postoperative pedal Doppler signals, and lack of postoperative antiplatelet therapy. Concomitant popliteal vein injury, popliteal injury location (P1, P2, P3), injury severity score, and tibial vs popliteal distal bypass target were not independently associated with amputation. CONCLUSIONS:Traumatic popliteal artery injuries are associated with a significant rate of major amputation. The preoperative POPSAVEIT score remained independently associated with amputation after including the perioperative factors. The lack of postoperative pedal Doppler signals and loss of primary patency were highly associated with major amputation. The use of postoperative antiplatelet therapy was inversely associated with amputation, perhaps indicating a protective effect. 10.1016/j.jvs.2021.04.064
In-Hospital Morbidity and Mortality of Traumatic Lower-Extremity Amputations. Thompson Samuel F,McCall Kristopher B,Patel Dil V,Schwerdtfeger Wade A,Stoner Julie,Hollabaugh Kimberly,Teague David C Orthopedics Traumatic lower-extremity amputations often result in complications and surgical revisions. The authors report the in-hospital morbidity and mortality of traumatic lower-extremity amputations at a metropolitan level I trauma center for a large rural region and compare below-knee (BK) vs higher-level amputation complications. They retrospectively reviewed 168 adult patients during a 10-year period (2005 to 2015) who had a traumatic injury to the lower extremity that required an amputation. Main outcome measurements included amputation level, complication rates, intensive care unit (ICU) admission rates, length of stay, total trips to the operating room (OR), and Injury Severity Score (ISS). A total of 95 patients had through-knee/above-knee (TK/AK) amputations, and 73 patients had BK amputations. The majority of injuries occurred in the non-urban setting. The TK/AK group had higher ICU admission rates (76% vs 35%, P<.0001), longer overall hospital length of stay (22.0 vs 15.5 days, P=.01), more total OR trips (6.5 vs 5.0, P=.04), and higher ISS (17.0 vs 11.5, P<.0001). A complication was experienced by 64% of all patients during the initial hospitalization. The TK/AK group had higher complication rates than the BK group, including wound infection, pulmonary embolus, rhabdomyolysis, compartment syndrome, and death. Patients with TK/AK traumatic amputations have a greater burden of injury with higher complication rates, increased ICU admissions, increased length of stay, and increased ISS and require more return trips to the OR compared with patients with BK amputations. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(6):e561-e566.]. 10.3928/01477447-20200721-15
Recent advances in lower extremity amputations and prosthetics for the combat injured patient. Fergason John,Keeling John J,Bluman Eric M Foot and ankle clinics Blast-related extremity trauma represents a serious challenge because of the extent of bone and soft tissue damage. Fragmentation and blast injuries account for 56% of all injuries produced within the Iraqi and Afghan theaters where, as of July 2009, 723 combatants have sustained lower extremity limb loss. If limb salvage is not practical, or fails, then amputation should be considered. Amputation can be a reliable means toward pain relief and improvement of function. Optimizing functional outcome is paramount when deciding on definitive amputation level. Preservation of joint function improves limb biomechanics in many cases. Increased limb length also allows for the benefits associated with articular and distal limb proprioception. Amputees with improved lower extremity function also usually exhibit less energy consumption. Function and length are generally directly correlated, whereas energy consumption and length are inversely related. This article discusses the surgical principles of lower extremity amputation and postoperative management of amputees, and the various prosthetic options available. 10.1016/j.fcl.2009.10.001
Outcomes of major lower extremity amputations n dysvascular patients: Room for improvement. O'Banion Leigh Ann,Dirks Rachel,Farooqui Emaad,Kaups Krista,Qumsiyeh Yazen,Rome Cambia,Davis James American journal of surgery OBJECTIVES:Dysvascular patients account for >80% of major amputations in the US. We sought to determine if early mobilization and discharge disposition decreased post-operative hospital length of stay (PO-LOS) and expedited independent ambulation. METHODS:A retrospective review of dysvascular patients undergoing major amputations was performed. Primary outcomes included PO-LOS, discharge disposition, and days to ambulation. RESULTS:130 patients were included. Patients evaluated by Physical Therapy (PT) within 1 day of formal amputation had decreased PO-LOS (5.6 vs 6.5 days, p = 0.029). Patients discharged to rehab had a shorter PO-LOS (4 days) than those discharged to SNF or home (8 and 5 days, respectively; p = 0.008). Time to ambulation was shorter for patients discharged to rehab (109 days vs home = 153 days; SNF = 175 days; p = 0.033). CONCLUSION:Modifiable factors, including early PT and rehab placement, decreased PO-LOS and expedited time to ambulation. A need exists for a standardized multidisciplinary team approach to improve outcomes. 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2020.08.020
Reoperation after combat-related major lower extremity amputations. Tintle Scott M,Shawen Scott B,Forsberg Jonathan A,Gajewski Donald A,Keeling John J,Andersen Romney C,Potter Benjamin K Journal of orthopaedic trauma OBJECTIVE:Complication rates leading to reoperation after trauma-related amputations remain ill defined in the literature. We sought to identify and quantify the indications for reoperation in our combat-injured patients. DESIGN:Retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients. SETTING:Tertiary Military Medical Center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS:Combat-wounded personnel sustaining 300 major lower extremity amputations from Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom from 2005 to 2009. INTERVENTION:We performed a retrospective analysis of injury and treatment-related data, complications, and revision of amputation data. Prerevision and postrevision outcome measures were identified for all patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:The primary outcome measure was the reoperation on an amputation after a previous definitive closure. Secondary outcome measures included ambulatory status, prosthesis use, medication use, and return to duty status. RESULTS:At a mean follow-up of 23 months (interquartile range: 16-32), 156 limbs required reoperation leading to a 53% overall reoperation rate. Ninety-one limbs had 1 indication for reoperation, whereas 65 limbs had more than 1 indication for reoperation. There were a total of 261 distinct indications for reoperation leading to a total of 465 additional surgical procedures. Repeat surgery was performed semiurgently for postoperative wound infection (27%) and sterile wound dehiscence/wound breakdown (4%). Revision amputation surgery was also performed electively for persistently symptomatic residual limbs due to the following indications: symptomatic heterotopic ossification (24%), neuromas (11%), scar revision (8%), and myodesis failure (6%). Transtibial amputations were more likely than transfemoral amputations to be revised due to symptomatic neuromata (P = 0.004; odds ratio [OR] = 3.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.45-9.22). Knee disarticulations were less likely to require reoperation when compared with all other amputation levels (P = 0.0002; OR = 7.6; 95% CI = 2.2-21.4). CONCLUSIONS:In our patient population, reoperation to address urgent surgical complications was consistent with previous reports on trauma-related amputations. Additionally, persistently symptomatic residual limbs were common and reoperation to address the pathology was associated with an improvement in ambulatory status and led to a decreased dependence on pain medications. 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3182a53130
Pain, Depression, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Major Extremity Trauma Among United States Military Serving in Iraq and Afghanistan: Results From the Military Extremity Trauma and Amputation/Limb Salvage Study. Castillo Renan C,Carlini Anthony R,Doukas William C,Hayda Roman A,Frisch Harold M,Andersen Romney C,D'Alleyrand Jean-Claude,Mazurek Michael T,Ficke James R,Keeling John J,Pasquina Paul F,Wain Harold J,MacKenzie Ellen J Journal of orthopaedic trauma OBJECTIVES:Assess the burden and co-occurrence of pain, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among service members who sustained a major limb injury, and examine whether these conditions are associated with functional outcomes. DESIGN:A retrospective cohort study. SETTING:Four U.S. military treatment facilities: Walter Reed Army Medical Center, National Naval Medical Center, Brooke Army Medical Center, and Naval Medical Center San Diego. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS:Four hundred twenty-nine United States service members who sustained a major limb injury while serving in Afghanistan or Iraq met eligibility criteria upon review of their medical records. INTERVENTION:Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:Outcomes assessed were: function using the short musculoskeletal functional assessment; PTSD using the PTSD Checklist and diagnostic and statistical manual criteria; pain using the chronic pain grade scale. RESULTS:Military extremity trauma and amputation/limb salvage patients without pain, depression, or PTSD, were, on average, about one minimally clinically important difference (MCID) from age- and gender-adjusted population norms. In contrast, patients with low levels of pain and no depression or PTSD were, on average, one to 2 MCIDs from population norms. Military extremity trauma and amputation/limb salvage patients with either greater levels of pain, and who experience PTSD, depression, or both, were 4 to 6 MCIDs from population norms. Regression analyses adjusting for injury type (upper or lower limb, salvage or amputation, and unilateral or bilateral), age, time to interview, military rank, presence of a major upper limb injury, social support, presence of mild traumatic brain injury/concussion, and combat experiences showed that higher levels of pain, depression, and PTSD were associated with lower one-year functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Major limb trauma sustained in the military results in significant long-term pain and PTSD. Overall, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that pain, depression, and PTSD are associated with disability in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. 10.1097/BOT.0000000000001921
Utility of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score in Predicting Amputation in Military Lower Extremity Arterial Injury. Schechtman David W,Walters Thomas J,Kauvar David S Annals of vascular surgery BACKGROUND:Effective amputation prediction may help inform appropriate early limb salvage efforts in military lower extremity (LE) arterial injury. The Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) is the most commonly applied system for early amputation prediction but its utility in military trauma is unknown. METHODS:Retrospective cohort study of Iraq and Afghanistan casualties with LE arterial injury who underwent a vascular limb salvage attempt. Retrospectively assessed MESS was statistically explored as an amputation predictor and MESS component surrogates (mechanism, vascular injury characteristics, tourniquet use, and transfusion volume) were used to characterize limb injuries by presenting characteristics and evaluated for amputation prediction. RESULTS:A total of 439 limbs were included with 99 (23%) amputations, 29 (7%) within 48 hr of injury. Median MESS was 5 (interquartile range 4-6) among salvaged limbs and 7 (5-9) among amputations (P < 0.0001). An MESS cutoff of ≥7 had a better receiver operating characteristic sensitivity/specificity profile (area under the curve 0.696 overall, 0.765 amputation within 48 hr) than MESS ≥8 (0.593, 0.621), but amputation rates were only 43% for MESS ≥7 and 50% for ≥8. MESS ≥7 was significantly associated with age, polytrauma, blast or crush mechanism, fracture, tourniquet use, distal (popliteal/tibial) and multiple arterial injuries, and massive transfusion. Amputation was significantly associated with polytrauma, blast or crush mechanism, fracture, and massive transfusion; however, 83 casualties had all 4 characteristics with an amputation rate of only 46%. CONCLUSIONS:In combat casualties with arterial injury, LE amputation after attempted vascular limb salvage is inadequately predicted by existing scoring systems or the presenting characteristics available in this registry. Limb loss is predominantly late and likely because of factors not projectable at initial presentation. 10.1016/j.avsg.2020.08.095
Major deployment-related amputations of lower and upper limbs, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2017. Farrokhi Shawn,Perez Katheryne,Eskridge Susan,Clouser Mary MSMR Major amputations of the lower and upper limbs are among the most life-altering and debilitating combat injuries. From 1 January 2001 through 31 October 2017, a total of 1,705 service members sustained major deployment-related lower and upper limb amputations. Lower limb amputations were far more common than upper limb amputations, with a total of 1,914 lower limb amputations, compared to 302 upper limb amputations. The greatest single-year number of amputations occurred in 2011, with a reported total of 273 service members who sustained 403 major limb amputations. The injured cohort mostly comprised non-Hispanic white male service members aged 21-29 years. Furthermore, the majority of the injured cohort included active component, mid-level or junior enlisted members of the Army or Marine Corps in combat-specific occupations. These findings reiterate and extend previous reports of the annual numbers, types, and anatomic locations of deployment-related limb amputations, along with the demographics and military characteristics of the injured cohort from the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts.
A comparison of health outcomes for combat amputee and limb salvage patients injured in Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Melcer Ted,Sechriest Vernon Franklin,Walker Jay,Galarneau Michael The journal of trauma and acute care surgery BACKGROUND:Treatment of military combatants who sustain leg-threatening injuries remains one of the leading challenges for military providers. The present study provides systematic health outcome data to inform decisions on the definitive surgical treatment, namely amputation versus limb salvage, for the most serious leg injuries. METHODS:This was a retrospective analysis of health records for patients who sustained serious lower-extremity injuries in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, 2001 to 2008. Patients had (1) amputation during the first 90 days after injury (early amputees, n = 587), (2) amputation more than 90 days after injury (late amputees, n = 84), or (3) leg-threatening injuries without amputation (limb salvage [LS], n = 117). Injury data and health outcomes were followed up to 24 months. RESULTS:After adjusting for group differences, early amputees and LS patients had similar rates for most physical complications. Early amputees had significantly reduced rates of psychological diagnoses (posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse) and received more outpatient care, particularly psychological, compared with LS patients. Late amputees had significantly higher rates of many mental and physical health diagnoses, including prolonged infections and pain issues, compared with early amputees or LS patients. CONCLUSION:Early amputation was associated with reduced rates of adverse health outcomes relative to late amputation or LS in the short term. Most evident was that late amputees had the poorest physical and psychological outcomes. These findings can inform health care providers of the differing clinical consequences of early amputation and LS. These results indicate the need for separate health care pathways for early and late amputees and LS patients. 10.1097/TA.0b013e318299d95e
Ex vivo limb perfusion for traumatic amputation in military medicine. Kaltenborn Alexander,Krezdorn Nicco,Hoffmann Sebastian,Gutcke André,Haastert-Talini Kirsten,Vogt Peter M,Haverich Axel,Wiegmann Bettina Military Medical Research BACKGROUND:Limb loss has a drastic impact on a patient's life. Severe trauma to the extremities is common in current military conflicts. Among other aspects, "life before limb" damage control surgery hinders immediate replantation within the short post-traumatic timeframe, which is limited in part by the ischemic time for successful replantation. Ex vivo limb perfusion is currently being researched in animal models and shows promising results for its application in human limb replantation and allotransplantation. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS:The current lack of replantation possibilities in military operations with high rates of amputation can be addressed with the development of a portable ex vivo limb perfusion device, as there are several opportunities present with the introduction of this technique on the horizon. We hypothesize that ex vivo limb perfusion will enable overcoming the critical ischemic time, provide surgical opportunities such as preparation of the stump and limb, allow for spare-part surgery, enable rigorous antibiotic treatment of the limb, reduce ischemia-reperfusion injuries, enable a tissue function assessment before replantation, and enable the development of large limb transplant programs. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS:Data from in vivo studies in porcine models are limited by the relatively short perfusion time of 24 h. In the military setting, notably longer perfusion times need to be realized. Therefore, future animal studies must focus especially on long-term perfusion, since this represents the military setting, considering the time for stabilization of the patient until evacuation to a tertiary treatment center. IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS:The development and clinical introduction of ex vivo limb perfusion in the military setting could lead to a drastic reduction in the number of limb amputations among service members. Ex vivo limb perfusion enables replantation surgery in Role 4 facilities and changes the clinical setting from a highly urgent, life-threatening situation to a highly methodical, well-prepared starting point for optimal treatment of the wounded service member. With its introduction, the principle of "life before limb" will change to "life before limb before elective replantation/allotransplantation after ex vivo limb perfusion". 10.1186/s40779-020-00250-y
Current issues with lower extremity amputations in a country at war: experience from the National Military Hospital of Kabul. Mathieu L,Marty A,Ramaki A,Najib A,Ahmadzai W,Fugazzotto D J,Rigal S,Shirzai N European journal of trauma and emergency surgery : official publication of the European Trauma Society PURPOSE:Management practices associated with war-related amputations in countries at war may be different from the recommendations of occidental Health Force Services due to the high numbers of wounded persons to treat in precarious conditions. This observational retrospective study documents the current management of local lower extremity amputees in Afghanistan. Surgical practices, with or without delayed primary closure (DPC), and prosthetic rehabilitation issues are analyzed. METHODS:This retrospective study was conducted in the National Military Hospital (NMH) of Kabul from May 2011 to November 2011. Fifty-four Afghan patients who underwent a lower extremity combat-related amputation were included. Ten of them sustained a bilateral amputation. RESULTS:Injuries were caused by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or mines in 48 cases, bullets in three cases, and exploding shell fragments in three cases. Of the 64 amputations studied, 46 were open length preserving amputations and primary closure (PC) was applied in 18 cases. Patients were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 5.4 months (range 1-28 months). In the DPC group, secondary closure was performed with a mean time of 18.7 days (range 4-45 days) from injury. The proportion of infectious complications seemed to be higher in the PC group (5/18) than in the DPC group (3/46), but it was only a statistical trend (p = 0.1). Forty-three patients were not prosthetic fitted at the last follow-up. CONCLUSION:This study supports the surgical strategy of a two-stage procedure for lower limb amputations in countries at war, but underlines the problems of late secondary closure and prosthetic fitting related to decreased sanitary conditions. 10.1007/s00068-013-0334-y
Factors affecting outcome after traumatic limb amputation. Perkins Z B,De'Ath H D,Sharp G,Tai N R M The British journal of surgery BACKGROUND:Traumatic leg amputation commonly affects young, active people and leads to poor long-term outcomes. The aim of this review was to describe common causes of disability and highlight therapeutic interventions that may optimize outcome after traumatic leg amputation. METHODS:A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Embase and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases was performed, using the terms 'leg injury', 'amputation' and 'outcome'. Articles reporting outcomes following traumatic leg amputation were included. RESULTS:Studies demonstrated that pain, psychological illness, decreased physical and vocational function, and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were common causes of disability after traumatic leg amputation. The evidence highlights that appropriate preoperative management and operative techniques, in conjunction with suitable rehabilitation and postoperative follow-up, can lead to improved treatment outcome and patient satisfaction. CONCLUSION:Patients who undergo leg amputation after trauma are at risk of poor long-term physical and mental health. Clinicians involved in their care have many opportunities to improve their outcome using a variety of therapeutic variables. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 10.1002/bjs.7766
Injury severity score underpredicts injury severity and resource utilization in combat-related amputations. Shin Emily,Evans Korboi N,Fleming Mark E Journal of orthopaedic trauma OBJECTIVE:Assess effectiveness of Injury Severity Score (ISS) in predicting injury severity in combat-related amputations. DESIGN:Retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data. SETTING:Military medical center. PATIENTS:One hundred and nine patients with major extremity amputations sustained in overseas combat. INTERVENTION:Standard combat casualty care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:Difference in injury severity as measured by ISS, numbers of extremity(s) amputated, number of associated injuries, blood products used, intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay in those with an upper extremity amputation (UEA) compared with those with an isolated lower extremity amputation. RESULTS:Thirteen patients (11.9%) sustained at least one UEA. Patients with an UEA had a greater number of amputations per casualty compared with patients with a lower extremity alone (2.5 vs. 1.5; P < 0.001). The mean hospital length of stay (P = 0.02) and intensive care unit length of stay (P = 0.02) were significantly greater in those with an UEA. Mean blood product utilization was also significantly greater in those with an upper extremity amputation (P < 0.05). There was no difference in ISS between the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The presence of an UEA is associated with increased injury severity as evident by increased intensive care unit requirements, blood product utilization, and hospital length of stay. ISS underestimates the severity of injury and therefore resource utilization in patients with multiple combat-related amputations. Recognition of this limitation in addition to the development of a military-specific ISS is required for more effective resource utilization to continue to improve combat casualty care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. 10.1097/BOT.0b013e318279fa4f
Two faces of major lower limb amputations. Paudel B,Shrestha B K,Banskota A K Kathmandu University medical journal (KUMJ) OBJECTIVES:To review the indications for major lower limb amputations in adults and children in our patient population and to compare our experience in prosthetic rehabilitation with that of other published information. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients who underwent amputation between 1997 to 2004 at the Orthopaedic Department of B& B Hospital (BBH), Gwarko and Hospital and Rehabilitation center for Disabled Children ( HRDC), Banepa. There were 113 patients at BBH & 89 patients at HRDC. Major amputation was defined as any amputation at or proximal to wrist and ankle. RESULTS:Major lower limb amputations constituted 73.58%(39/53) of all major amputations at BBH and 97.77% (44/45) at HRDC. Road traffic accident was found to be number one cause for major lower limb amputations (74.29%) in adult population. In children postburn contracture was the leading cause for amputation (29.54%) followed by Congenital limb conditions (22.72%), Spina bifida with trophic ulcers ( 20.45%), Tumor (13.63%), Chronic Osteomyelitis (6.81%), Trauma (4.54%) and Arthrogryposis (2.27%). Prosthetic fitting and rehabilitation is as yet far from satisfactory in the adult population but all the children who had amputation at HRDC were fitted with prosthesis. CONCLUSION:Main causes of major lower limb amputation in both population is largely preventable by instituting safety measures and conducting awareness program. There is a need for an effective prosthetic fitting center for adults.
Unilateral lower limb loss following combat injury: medium-term outcomes in British military amputees. Bennett P M,Sargeant I D,Midwinter M J,Penn-Barwell J G The bone & joint journal This is a case series of prospectively gathered data characterising the injuries, surgical treatment and outcomes of consecutive British service personnel who underwent a unilateral lower limb amputation following combat injury. Patients with primary, unilateral loss of the lower limb sustained between March 2004 and March 2010 were identified from the United Kingdom Military Trauma Registry. Patients were asked to complete a Short-Form (SF)-36 questionnaire. A total of 48 patients were identified: 21 had a trans-tibial amputation, nine had a knee disarticulation and 18 had an amputation at the trans-femoral level. The median New Injury Severity Score was 24 (mean 27.4 (9 to 75)) and the median number of procedures per residual limb was 4 (mean 5 (2 to 11)). Minimum two-year SF-36 scores were completed by 39 patients (81%) at a mean follow-up of 40 months (25 to 75). The physical component of the SF-36 varied significantly between different levels of amputation (p = 0.01). Mental component scores did not vary between amputation levels (p = 0.114). Pain (p = 0.332), use of prosthesis (p = 0.503), rate of re-admission (p = 0.228) and mobility (p = 0.087) did not vary between amputation levels. These findings illustrate the significant impact of these injuries and the considerable surgical burden associated with their treatment. Quality of life is improved with a longer residual limb, and these results support surgical attempts to maximise residual limb length. 10.1302/0301-620X.95B2.30365
Lower Extremity Limb Salvage: Lessons Learned From 14 Years at War. Blair James A,Eisenstein Emmanuel D,Pierrie Sarah N,Gordon Wade,Owens Johnny G,Hsu Joseph R Journal of orthopaedic trauma American survivability during the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan continues to improve, though the rate of extremity injury remains quite high. The decision to proceed with amputation versus limb salvage remains controversial. Exposure to combat wound with severe high-energy lower extremity trauma during the previous 14 years at war has incited important advances in limb salvage technique and rehabilitation. 10.1097/BOT.0000000000000669
Amputations versus Salvage: Reconciling the Differences. Black Cara K,Ormiston Laurel D,Fan Kenneth L,Kotha Vikas S,Attinger Christopher,Evans Karen Kim Journal of reconstructive microsurgery BACKGROUND: There are many factors to consider when choosing between amputations versus salvage in lower extremity reconstructive surgery. Postoperative functionality and survival benefit are critical factors when deciding between limb salvage and amputation. METHODS: In this review, we present the evidence and the risks and benefits between these two options in the setting of the acute, trauma population and the chronic, diabetes population. RESULTS: The trauma population is on average young without significant comorbidities and with robust vasculature and core strength for recovery. Therefore, these patients can often recover significant function with anamputation and prosthesis. Amputation can therefore be the more desirable in this patient population, especially in the case of complete traumatic disruption, unstable patients, high risk of extensive infection, and significant nerve injury. However, traumatic lower extremity reconstruction is also a viable option, especially in the case of young patients and those with intact plantar sensation and sufficient available tissue coverage. The diabetic population with lower extremity insult has on average a higher comorbidity profile and often lower core strength. These patients therefore often benefit most from reconstruction to preserve limb length and improve survival. However, amputation may be favored for diabetics that have no blood flow to the lower extremity, recalcitrant infection, high-risk comorbidities that preclude multiple operations, and those with end stage renal disease. CONCLUSION: Many patient-specific factors should be considered when deciding between amputation vs. salvage in the lower extremity reconstruction population. 10.1055/s-0039-1696733
Comparison of military and civilian popliteal artery trauma outcomes. Dua Anahita,Patel Bhavin,Desai Sapan S,Holcomb John B,Wade Charles E,Coogan Sheila,Fox Charles J Journal of vascular surgery OBJECTIVE:Popliteal artery injury has historically led to high amputation rates in both the military and civilian setting. Military and civilian popliteal injury patterns differ in mechanism and severity of injury, prompting us to compare modern management and report differences in outcomes between these two patient groups. We hypothesized that whereas amputation rates may be higher in the military, this would correlate with worse overall injury severity. METHODS:Military casualties from 2003-2007 with a popliteal artery injury identified from the Joint Theater Trauma Registry were compared retrospectively with civilian patients presenting to a single level I institution from 2002-2009 with popliteal arterial injury. Demographics, mechanism of injury, coinjuries, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Mangled Extremity Severity Scores (MESS), interventions, and secondary amputation rates were reviewed. Descriptive statistics and unpaired t-tests were used to compare data. Statistical significance was P < .05. RESULTS:The study group of 110 patients consisted of 46 (41.8%) military and 64 (58.2%) civilians with 48 and 64 popliteal artery injuries, respectively. The military population was younger (28 vs 35 years; P < .004), entirely male (46 [100%] vs 51 [80%]; P < .0001), and had more penetrating injuries (44 [96%] vs 19 [30%]; P < .0001). ISS (18.7 vs 13.9; P < .005) and MESS (7.3 vs 5.1; P < .0001) were higher in the military group. Limb revascularizations in both military and civilian populations were mostly by autogenous bypass (65% vs 77%) followed by primary repair (26% vs 16%), covered stent (0% vs 6%), or other procedure (ligation and/or thrombectomy) (9% vs 1%). Fasciotomy (20 [42%] vs 37 [58%]; P = .14), compartment syndrome (10 [21%] vs 15 [23%]; P = .84), and concomitant venous repair rates (14 [29%] vs 15 [23%]; P = .42) were not different between cohorts. There was no difference in the fracture rate (26 [54%] vs 41 [64%]; P = .43), but the civilian group had a higher rate of dislocation (1 [2%] vs 19 [30%]; P < .0001). Secondary amputation rates were significantly higher in the military (14 [29%] vs 8 [13%]; P < .03). CONCLUSIONS:Although both civilian and military cohorts have high amputation rates for popliteal arterial injury, the rate of amputation appears to be higher in the military and is associated with a penetrating mechanism of injury primarily from improvised explosive devices resulting in a higher MESS and ISS. 10.1016/j.jvs.2013.12.037
Advanced wound therapies in the management of severe military lower limb trauma: a new perspective. Jeffery S L A Eplasty OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this article is to describe the treatment of injuries resulting from land mine explosions using a holistic approach that includes gauze-based negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and encompasses wound bed preparation, exudate management, and infection control. METHOD:In the treatment of 3 traumatic injuries, each requiring limb amputation, we describe the application of NPWT using the Chariker-Jeter system, which uses a single layer of saline-moistened antimicrobial gauze laid directly onto the wound bed. A silicone drain is placed on the gauze and then more gauze is placed over the drain to fill the wound. This is then covered with a clear semipermeable film, cut so that there is a 2- to 3-cm border around the wound allowing it to be sealed onto healthy skin. RESULTS:In each of the cases described, we were able to achieve wound closure prior to successful skin grafting, and the patients have recovered well despite the severity of their injuries. CONCLUSION:We discuss the potential advantages of the Chariker-Jeter system over polyurethane foam as a method of delivering NPWT in highly extensive and irregular-shaped wounds created by land mine explosions while stressing the importance of thorough and effective wound bed preparation.
Perioperative management of traumatic limb amputations due to civilian trauma: current practice and future directions. Cumberworth J,Kieffer W K M,Harry L E,Rogers B A Journal of perioperative practice Traumatic limb amputations are serious injuries. They require urgent multidisciplinary management and emergency surgical intervention to save life and, where possible, preserve limb function. It is therefore vital that perioperative management follows established evidence-based principles to optimise outcomes. In recent years a vast quantity of research on traumatic amputations in the military setting has been published, but civilian injuries, which often have strikingly different mechanisms, have been neglected. This article reviews existing information on epidemiology, pathophysiology, perioperative management strategies, outcomes and future directions in the field. 10.1177/175045891502501203
Long-term outcomes of patients undergoing war-related amputations of the foot and ankle. Ebrahimzadeh Mohammad H,Rajabi Mohammad T The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons Long-term clinical and functional outcomes for patients undergoing foot and ankle amputations are not well documented. We attempted to document long-term outcomes for patients who required lower extremity amputations as a result of wounds suffered during wartime. For this study, 27 Iranian soldiers who had wounds requiring amputation of the foot and ankle were selected for follow-up. The participants' wartime medical records were reviewed, a clinical examination was performed, and each participant completed a questionnaire. Postamputation follow-up averaged 17.5 years. The most prevalent (66.6%) cause of injury was a land mine. The prevalences of different clinical symptoms reported by the amputees at the time of the last follow-up were as follows: 11 (40.7%) with phantom sensation, 6 (22.2%) with phantom pain, 12 (44.4%) with stump pain, 12 (44.4%) with back pain, 9 (33.3%) with contralateral knee pain, and 4 (14.8%) with ipsilateral knee pain; 20 (74%) reported treatment for psychological conditions. In regard to social conditions, 13 (48.1) were currently employed, or had been employed, for a number of years after the amputation; 26 (96%) had children, and all of the patients were married. The results of this observational study indicate that individuals have significant long-term pain and discomfort after war-related lower extremity amputation. Although all 27 (100%) of the amputees were able to maintain satisfactory family functioning, only 13 (48.1%) of the study participants were able to remain productively employed after undergoing amputation, and 20 (74%) reported long-term psychological problems in addition to their physical pain. 10.1053/j.jfas.2007.08.011
The Military Extremity Trauma Amputation/Limb Salvage (METALS) Study: Outcomes of Amputation Compared with Limb Salvage Following Major Upper-Extremity Trauma. Mitchell Stuart L,Hayda Roman,Chen Andrew T,Carlini Anthony R,Ficke James R,MacKenzie Ellen J, The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume BACKGROUND:Severe upper-extremity injuries account for almost one-half of all extremity trauma in recent conflicts in the Global War on Terror. Few long-term outcomes studies address severe combat-related upper-extremity injuries. This study's objective was to describe long-term functional outcomes of amputation compared with those of limb salvage in Global War on Terror veterans who sustained severe upper-extremity injuries. Limb salvage was hypothesized to result in better arm and hand function scores, overall functional status, and quality of life, with similar pain interference. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the Military Extremity Trauma Amputation/Limb Salvage (METALS) study for a subset of 155 individuals who sustained major upper-extremity injuries treated with amputation or limb salvage. Participants were interviewed by telephone 40 months after injury, assessing social support, personal habits, and patient-reported outcome instruments for function, activity, depression, pain, and posttraumatic stress. Outcomes were evaluated for participants with severe upper-extremity injuries and were compared with participants with concomitant severe, lower-extremity injury. The analysis of outcomes comparing limb salvage with amputation was restricted to the 137 participants with a unilateral upper-extremity injury because of the small number of patients with bilateral upper-extremity injuries (n = 18). RESULTS:Overall, participants with upper-extremity injuries reported moderate to high levels of physical and psychosocial disability. Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) scores were high across domains; 19.4% screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 12.3% were positive for depression. Nonetheless, 63.6% of participants were working, were on active duty, or were attending school, and 38.7% of participants were involved in vigorous recreational activities. No significant differences in outcomes were observed between patients who underwent limb salvage and those who underwent amputation. CONCLUSIONS:Severe, combat-related upper-extremity injuries result in diminished self-reported function and psychosocial health. Our results suggest that long-term outcomes are equivalent for those treated with amputation or limb salvage. Addressing or preventing PTSD, depression, chronic pain, and associated health habits may result in less disability burden in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. 10.2106/JBJS.18.00970
Initial predictors associated with outcome in injured multiple traumatic limb amputations: a Kandahar-based combat hospital experience. Benfield Rodd J,Mamczak Christiaan N,Vo Kim-Chi T,Smith Tricia,Osborne Lisa,Sheppard Forrest R,Elster Eric A Injury INTRODUCTION:Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are the defining mechanism of injury during Operation Enduring Freedom. This is a retrospective analysis of initial management for IED blast injuries presenting with bilateral, traumatic, lower-extremity (LE) amputations with and without pelvic and perineal involvement. METHODS:A database of trauma admissions presenting to a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Role 3 combat hospital in southern Afghanistan over a 7-month period was created to evaluate the care of this particular injury pattern. Patients were included if they were received from point of injury with at least bilateral traumatic LE amputations and had vital signs with initial resuscitation efforts. RESULTS:Thirty-two presented with double LE amputations (36%) and nine with triple amputations (10%). After excluding 10 patients who failed to meet the inclusion criteria, 22 patients were analysed. The mean age was 29 years, and the average ISS and admission haemoglobin were 22 and 11.3mgl(-1), respectively. Patients received an average of 54 units of blood products and underwent 1.6 operations with a mean operative time of 142.5min. The pattern of injury was associated with an increase in the total blood products required for resuscitation (pelvis n=12, p=0.028, gastrointestinal tract (GI) n=14, p=0.02, perineal n=15, p=0.036). There was no relationship between ISS or admission haemoglobin and the need for massive transfusion. Low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was associated with increased 30-day mortality. Hollow viscus injury and operative hemipelvectomy were also associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Early 30-day follow-up demonstrated that IED injuries with bilateral LE amputations with and without pelvic and perineal involvement are survivable injuries. Standard measures of injury and predictors of survival bore little relationship to observed outcomes and may need to be re-evaluated. Long-term follow-up is needed to assess the extent of functional recovery and overall morbidity and mortality. 10.1016/j.injury.2012.06.030
Long-term clinical outcomes of war-related bilateral lower extremities amputations. Ebrahimzadeh Mohammad Hosein,Moradi Ali,Khorasani Mohammad Reza,Hallaj-Moghaddam Mohammad,Kachooei Amir Reza Injury In a cross-sectional study, 291 out of 500 veterans with war-related bilateral lower limb amputations from Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) accepted to participate in our study. Information related to amputees and amputated limbs were gathered and a Persian version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) was filled. To evaluate the effect of amputation level on health related quality of life, we classified patients to seven types according to the functional remainder of major joints (ankles, knees, hips). 97% of patients were male and the average age at the time of injury was 20 years. The major cause of war injury was shells in 50. 54% of amputees were involved in sport activities. The most common amputation level was transtibial (48%).The major stump complaint was muscle spasm. History of being hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder was reported in 5.6%. The average SF-36 score in type 2 to type 6 were 68, 60, 60, 56, and 62, respectively. Except Energy/Fatigue domain, all the other domains were different from normal population. There was not any significant statistical correlation between amputation type and any domain of the SF-36. Type 6 amputees showed an increase in physical health domains compared with former types. 10.1016/j.injury.2014.10.043
Long-term Mortality After Nontraumatic Major Lower Extremity Amputation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Meshkin Dean H,Zolper Elizabeth G,Chang Kevin,Bryant Meigan,Bekeny Jenna C,Evans Karen K,Attinger Christopher E,Fan Kenneth L The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons Chronic wounds that lead to major lower extremity amputation have immense consequences on quality of life, and ultimately, mortality. However, mortality rates after lower extremity amputation for a chronic wound are broad within the literature and have escaped precise definition. This systematic review aims to quantify long-term mortality rates after major lower extremity amputation in the chronic wound population available in the existing literature. Ovid MEDLINE was searched for publications which provided mortality data after major, nontraumatic, primary lower extremity amputations. Lower extremity amputations were defined as below and above the knee amputation. Data from included studies was analyzed to obtain pooled 1-, 2-, 3-, 5- and 10-year mortality rates. Sixty-one studies satisfied inclusion criteria representing 36,037 patients who underwent nontraumatic major lower extremity amputation. Pooled mortality rates were 33.7%, 51.5%, 53%, 64.4%, and 80% at 1-, 2-, 3-, 5- and 10-year follow-up, respectively. Within the 8184 diabetic patients (types 1 and 2), 1- and 5-year mortality was 27.3% and 63.2%. Sources of mortality data were varied and included electronic medical records, national health and insurance registries, and government databases. Mortality after nontraumatic major lower extremity amputation is high, both in patients with diabetes as well as those without. Methods used to measure and report mortality are inconsistent, lack reliability, and may underestimate true mortality rates. These findings illustrate the need for a paradigm shift in wound management and improved outcomes reporting. A focus on amputation prevention and care within a multidisciplinary team is critical for recalcitrant ulcers. 10.1053/j.jfas.2020.06.027
Is amputation a viable treatment option in lower extremity trauma? Barla M,Gavanier B,Mangin M,Parot J,Bauer C,Mainard D Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR INTRODUCTION:There is currently no consensus on how to treat patients with lower extremity trauma. Should amputation be performed early on to avoid complications or should the limb be saved at any price? The goal of this study was to show that early amputation is a viable treatment option in lower extremity trauma cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Twenty patients who underwent early amputation and 16 patients who underwent limb-salvage were included with a minimum follow-up of 1year. The main endpoints were the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) used to predict amputation, complications, sequelae, bone union and functional outcomes. RESULTS:The amputees had a higher MESS score than those treated conservatively (7.8 vs. 4.9, P<0.00001), had a shorter hospital stay (P<0.022) and had fewer postoperative complications (P<0.003), especially infection-related (P<0.001). The prevalence of infection in limb-salvage patients was 61%. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of quality of life. DISCUSSION:In cases of lower extremity trauma, early amputation and limb-sparing treatment each have their advantages and disadvantages. Early amputation seems to be better in cases of complications, despite similar quality of life in the two groups in the long-term. It is a viable treatment option in cases of lower extremity trauma. Amputation must not be considered as a failure, but a deliberate choice due to the functional impact of complications that occur after limb-salvage. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level IV study. 10.1016/j.otsr.2017.05.022
Amputation versus conservative treatment in severe open lower-limb fracture: A functional and quality-of-life study. Fioravanti M,Maman P,Curvale G,Rochwerger A,Mattei J-C Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR INTRODUCTION:Severe lower-limb trauma is a major event in a patient's life, and treatment is a challenge that has not been sufficiently studied. The main objective of the present study was to assess the difference in disability between amputees and patients who kept their leg after severe open lower-limb fracture. HYPOTHESIS:The study hypothesis was that amputation allows better functional recovery and quality of life, in the same time-frame. MATERIALS AND METHODS:All male and female patients aged over 18 years admitted to one of the trauma centers of Marseille (France) for major lower-limb trauma with Gustilo IIIb or IIIc fracture were included. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. Two groups were distinguished according to primary treatment: lower-limb salvage, or amputation. Rates of infection and of surgical revision, hospital stay, functional parameters (walking distance, standing, use of canes, running, jumping, driving, and physical and occupational activity) and quality of life (MOS SF-36 score) were compared between groups. RESULTS:The conservative treatment group comprised 27 patients, and the amputation group 24. Rates of infection and of surgical revision and hospital stay were significantly lower in the amputation group (P<0.02). All functional parameters (except return to work) and overall quality of life were significantly better in the amputation group. There was no significant inter-group difference in MOS mental score. CONCLUSION:In severe lower-limb trauma, amputation seems to give better functional and quality-of-life results. It did not, however, improve return to work, and was not better accepted psychologically than long and complex conservative management. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:IV, retrospective study. 10.1016/j.otsr.2017.12.013
Comparing the surgical timelines of military and civilians traumatic lower limb amputations. Staruch R M T,Jackson P C,Hodson J,Yim G,Foster M A,Cubison T,Jeffery S L A Annals of medicine and surgery (2012) The care and challenges of injured service have been well documented in the literature from a variety of specialities. The aim of this study was to analyse the surgical timelines of military and civilian traumatic amputees and compare the surgical and resuscitative interventions. A retrospective review of patient notes was undertaken. Military patients were identified from the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) in 2009. Civilian patients were identified using the hospital informatics database. Patient demographics, treatment timelines as well as surgical and critical care interventions were reviewed. In total 71 military patients sustained traumatic amputations within this time period. This represented 11% of the total injury demographic in 2009. Excluding upper limb amputees 46 patients sustained lower extremity amputations. These were investigated further. In total 21 civilian patients were identified in a 7-year period. Analysis revealed there was a statistically significant difference between patient age, ITU length of stay, blood products used and number of surgical procedures between military and civilian traumatic amputees. This study identified that military patients were treated for longer in critical care and required more surgical interventions for their amputations. Despite this, their time to stump closure and length of stay were not statistically different compared to civilian patients. Such observations reflect the importance of an Orthoplastic approach, as well as daily surgical theatre co-ordination and weekly multi-disciplinary meetings in providing optimal care for these complex patients. This study reports the epidemiological observed differences between two lower limb trauma groups. 10.1016/j.amsu.2016.02.008
Predictors and timing of amputations in military lower extremity trauma with arterial injury. Kauvar David S,Thomas Sarah B,Schechtman David W,Walters Thomas J The journal of trauma and acute care surgery INTRODUCTION:Military lower extremity arterial injuries present threats to life and limb. These injuries are common and limb salvage is a trauma system priority. Understanding the timing and predictors of amputation through the phases of casualty evacuation can help inform future limb salvage efforts. This study characterizes limbs undergoing amputation at different operationally relevant time points. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study of casualties with lower extremity arterial injuries undergoing initial vascular limb salvage in Iraq and Afghanistan was undertaken. Amputations were grouped as having been performed early (in theater at Role 2 or 3) or late (after evacuation to Role 4 or 5). Further distinction was made between late and delayed (after discharge from initial hospitalization) amputations. RESULTS:Four hundred fifty-five casualties met inclusion criteria with 103 amputations (23%). Twenty-one (20%) were performed in theater and 82 (80%) were performed following overseas evacuation. Twenty-one (26% of late amputations) were delayed, a median of 359 days from injury (interquartile range, 176-582). Most amputations were performed in the first 4 days following injury. Amputation incidence was highest in popliteal injuries (28%). Overall, amputation was predicted by higher incidence of blast mechanism and fracture and greater limb and casualty injury severity. Early amputations had higher limb injury severity than late amputations. Delayed amputations had greater incidence of motor and sensory loss and contracture than early amputations. CONCLUSION:Casualty and limb injury severity predict predictors and timing of amputation in military lower extremity arterial injury. Amputation following overseas evacuation was more common than in-theater amputation, and functional loss is associated with delayed amputation. Future limb salvage efforts should focus on postevacuation and rehabilitative care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Epidemiologic study, level III. 10.1097/TA.0000000000002185
Complex limb salvage or early amputation for severe lower-limb injury: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Busse Jason W,Jacobs Craig L,Swiontkowski Marc F,Bosse Michael J,Bhandari Mohit, Journal of orthopaedic trauma PURPOSE:Leg threatening injuries present patients and clinicians with a difficult decision: whether to pursue primary amputation or limb salvage? The purpose of our study was to review the literature in an effort to inform this management decision. METHODS:We systematically searched and selected observational studies that reported on individuals presenting with leg threatening injuries comparing outcomes of limb salvage versus primary amputation. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE. We reported on the following outcomes, and pooled data across trials when possible: length of hospital stay, total rehabilitation time, cost, clinical outcomes, failure rate for limb salvage, function & quality of life, pain, return to work, factors associated with poor outcome, and patient preference. RESULTS:Nine observational studies contributed data to our systematic review. The current evidence suggests that while length of hospital stay is similar for limb salvage and primary amputation, length of rehabilitation and total costs are higher for limb salvage patients. Salvage patients requires greater additional surgery and are significantly more likely to undergo re-hospitalization. Long-term functional outcomes (up to 7 years post injury) are equivalent between limb salvage and primary amputation; both forms of management are associated with high rates of self-reported disability (40%; to 50%;), and functional status continues to worsen over time. Report of pain following limb salvage or primary amputation is similar. Return to work is essentially the same between limb salvage and primary amputation groups, with approximately half of such patients returning to competitive employment at 2 years post injury. Both clinical and psychosocial factors are associated with poorer functional outcomes. At the time of injury patients prefer limb salvage, but the majority of failed salvage patients would opt for early amputation if they could decide again. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE:Functional outcome among patients who present with leg-threatening injuries are not significantly different, at least up to 7 years, whether they are managed with limb salvage or primary amputation. Research to optimize triage decisions to avoid failed limb salvage as well as on interventions targeting important psychosocial prognostic variables should be considered a priority. 10.1097/BOT.0b013e31802cbc43
Long-term symptoms and function after war-related lower limb amputation: A national cross-sectional study. Esfandiari Elham,Yavari Amir,Karimi Amir,Masoumi Mehdi,Soroush Mohammadreza,Saeedi Hassan Acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to document long-term symptoms and functional results following war-related knee disarticulation, trans-femoral amputation, and hip disarticulation. METHODS:An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a 7-day recreational camp in Iran. One thousand patients with unilateral hip disarticulation, trans-femoral amputation and knee disarticulation due to war-related injuries were invited to undergo a thorough physical examination. Among the invited persons, 58.7% (587 subjects) responded to our invitations. A complete examination related to phantom pain, phantom sensation, stump pain, back pain, and sound limb joints pain with a self-constructed questionnaire was performed. In addition, Amputee Mobility Predictor (AMP) instrument with a prosthesis was completed to assess the function of patients. RESULTS:The mean duration of time since amputation was 22 years. The most common symptoms reported by participants were phantom sensation (82%), back pain (69%), and phantom pain (63%). In addition, total scores of AMP with a prosthesis in persons with knee disarticulation and trans-femoral amputations were 20.8 and 28, respectively. The knee disarticulation was associated with higher scores of AMP with a prosthesis compared to transfemoral amputation (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION:The results of this study showed that patients with lower limb amputation suffer from significant clinical and functional problems. The findings may be useful to adopt new strategies in planning rehabilitation programs to improve quality of life and health status of patients with war-related lower limb amputation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level IV, Therapeutic study. 10.1016/j.aott.2017.04.004
The mangled foot and leg: salvage versus amputation. Shawen Scott B,Keeling John J,Branstetter Joanna,Kirk Kevin L,Ficke James R Foot and ankle clinics Determining whether to perform limb salvage or amputation in the traumatized lower extremity continues to be a difficult problem in the military and civilian sectors. Numerous predictive scores and models have failed to provide definitive criteria for prediction of limb-salvage success. Excellent support is available in the military health care system for soldiers electing to undergo either limb salvage or amputation. Recent experience with soldiers who sustained limb-threatening injuries has shown that delayed amputation after limb-salvage attempts is a viable option for soldiers wounded in combat. 10.1016/j.fcl.2009.11.005
Outcomes in lower limb amputation following trauma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Penn-Barwell Jowan G Injury INTRODUCTION:Lower limb amputation (LLA) is life-changing surgery. Shorter residual limbs are known to place greater physiological strain on patients than longer residual limbs; however, there is ongoing debate as to whether through-knee amputations are preferable to above-knee amputations. This analysis aims to resolve this question by systematically collecting and pooling published and unpublished data on this subject. METHODS:An exhaustive search of Medline, Embase and Recal databases was made for outcome studies of patients with lower limb amputations following trauma. Studies concerned with amputations of the upper limb or foot and ankle were excluded as were papers reporting outcomes in a population of mixed trauma and non-trauma patients. Authors of studies published in the last 10 years were contacted for unpublished details. Patients were then divided, according to amputation height, into four groups: below-knee amputation (BKA), through-knee amputation (TKA), above-knee amputation (AKA) and bilateral amputation. The primary outcome measure was Physical Component Score (PCS) of the short-form-36 measure of quality of life and secondary outcomes were pain, employment, ability to walk 500m and proportion of time that prosthesis is worn. RESULTS:As many as 27 studies were included, representing a total of 3105 patients, 1855 with a BKA, 104 with a TKA, 888 with an AKA and 258 bilateral amputees. There was progressive and significant lowering of PCS (worsening outcomes) as unilateral amputation height became more proximal from BKA to TKA and AKA. A significantly greater proportion of patients with a BKA or a TKA were able to walk 500m than those with an AKA or bilateral amputation (p=0.0035). However, patients with a TKA wore their prosthesis significantly less, and had significantly more pain than those with an AKA. CONCLUSION:This study describes the impact of LLA of different levels on patients' lives. The results indicate that patients with a TKA have a better physical quality of life than those with an AKA and, therefore, support the surgical strategy of maintaining maximum length and performing TKA in preference to AKA, where possible. 10.1016/j.injury.2011.07.005
Short-term physical and mental health outcomes for combat amputee and nonamputee extremity injury patients. Melcer Ted,Walker G Jay,Sechriest V Franklin,Galarneau Michael,Konoske Paula,Pyo Jay Journal of orthopaedic trauma OBJECTIVES:The present study: (1) reports the early physical health complications, mental health outcomes, and outpatient health care utilization of patients with serious extremity injuries sustained during the Iraq or Afghanistan wars and (2) compares clinical outcomes between amputee and nonamputee extremity injury groups. METHOD:This was a retrospective review of clinical records in military health databases for patients injured in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Health outcomes of amputee (n = 382, injured 2001-2005) and nonamputee patients (n = 274, injured 2001-2007) with serious extremity injuries (abbreviated injury score ≥ 3) were followed up to 24 months post injury. This study was performed at Naval Health Research Center, San Diego. RESULTS:Amputee and nonamputee groups had similar injury severity scores. Amputees had nearly double the risk of certain adverse complications (infections, anemia, septicemia, and thromboembolic disease), but other complications (osteomyelitis and nonhealing wound) were similar between the 2 groups. Amputees had significantly greater odds of certain mental health disorders including mood, sleep, pain, and postconcussion syndrome. However, amputees had significantly reduced odds of posttraumatic stress disorder compared with nonamputees. Amputees used various outpatient clinics significantly more than nonamputees. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with serious combat extremity injuries showed high rates of adverse health outcomes in the short term. Amputees had higher rates of many but not all clinically important physical and mental health outcomes compared to nonamputees. These results are important for military orthopaedic surgeons and allied providers who care for and counsel these patients and clinicians and researchers who seek to understand and improve health outcomes in patients with extremity war injuries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3182517e1c
Long-term follow-up and amputation-free survival in 497 casualties with combat-related vascular injuries and damage-control resuscitation. Dua Anahita,Patel Bhavin,Kragh John F,Holcomb John B,Fox Charles J The journal of trauma and acute care surgery BACKGROUND:The effectiveness of damage-control resuscitation (DCR) has been demonstrated in recent US conflicts. Wartime casualties treated for hemorrhagic shock from vascular wounds were studied to report the 24-hour transfusion requirements, graft patency, and amputation-free survival for major vascular injuries. METHODS:Joint Theater Trauma Registry data from August 2006 to April 2011 (56 months) were retrospectively reviewed. Included were casualties with a vascular injury who presented to US combat support hospitals in Iraq or Afghanistan. Amputation-free survival and graft patency were determined from record and imaging review. RESULTS:The study group consisted of 497 severely wounded local national and military casualties (mean [SD] Injury Severity Score [ISS], 17 [8.5]) presenting with acidosis (pH 7.29 [0.15]), tachycardia (heart rate, 110 [29.31]), and coagulopathy (international normalized ratio, 1.6 [2.33]). Given DCR and early management of vascular injury, blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, hemoglobin, and base deficit improved promptly (p < 0.05) by intensive care unit admission. Transfusion requirements included packed red blood cells (15 [13] U; range, 1-70 U), fresh frozen plasma (14 [13] U; range, 1-72 U), cryoprecipitate (13 [15] U; range, 1-49 U), and platelets (8 [6] U; range, 1-36 U). Mean operative time was 232 minutes (range, 16-763 minutes). US casualties (n = 111) had limb salvage attempted for 113 extremity vascular injuries (3 [2%] iliac, 33 [30%] femoral, 23 [20%] popliteal, 13 [12%] tibial, 33 [30%] brachial, 4 [3%] ulnar, and 4 [(3%] radial). In this subgroup, 28 (25%) were revascularized by a primary repair or end anastomosis, 80 (71%) were revascularized by saphenovenous grafts, and 15 (3%) [corrected] were revascularized by prosthetic grafts. The follow-up ranged from 29 days to 1,079 days, (mean, 347 days), during which 96 grafts (84.9%) remained patent, 16 casualties (14.2%) required a delayed amputation, and 110 (99.1%) survived. Popliteal injuries had the highest amputation rate (7 of 23, 30.4%). The amputation-free survival was 84%. CONCLUSION:In severely wounded casualties, wartime surgical strategies to save both life and limb evidently permit definitive procedures at initial surgery with excellent limb salvage results. This outcome analysis in a large cohort can help to refine surgical judgment and support contemporary DCR practices for major vascular injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic study, level V. 10.1097/TA.0b013e31827826b7
Outcomes of Arterial Grafts for the Reconstruction of Military Lower Extremity Arterial Injuries. Laverty Robert B,Brock Samantha G,Walters Thomas J,Kauvar David S Annals of vascular surgery INTRODUCTION:Lower extremity (LE) arterial injuries are common in military casualties and limb salvage is a primary goal. Bypass grafts are the most common reconstructions; however, their specific outcomes are largely unreported. We sought to describe the outcomes of LE arterial grafts among combat casualties and their association with limb loss. METHODS:Retrospective cohort study of 2004-2012 Iraq/Afghanistan casualties with LE arterial injury undergoing bypass graft from a database containing follow-up until amputation, death, or military discharge. Primary outcome was composite graft complications (GC-thrombosis, stenosis, pseudoaneurysm, blowout, and/or arteriovenous fistula). RESULTS:Two hundred and twenty-two grafts were included (99 femoral, 73 popliteal, 48 tibial). 56 (26%) had at least one GC; thrombosis was most common in femoral, stenosis most common in popliteal and tibial. GC was not associated with graft level but was associated with synthetic conduit (P = 0.01) and trended towards an association with multiple-level arterial injuries (P = 0.07). Four of eight (50%) synthetic grafts had amputations, all within 72h. Two of the eight synthetic grafts thrombosed, and both limbs were amputated. There were 52 total amputations. Amputation was performed in 13 (23%) of limbs with a GC and 24% of those without (P = 0.93) Overall, 24 (11%) of grafts thrombosed, 16 within 48h and 13 (25%) in limbs undergoing amputation (P = 0.001 for association of thrombosis with amputation). CONCLUSION:GC are common among LE bypass grafts in combat casualties but are not associated with limb loss. Thrombosis is predominantly early and is associated with amputation. Closer attention to ensuring early patency may improve limb salvage. 10.1016/j.avsg.2021.03.006
Late amputation may not reduce complications or improve mental health in combat-related, lower extremity limb salvage patients. Krueger Chad A,Rivera Jessica C,Tennent David J,Sheean Andrew J,Stinner Daniel J,Wenke Joseph C Injury INTRODUCTION:Following severe lower extremity trauma, patients who undergo limb reconstruction and amputations both endure frequent complications and mental health sequelae. The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which late amputation following a period of limb salvage impacts the evolution of the clinical variables that can affect the patient's perception of his or her limb: ongoing limb associated complications and mental health conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A case series of US service members who sustained a late major extremity amputation from September 2001 through July 2011 were analysed. Pre- and post-amputation complications, mental health conditions, and reason(s) for desiring amputation were recorded. RESULTS:Forty-four amputees with detailed demographic, injury and treatment data were identified. The most common reasons for desiring a late amputation were pain and being dissatisfied with the function of the salvage limb. An average of 3.2 (range 1-10) complications were reported per amputee prior to undergoing late amputation and an average of 1.8 (range 0-5) complications reported afterwards. The most common complication prior to and after late amputation was soft tissue infection (24 (17%) and 9 (22%), respectively). Twenty-nine (64%) late amputees were diagnosed with a mental health condition prior to undergoing their amputation and 27 (61%) late amputees were diagnosed with mental conditions after late amputation. Only three of the 15 patients who did not have a mental health condition documented prior to their late amputation remained free of a documented mental health condition after the amputation. DISCUSSION:Ongoing complications and mental health conditions can affect how a patient perceives and copes with his or her limb following severe trauma. Patient dissatisfaction following limb reconstruction can influence the decision to undergo a late amputation. Patients with a severe, combat related lower extremity injury that are undergoing limb salvage may not have a reduction in their overall complication rate, a resolution of specific complications or an improvement of their mental health after undergoing late amputation. CONCLUSION:Surgeons caring for limb salvage patients should counsel appropriately when managing expectations for a patient who desires a late amputation. 10.1016/j.injury.2015.05.015
Rehabilitation and multiple limb amputations: A clinical report of patients injured in combat. Melcer Ted,Pyo Jay,Walker Jay,Quinn Kimberly,Lebedda Martin,Neises Kamaran,Nguyen Christina,Galarneau Michael Journal of rehabilitation research and development This clinical report describes the outpatient rehabilitation program for patients with multiple limb amputations enrolled in the Comprehensive Combat and Complex Casualty Care facility at the Naval Medical Center San Diego. Injury-specific data for 29 of these patients wounded by blast weaponry in Afghanistan in 2010 or 2011 were captured by the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database at the Naval Health Research Center and were reviewed for this report. Their median Injury Severity Score was 27 (N = 29; range, 11-54). Patients averaged seven moderate to serious injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale scores ≥2), including multiple injuries to lower limbs and injuries to the torso and/or upper limbs. All patients received care from numerous clinics, particularly physical therapy during the first 6 mo postinjury. Clinic use generally declined after the first 6 mo with the exception of prosthetic devices and repairs. The clinical team implemented the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory, 4th Revision (MPAI-4) to assess functioning at outpatient program initiation and discharge (n = 23). At program discharge, most patients had improved scores for the MPAI-4 items assessing mobility, pain, and transportation, but not employment. Case reports described rehabilitation for two patients with triple amputations and illustrated multispecialty care and contrasting solutions for limb prostheses. 10.1682/JRRD.2014.09.0219
The outcome of British combat amputees in relation to military service. Dharm-Datta Shreshth,Etherington John,Mistlin Alan,Rees Jonathan,Clasper Jonathan Injury BACKGROUND:The study aim was to determine the outcome, in relation to military service in UK military combat amputees. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Casualties were assessed at mean 2.4 years after injury and graded by a Functional Activity Assessment (FAA) ranging from 1 (fully fit) to 5 (unfit all duties) to score vocational functional outcome. ISS were calculated and the patients were categorised as having unilateral or multiple amputations. The Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was completed. RESULTS:Of the 52, 8 patients had left the forces by medical discharge, with 44 continuing to serve. 33 of the 44 had returned to work. 50 patients had FAA grades and were at least 7.6 months post-injury. No patients were graded as FAA1, 8 as FAA2, 18 as FAA3, 19 as FAA4 and 5 as FAA5. There was a trend for the FAA score to increase with injury severity, as measured by ISS i.e. vocational functional outcome was worse with more severe injuries, although this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.095). Multiple amputee patients had significantly higher FAA grades (p<0.001) and were all FAA 4 or 5. Of the 33 patients who had returned to work, 8 were FAA2, 12 FAA3 and 12 FAA4. The mean SF-36 scores for Physical Component Summary (PCS) increased significantly from 36.4 to 43.4 (p=0.001) with rehabilitation, while Mental Component Summary (MCS) was 53.0 and remained similar at 53.6 (p=0.987). MCS scores were similar in these patients to the normal population, 50 (SD 10). CONCLUSIONS:This study is the first to report the outcomes, with regards to return to work, of the UK military amputees injured in Afghanistan and Iraq Soldiers are surviving more severe and complex injuries than before and the majority are able to return successfully to military work. SF-36 PCS scores improve significantly with rehabilitation, and while MCS scores remain constant, the initial assessments are comparable with a normal population. 10.1016/j.injury.2011.06.028
Associated injuries in casualties with traumatic lower extremity amputations caused by improvised explosive devices. Morrison J J,Hunt N,Midwinter M,Jansen J The British journal of surgery BACKGROUND:Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) pose a significant threat to military personnel, often resulting in lower extremity amputation and pelvic injury. Immediate management is haemorrhage control and debridement, which can involve lengthy surgery. Computed tomography is necessary to delineate the extent of the injury, but it is unclear whether to perform this during or after surgery. METHODS:The UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was searched to identify all UK service personnel who had a traumatic lower extremity amputation following IED injury between January 2007 and December 2010. Data were collected on injury pattern and survival. RESULTS:There were 169 patients who sustained 278 traumatic lower extremity amputations: 69 were killed in action, 16 died from their wounds and 84 were wounded in action, but survived. The median (interquartile range) Injury Severity Score was 75 (21) for those killed in action, 46 (23) for those who died from wounds and 29 (12) for survivors. There were significantly more severe head, chest and abdominal injuries (defined as a body region Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 3 or more) in patients who were killed in action than in those reaching hospital (P < 0·001). Hindquarter amputations were the most lethal, with a mortality rate of 95 per cent. Of the 100 casualties who reached hospital alive, there were nine thoracotomies, one craniotomy and 34 laparotomies. All head or torso injuries that required immediate operation were clinically apparent on admission. CONCLUSION:Higher levels of amputation were associated with greater injury burden and mortality. Intraoperative computed tomography had little value in identifying clinically significant covert injuries. 10.1002/bjs.7765
Infectious complications and soft tissue injury contribute to late amputation after severe lower extremity trauma. Huh Jeannie,Stinner Daniel J,Burns Travis C,Hsu Joseph R, The Journal of trauma BACKGROUND:Although most combat-related amputations occur early for unsalvageable injuries, >15% occur late after reconstructive attempts. Predicting which patients will abandon limb salvage in favor of definitive amputation has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to identify factors contributing to late amputation for type III open tibia fractures sustained in combat. METHODS:Operative databases were reviewed to identify all combat-related type III open diaphyseal tibia fractures from March 2003 to September 2007. Patients were categorized based on their definitive treatment: group I, limb salvage; group II, early amputation (<12 weeks postinjury); group III, late amputation (≥ 12 weeks postinjury). Injury, treatment, and complication data were extracted from medical records and compared across groups. RESULTS:We identified 213 consecutive fractures, including 166 (77.9%) treated definitively with limb salvage, 36 (16.9%) with early amputation, and 11 (5.2%) with late amputation. There was no difference in fracture severity among the three groups. Before amputation, group III was more likely to use autograft and bone morphogenic protein (27.3%), compared with group I (4.8%) and group II (0%), and was more likely to undergo rotational flap coverage (45.5%), compared with group II (0%). Group III patients had the highest average number of revision surgeries and rate of deep soft tissue infection and were more likely to have osteomyelitis (54.5%) before amputation compared with group I (13.9%) and group II (16.7%). CONCLUSION:Patients definitively managed with late amputation were more likely to have soft tissue injury requiring flap coverage and have their limb salvage course complicated by infection. 10.1097/TA.0b013e318221181d
Traumatic and trauma-related amputations: part I: general principles and lower-extremity amputations. Tintle Scott M,Keeling John J,Shawen Scott B,Forsberg Jonathan A,Potter Benjamin K The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Deliberate attention to the management of soft tissue is imperative when performing an amputation. Identification and proper management of the nerves accompanied by the performance of a stable myodesis and ensuring robust soft-tissue coverage are measures that will improve patient outcomes. Limb length should be preserved when practicable; however, length preservation at the expense of creating a nonhealing or painful residual limb with poor soft-tissue coverage is contraindicated. While a large proportion of individuals with a trauma-related amputation remain severely disabled, a chronically painful residual limb is not inevitable and late revision amputations to improve soft-tissue coverage, stabilize the soft tissues (revision myodesis), or remove symptomatic neuromas can dramatically improve patient outcomes. Psychosocial issues may dramatically affect the outcomes after trauma-related amputations. A multidisciplinary team should be consulted or created to address the multiple complex physical, mental, and psychosocial issues facing patients with a recent amputation. 10.2106/JBJS.J.00257
A Retrospective Comparison of Five-Year Health Outcomes Following Upper Limb Amputation and Serious Upper Limb Injury in the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts. Melcer Ted,Walker Jay,Sechriest Vernon Franklin,Bhatnagar Vibha,Richard Erin,Perez Katheryne,Galarneau Michael PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation BACKGROUND:Limited population-based research has described long-term health outcomes following combat-related upper limb amputation. OBJECTIVE:To compare health outcomes following upper limb amputation with outcomes following serious upper limb injury during the first 5 years postinjury. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort. SETTING:Departments of Defense (DoD) and Veterans Affairs (VA) inpatient and outpatient health care facilities. PARTICIPANTS:Three-hundred eighteen U.S. Service Members. METHODS:Patients sustained an above elbow (AE, n = 51) or below elbow (BE, n = 80) amputation or serious arm injury without amputation (NO AMP, n = 187) in the Iraq or Afghanistan conflicts, 2001 through 2008. Injuries were coded by trauma nurses. Outcomes came from DoD and VA health databases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic codes. RESULTS:Most patients were injured by blast weaponry causing serious to severe injuries. All groups had a high prevalence of physical and psychological health diagnoses. The prevalence for nearly all wound complications and many physical and psychological disorders decreased substantially after postinjury year 1. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, however, increased significantly from postinjury year 1 (20%) to 3 (36%). Pain and psychological disorders ranged from 69% to 90% of patients during postinjury year 1 and remained relatively high even postinjury during year 5 (37%-53%). After adjusting for covariates, the AE group had significantly higher odds for some physical and psychological diagnoses (eg, deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, cervical pain, osteoarthritis, obesity, and mood and adjustment disorders) relative to the BE or NO AMP groups. BE patients had significantly lower odds for osteomyelitis, and AE and BE patients had lower odds for fracture nonunion and joint disorders versus NO AMP. CONCLUSIONS:The results identify similarities and differences in clinical outcomes following combat-related upper limb amputation versus serious arm injury and can inform medical planning to improve rehabilitation programs and outcomes for these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:III. 10.1002/pmrj.12047
Multiple limbs salvaged using tissue transfers in the same casualty: a cohort comparison study chronicling a decade of war-injured patients. Valerio Ian,Sabino Jennifer,Thomas Shane,Tintle Scott,Fleming Mark,Shashikant Mark,Kumar Anand Plastic and reconstructive surgery BACKGROUND:Extremity battlefield injuries from Operation Iraq and Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) requiring multiple limbs salvaged with tissue transfers in the same patient are an understudied population. This study aimed to report the limb salvage outcomes in patients requiring multiple flap procedures for two or more concurrent extremity injuries. METHODS:A retrospective cohort comparison of warfare-related extremity injuries treated for limb salvage from 2003 through 2012 at the National Capital Consortium was completed. Number of single and multiple flap limb salvages, Injury Severity Score, success rates, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 359 limb salvage reconstructive procedures were performed, consisting of 311 cases of single extremity salvage and 48 cases of multiple flap or multiple extremity salvage. The Injury Severity Score was significantly higher in the multiple extremity group (23) than in the single extremity group (17; p<0.001). Primary flap failure rate was 9 percent in single and 12 percent in multiple limb salvage cases (p=0.390). The subgroup flap failure rate in the multiple limb salvage cohort was 8 percent, 7 percent, and 25 percent for pedicle flaps, pedicle/free flaps, and free flaps, respectively (p=0.361). The total complication rate was 26 percent and 33 percent for single and multiple limb salvage cases, respectively (p=0.211). CONCLUSION:Limb salvage requiring multiple flap procedures in the polyextremity-injured patent is safe and equally effective when compared with a single-limb-injured cohort despite a significantly higher injury severity score. Overall complication rates were not significantly different, although subgroup analysis demonstrated a trend toward increased flap failure in the multiple free flap cohort. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic, III. 10.1097/PRS.0000000000000363
Lower extremity reconstruction for limb salvage and functional restoration - The Combat experience. McCulloch Ian,Valerio Ian Clinics in plastic surgery Evolution in extremity injury treatment often occurs during major conflicts, with lessons learned applied and translated among military and civilian settings. In recent periods of war, improvements in protective equipment, in-theater damage control resuscitation/surgery, delivery of antibiotics locally/systemically, and rapid evacuation to higher levels of medical care capabilities have greatly improved combat casualty survivability rates. Additionally, widespread application of lower extremity tourniquets also has prevented casualties from exsanguination, thus reducing hemorrhagic-related deaths. Secondary to these, a high number of combat casualties suffering lower extremity traumatic injuries have presented for functional limb reconstruction and restoration as well as residual limb care. 10.1016/j.cps.2021.01.005
The Military Extremity Trauma Amputation/Limb Salvage (METALS) study: outcomes of amputation versus limb salvage following major lower-extremity trauma. Doukas William C,Hayda Roman A,Frisch H Michael,Andersen Romney C,Mazurek Michael T,Ficke James R,Keeling John J,Pasquina Paul F,Wain Harold J,Carlini Anthony R,MacKenzie Ellen J The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume BACKGROUND:The study was performed to examine the hypothesis that functional outcomes following major lower-extremity trauma sustained in the military would be similar between patients treated with amputation and those who underwent limb salvage. METHODS:This is a retrospective cohort study of 324 service members deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq who sustained a lower-limb injury requiring either amputation or limb salvage involving revascularization, bone graft/bone transport, local/free flap coverage, repair of a major nerve injury, or a complete compartment injury/compartment syndrome. The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire was used to measure overall function. Standard instruments were used to measure depression (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist-military version), chronic pain (Chronic Pain Grade Scale), and engagement in sports and leisure activities (Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire). The outcomes of amputation and salvage were compared by using regression analysis with adjustment for age, time until the interview, military rank, upper-limb and bilateral injuries, social support, and intensity of combat experiences. RESULTS:Overall response rates were modest (59.2%) and significantly different between those who underwent amputation (64.5%) and those treated with limb salvage (55.4%) (p = 0.02). In all SMFA domains except arm/hand function, the patients scored significantly worse than population norms. Also, 38.3% screened positive for depressive symptoms and 17.9%, for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One-third (34.0%) were not working, on active duty, or in school. After adjustment for covariates, participants with an amputation had better scores in all SMFA domains compared with those whose limbs had been salvaged (p < 0.01). They also had a lower likelihood of PTSD and a higher likelihood of being engaged in vigorous sports. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to the percentage of patients with depressive symptoms, pain interfering with daily activities (pain interference), or work/school status. CONCLUSIONS:Major lower-limb trauma sustained in the military results in significant disability. Service members who undergo amputation appear to have better functional outcomes than those who undergo limb salvage. Caution is needed in interpreting these results as there was a potential for selection bias. 10.2106/JBJS.K.00734
Functional outcomes of traumatic lower extremity reconstruction. Rounds Alexis D,Burtt Karen E,Leland Hyuma A,Alluri Ram K,Badash Ido,Patel Ketan M,Carey Joseph N Journal of clinical orthopaedics and trauma BACKGROUND:Lower extremity trauma accounts for over 300,000 injuries annually. While soft tissue transfer is a well-accepted practice for open fracture coverage, functional outcomes remain unclear. HYPOTHESIS:This study investigates functional outcomes following soft tissue reconstruction for open tibial fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of open tibia fractures requiring soft tissue reconstruction was performed at an urban level 1 trauma center between October 2013 and March 2015. OUTCOMES:were evaluated using Pearson's chi square test with significant p value < 0.05. RESULTS:In 30 patients, fractures were graded Gustilo-Anderson type I (3.3%), 30% type II, 3.3% type IIIa, 53.3% type IIIb, and 10% type IIIc. Fixation was 56.7% plate and screw, 20% intramedullary nail, and 16.7% external fixator. Definitive closure was achieved in 43.3% through local rotational flap (38.5% gastrocnemius, 61.5% soleus), and in 56.7% by free tissue transfer (29.4% latissimus, 23.5% rectus, 17.6% ALT, 17.6% gracilis). In 10 patients, 70% returned to full ambulation, 30% required an assistance device, and 50% achieved union in 6 months. Local flap use was predictive of ambulation at discharge. DISCUSSION:Following lower extremity fracture, 70% of patients returned to pre-injury function. Use of a local tissue flap was associated with early ambulation. 10.1016/j.jcot.2017.08.013
Influence of Immediate and Delayed Lower-Limb Amputation Compared with Lower-Limb Salvage on Functional and Mental Health Outcomes Post-Rehabilitation in the U.K. Military. Ladlow Peter,Phillip Rhodri,Coppack Russell,Etherington John,Bilzon James,McGuigan M Polly,Bennett Alexander N The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume BACKGROUND:Medical practitioners face difficult decisions over whether to amputate or to salvage a lower limb that has undergone trauma. To our knowledge, there has been little evidence reporting the impact of different surgical decisions on functional and mental health outcomes following intensive rehabilitation that might inform decision-making. METHODS:This study is a retrospective, independent-group comparison of rehabilitation outcomes from a U.K. military complex trauma rehabilitation center. There were 100 procedures examined: 36 unilateral amputations (11 immediate-below-the-knee amputations, 15 delayed below-the-knee amputations, and 10 immediate above-the-knee amputations), 43 bilateral amputations, and 21 single-limb salvages (including 13 below-the-knee limb salvages); the patients had a mean age (and standard deviation) of 29 ± 6 years and a mean New Injury Severity Score of 34 ± 15 points. The outcome measures at completion of rehabilitation included a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre mobility and activities of daily living scores, screening for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) and general anxiety disorder (General Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale [GAD-7]), mental health support, and pain scores. RESULTS:On completion of their rehabilitation, the unilateral amputation group walked significantly farther in 6 minutes (564 ± 92 m) than the limb-salvage group (483 ± 108 m; p < 0.05) and the bilateral amputation group (409 ± 106 m; p < 0.001). The delayed below-the-knee amputation group (595 ± 89 m) walked significantly farther than the group with limb salvage below the knee (472 ± 110 m; p < 0.05), and there was no significant difference between the group with delayed below-the-knee amputation and the group with immediate below-the-knee amputation (598 ± 63 m; p > 0.05). The limb-salvage group was less capable of running independently compared with all amputee groups. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were reported in mean mental health outcomes between the below-the-knee injury groups, and depression and anxiety scores were comparable with population norms. At discharge, 97% of all patients were able to control their pain. CONCLUSIONS:After completing a U.K. military interdisciplinary rehabilitation program, the unilateral amputation group demonstrated a significant functional advantage over the limb-salvage and bilateral amputation groups. We found that patients electing for delayed amputation below the knee after attempted limb salvage achieved superior functional gains in mobility compared with patients who underwent limb salvage below the knee and experienced no functional disadvantage compared with patients who underwent immediate amputation. The mental health outcomes were comparable with general population norms, optimizing the prospect of full integration back into society. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. 10.2106/JBJS.15.01210
Risk factors for and results of late or delayed amputation following combat-related extremity injuries. Helgeson Melvin D,Potter Benjamin K,Burns Travis C,Hayda Roman A,Gajewski Donald A Orthopedics We studied patients with combat-related injuries that required delayed amputation at least 4 months after the initial injury due to dysfunction, persistent pain, and patient desires. Late amputations were performed 22 times in 22 patients (21 men, 1 woman) since 2003. Fourteen patients underwent transtibial amputation, 5 transfemoral amputations, 1 knee disarticulation, and 2 transradial amputations. The primary indications for late amputation were neurologic dysfunction in 6 patients, persistent or recurrent infection in 6, neurogenic pain in 3, non-neurogenic pain in 5, and a globally poor functional result in 2. Sixteen of 22 patients reported multiple indications for electing to undergo amputation, with an average of 2.1 specific indications per patient. At final clinical follow-up an average of 13 months after amputation, all patients reported subjectively improved function and reported that they would undergo amputation again under similar circumstances. When medically and functionally practicable, every effort is given to limb salvage following severe combat-related extremity injuries. There is no single risk factor that increases the likelihood of delayed amputation, but the combination of complex pain symptoms with neurologic dysfunction appears to increase the risk, particularly if the initial insult is a severe hindfoot injury or distal tibia fracture. With appropriately selected and counseled patients, elective late amputation results in a high degree of patient satisfaction and subjectively improved function. 10.3928/01477447-20100722-02
A meta-analysis of amputation versus limb salvage in mangled lower limb injuries--the patient perspective. Akula Maheswara,Gella Sreenadh,Shaw C J,McShane Phil,Mohsen A M Injury This meta-analysis evaluates the quality of life in post-traumatic amputees in comparison with limb salvage. Studies included in this meta-analysis had a minimum of 24 months of follow-up and used a validated quality-of-life outcome assessment scale (Short Form-36 or Sickness Impact Profile) for physical and psychological outcomes. Two reviewers performed the search and data extraction independent of each other. A total of 214 studies were identified; 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; thus, 1138 patients were available for meta-analysis (769 amputees and 369 cases of reconstruction). The meta-analysis demonstrated that lower limb reconstruction is more acceptable psychologically to patients with severe lower limb trauma compared with amputation, even though the physical outcome for both management pathways was more or less the same. 10.1016/j.injury.2010.05.003
Risk Factors of Amputation in Lower Extremity Trauma with Combined Femoropopliteal Arterial Injury. Kim JeaHwan,Jeon Yong Sun,Cho Soon Gu,Hong Kee Chun,Park Keun-Myoung Vascular specialist international PURPOSE:The clinical characteristics and results of femoropopliteal artery injury (FPAI) remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the outcomes and risk factors of limb loss in patients treated for FPAI. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed data from a database of patients who underwent revascularization for an FPAI at a single institution between January 2013 and December 2017. We reviewed and analyzed the characteristics, postoperative results, and factors that influence amputation rates. RESULTS:Twenty-four femoropopliteal arterial reconstructions in 24 patients were included in this study. Among the patients were 20 (83.3%) male with a first-quartile age of 28 years and a third-quartile age of 45 years (range, 15-68 years). The mean injury severity score (ISS) was 16 (range, 4-55), and 5 patients (20.8%) had ISSs of >20 points. The mean mangled extremity severity score (MESS) was 3.8 (range, 1-11), and 8 patients (33.3%) had MESSs of >5 points. In terms of arterial reconstruction methods, autogenous saphenous vein grafting, vein patching, and primary closure were performed in 9 patients (37.5%), 4 patients (16.7%), and 11 patients (45.8%), respectively. Despite arterial reconstruction, 5 patients (20.8%) underwent above-knee amputation. ISSs of >20, MESSs of >7, and orthopedic fixation were statistically significant factors associated with amputation. CONCLUSION:In cases of FPAI with ISSs of >20, MESSs of >7, and orthopedic fixation, amputations should be considered. We were also careful to attempt limb salvage in such cases. 10.5758/vsi.2019.35.1.16
Outcomes following limb salvage after combat hindfoot injury are inferior to delayed amputation at five years. Bennett P M,Stevenson T,Sargeant I D,Mountain A,Penn-Barwell J G Bone & joint research OBJECTIVES:The surgical challenge with severe hindfoot injuries is one of technical feasibility, and whether the limb can be salvaged. There is an additional question of whether these injuries should be managed with limb salvage, or whether patients would achieve a greater quality of life with a transtibial amputation. This study aims to measure functional outcomes in military patients sustaining hindfoot fractures, and identify injury features associated with poor function. METHODS:Follow-up was attempted in all United Kingdom military casualties sustaining hindfoot fractures. All respondents underwent short-form (SF)-12 scoring; those retaining their limb also completed the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle (AAOS F&A) outcomes questionnaire. A multivariate regression analysis identified injury features associated with poor functional recovery. RESULTS:In 12 years of conflict, 114 patients sustained 134 fractures. Follow-up consisted of 90 fractures (90/134, 67%), at a median of five years (interquartile range (IQR) 52 to 80 months).The median Short-Form 12 physical component score (PCS) of 62 individuals retaining their limb was 45 (IQR 36 to 53), significantly lower than the median of 51 (IQR 46 to 54) in patients who underwent delayed amputation after attempted reconstruction (p = 0.0351).Regression analysis identified three variables associated with a poor F&A score: negative Bohler's angle on initial radiograph; coexisting talus and calcaneus fracture; and tibial plafond fracture in addition to a hindfoot fracture. The presence of two out of three variables was associated with a significantly lower PCS compared with amputees (medians 29, IQR 27 to 43 51, IQR 46 to 54; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:At five years, patients with reconstructed hindfoot fractures have inferior outcomes to those who have delayed amputation. It is possible to identify injuries which will go on to have particularly poor outcomes.: P. M. Bennett, T. Stevenson, I. D. Sargeant, A. Mountain, J. G. Penn-Barwell. Outcomes following limb salvage after combat hindfoot injury are inferior to delayed amputation at five years. 2018;7:131-138. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.72.BJR-2017-0217.R2. 10.1302/2046-3758.72.BJR-2017-0217.R2
Amputation: Not a failure for severe lower extremity combat injury. van Dongen Thijs T C F,Huizinga Eelco P,de Kruijff Loes G M,van der Krans Arie C,Hoogendoorn Jochem M,Leenen Luke P H,Hoencamp Rigo Injury INTRODUCTION:The use of improvised explosive devices is a frequent method of insurgents to inflict harm on deployed military personnel. Consequently, lower extremity injuries make up the majority of combat related trauma. The wounding pattern of an explosion is not often encountered in a civilian population and can lead to substantial disability. It is therefore important to study the impact of these lower extremity injuries and their treatment (limb salvage versus amputation) on functional outcome and quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS:All Dutch repatriated service members receiving treatment for wounds on the lower extremity sustained in the Afghan theater between august 2005 and August 2014, were invited to participate in this observational cohort study. We conducted a survey regarding their physical and mental health using the Short Form health survey 36, EuroQoL 6 dimensions and Lower Extremity Functional Scale questionnaires. Results were collated in a specifically designed electronic database combined with epidemiology and hospital statistics gathered from the archive of the Central Military Hospital. Statistical analyses were performed to identify differences between combat and non-combat related injuries and between limb salvage treatment and amputation. RESULTS:In comparison with non-battle injury patients, battle casualties were significantly younger of age, sustained more severe injuries, needed more frequent operations and clinical rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome scores in areas concerning well-being, social and cognitive functioning, were significantly lower. Regarding treatment, amputees experienced higher physical well-being and less pain compared to those treated with limb salvage surgery. CONCLUSION:Sustaining a combat injury to the lower extremity can lead to partial or permanent dysfunction. However, wounded service members, amputees included, are able to achieve high levels of activity and participation in society, proving a remarkable resilience. These long-term results demonstrate that amputation is not a failure for casualty and surgeon, and strengthen a life before limb (damage control surgery) mindset in the initial phase. For future research, we recommend the use of adequate coding and injury scoring systems to predict outcome and give insight in the attributes that are supportive for the resilience that is needed to cope with a serious battle injury. 10.1016/j.injury.2016.12.001
Primary amputation vs limb salvage in mangled extremity: a systematic review of the current scoring system. Schirò Giuseppe Rosario,Sessa Sergio,Piccioli Andrea,Maccauro Giulio BMC musculoskeletal disorders BACKGROUND:In the last decades a lot of new reconstructive techniques were developed for the treatment of mangled lower extremity. However failed attempt to limb salvage is related to high risk of mortality for the patient. Several scores were developed to establish guidelines for the decision to amputate or not, however in literature there is no consensus about the reliability of this scores. METHODS:The authors focused their attention on the most used score system to provide guidance of the management of a mangled lower limb. The search term used included mangled lower extremity, MESS, PSI, LSI and NISSSA. The inclusion criteria were: studies dealing with mangled lower extremity; articles reporting MESS, PSI, LSI or NISSSA scores; articles published in English in PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus and web of science in the last 30 years, minimum number of cases in study of 15, minimum follow up of 1 year. RESULTS:According with the criteria described above, we found 134 articles in PubMed, 165 articles in Scopus, 111 articles in the Cochrane Library and 108 articles in Web of Science. The most used score in literature is the MESS. Few results are shown using the other severity scores. There are a lot of controversies in literature about the use of this scale. MESS seems to be more accurate than the LSI in prediction of limb salvage. LSI score shows better results when applied to type III tibial fractures. High sentivity of the PSI score is described when applied to predict successful limb salvage. Low sensitivity and specificity are described for the NISSSA score. The literature is very poor of articles related to mangled lower extremity in children. Higher sensitivity and specificity are described for these scores in children when compared to adult population. CONCLUSION:The mangled lower extremity treatment is a challenge for the surgeon. Many scores were developed to help the surgeon, however they cannot be used as the sole criterion by which amputation decision are made and, in case of succesful limb salvage, they are not predictive of the functional recovery. Moreover, undue enthusiasm for new surgical techniques can lead to increased morbidity and mortality in case of secondary amputation. 10.1186/s12891-015-0832-7
Acute bilateral leg amputation following combat injury in UK servicemen. Penn-Barwell J G,Bennett P M,Kay A,Sargeant I D, Injury BACKGROUND:This study aims to characterise the injuries and surgical management of British servicemen sustaining bilateral lower limb amputations. METHODS:The UK Military Trauma Registry was searched for all cases of primary bilateral lower limb amputation sustained between March 2004 and March 2010. Amputations were excluded if they occurred more than 7 days after injury or if they were at the ankle or more distal. RESULTS:There were 1694 UK military patients injured or killed during this six-year study period. Forty-three of these (2.8%) were casualties with bilateral lower limb amputations. All casualties were men with a mean age of 25.1 years (SD 4.3): all were injured in Afghanistan by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). Six casualties were in vehicles when they were injured with the remaining 37 (80%) patrolling on foot. The mean New Injury Severity Score (NISS) was 48.2 (SD 13.2): four patients had a maximum score of 75. The mean TRISS probability of survival was 60% (SD 39.4), with 18 having a survival probability of less than 50% i.e. unexpected survivors. The most common amputation pattern was bilateral trans-femoral (TF) amputations, which was seen in 25 patients (58%). Nine patients also lost an upper limb (triple amputation): no patients survived loss of all four limbs. In retained upper limbs extensive injuries to the hands and forearms were common, including loss of digits. Six patients (14%) sustained an open pelvic fracture. Perineal/genital injury was a feature in 19 (44%) patients, ranging from unilateral orchidectomy to loss of genitalia and permanent requirement for colostomy and urostomy. The mean requirement for blood products was 66 units (SD 41.7). The maximum transfusion was 12 units of platelets, 94 packed red cells, 8 cryoprecipitate, 76 units of fresh frozen plasma and 3 units of fresh whole blood, a total of 193 units of blood products. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings detail the severe nature of these injuries together with the massive surgical and resuscitative efforts required to firstly keep patients alive and secondly reconstruct and prepare them for rehabilitation. 10.1016/j.injury.2014.01.025
Outcomes After Severe Distal Tibia, Ankle, and/or Foot Trauma: Comparison of Limb Salvage Versus Transtibial Amputation (OUTLET). Bosse Michael J,Teague David,Reider Lisa,Gary Joshua L,Morshed Saam,Seymour Rachel B,Toledano James,Cannada Lisa K,Steverson Barbara,Scharfstein Daniel O,Luly Jason,MacKenzie Ellen J, Journal of orthopaedic trauma Severe foot and ankle injuries are complex and challenging to treat, often requiring multiple operations to salvage the limb contributing to a prolonged healing period. There is some evidence to suggest that early amputation for some patients may result in better long-term outcomes than limb salvage. The challenge is to identify the regional injury burden for an individual that would suggest a better outcome with an amputation. The OUTLET study is a prospective, multicenter observational study comparing 18-month outcomes after limb salvage versus early amputation among patients aged 18-60 years with severe distal tibia, ankle, and foot injuries. This study aims to build upon the previous work of the Lower Extremity Assessment Project by identifying the injury and patient characteristics that help define a subgroup of salvage patients who will have better outcomes had they undergone a transtibial amputation. 10.1097/BOT.0000000000000799
Patients with multiple traumatic amputations: An analysis of operation enduring freedom joint theatre trauma registry data. Godfrey Brandon W,Martin Ashley,Chestovich Paul J,Lee Gordon H,Ingalls Nichole K,Saldanha Vilas Injury INTRODUCTION:Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) are the primary wounding mechanism for casualties in Operation Enduring Freedom. Patients can sustain devastating traumatic amputations, which are unlike injuries seen in the civilian trauma sector. This is a database analysis of the largest patient registry of multiple traumatic amputations. METHODS:The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried for patients with a traumatic amputation from 2009 to 2012. Data obtained included the Injury Severity Score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), blood products, transfer from theatre, and complications including DVT, PE, infection (Acinetobacter and fungal), acute renal failure, and rhabdomyolysis. Comparisons were made between number of major amputations (1-4) and specific outcomes using χ and Pearson's rank test, and multivariable logistic regression was performed for 30-day survival. Significance was considered with p<0.05. RESULTS:We identified 720 military personnel with at least one traumatic amputation: 494 single, 191 double, 32 triple, and 3 quad amputees. Average age was 24.3 years (18-46), median ISS 24 (9-66), and GCS 15 (3-15). Tranexamic acid (TXA) was administered in 164 patients (23%) and tourniquets were used in 575 (80%). Both TXA and tourniquet use increased with increasing number of amputations (p<0.001). Average transfusion requirements (in units) were packed red blood cells (PRBC) 18.6 (0-142), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) 17.3 (0-128), platelets 3.6 (0-26), and cryoprecipitate 5.6 (0-130). Transfusion of all blood products increased with the number of amputations (p<0.001). All complications tested increased with the number of amputations except Acinetobacter infection, coagulopathy, and compartment syndrome. Transfer to higher acuity facilities was achieved in 676 patients (94%). CONCLUSION:Traumatic amputations from blast injuries require significant blood product transfusion, which increases with the number of amputations. Most complications also increase with the number of amputations. Despite high injury severity, 94% of traumatic amputation patients who are alive upon admission to a role II/III facility will survive to transfer to facilities with higher acuity care. 10.1016/j.injury.2016.08.008
Predictors and Timing of Amputations in Military Lower Extremity Trauma With Arterial Injury. Thomas Sarah B,Schechtman David W,Walters Thomas J,Kauvar David S The journal of trauma and acute care surgery INTRODUCTION:Military lower extremity arterial injuries present threats to life and limb. These injuries are common and limb salvage is a trauma system priority. Understanding the timing and predictors of amputation through the phases of casualty evacuation can help inform future limb salvage efforts. This study characterizes limbs undergoing amputation at different operationally relevant time points. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study of casualties with lower extremity arterial injuries undergoing initial vascular limb salvage in Iraq and Afghanistan was undertaken. Amputations were grouped as having been performed early (in theater at Role 2 or 3) or late (after evacuation to Role 4 or 5). Further distinction was made between late and delayed (after discharge from initial hospitalization) amputations. RESULTS:455 casualties met inclusion criteria with 103 (23%) amputations. 21 (20%) were performed in theater and 82 (80%) were performed following overseas evacuation. 21 (26% of late amputations) were delayed, a median of 359 days from injury (IQR 176-582). Most amputations were performed in the first 4 days following injury. Amputation incidence was highest in popliteal injuries (28%). Overall amputation was predicted by higher incidence of blast mechanism and fracture and greater limb and casualty injury severity. Early amputations had higher limb injury severity than late amputations. Delayed amputations had greater incidence of motor and sensory loss and contracture than early amputations. CONCLUSION:Casualty and limb injury severity predict predictors and timing of amputation in military lower extremity arterial injury. Amputation following overseas evacuation was more common than in-theater amputation and functional loss is associated with delayed amputation. Future limb salvage efforts should focus on post-evacuation and rehabilitative care. EVIDENCE LEVEL:Level III, epidemiologic. 10.1097/TA.0000000000002185
Survival rates in dysvascular lower limb amputees. Kulkarni J,Pande S,Morris J International journal of surgery (London, England) BACKGROUND:To assess the 5-year and 10-year survival rates of major (above ankle disarticulation level) dysvascular lower limb amputees attending a sub-regional Disablement Services Centre (DSC) specialising in amputee rehabilitation. Also to investigate the association between survival rates, cause of dysvascularity, level of amputation, smoking status and occupational status. SETTING:The study was undertaken in sub-regional DSC for amputee rehabilitation covering a base population of about 3.5million people. Over 80% of lower limb amputations were done for dysvascularity (peripheral vascular disease, diabetic or combination). All these patients were followed up in the DSC for their prosthetic/amputee rehabilitation. Modular case records of 201 consecutive patients from 1994 to 1995 who had diagnosis of dysvascularity as the cause of major lower limb amputations, were scrutinised regarding their 10-year survival; demographic details, level of lower limb amputations, Above Knee (AK=Transfemoral), Below Knee (BK=Transtibial), smoking status, occupational status, healing of the stump at first assessment, cause of amputation and association of these factors with survival rates. RESULTS:Of 201 individuals with either AK or BK amputations, 60% (121) had AK amputations and 67% (134) were males, the mean age was 69years of age. Sixty-seven percent (97) had history of smoking, either current 43% (62) or prior 24% (35) smoking, and 59% (68) were skilled or non-skilled manual workers. Fifty-one percent (99) had diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease, whilst 34% (65) had combination of peripheral vascular disease and diabetes, diabetes on its own in 4% (7). In 12% (23) other causes were noted such as embolism, acute ischaemia, venous ulcers, etc. Regarding stumps healing at first assessment, healing was noted in 54% (109) whilst stump was unhealed in 46% (92). The median survival was 48months. Using Cox proportional hazards regression to identify association with survival, the hazard ratio (HR) was significant regarding level of amputation: HR 2.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.58, 3.47), P<0.001 (a recent BK amputation increases the risk by 2.3 compared to a recent AK amputation in diabetic cohort and also in the peripheral vascular disease/diabetes cohort). Hazard ratio was less than 1.0 in bilateral amputees: HR 0.35, 95% CI (0.21, 0.60), P<0.001 (bilateral amputation decreases risk by 0.35). CONCLUSION:Our study indicates that the median survival remains at 4years, which is similar to the previously published evidence in the Finish study of 1998 and the earlier study from Scotland in 1992. Unlike the previous data, our study indicates that patients with BK amputations have a higher hazard ratio than the AK amputees, and an association with diabetes has poorer prognosis regarding survival. 10.1016/j.ijsu.2006.06.027
Conversion From Limb Salvage to Late Amputation: Lessons Learned From Recent Battlefields With Application to Civilian Trauma. Covey D C Journal of surgical orthopaedic advances Battlefield injuries and high-energy civilian trauma present orthopaedic surgeons with treatment challenges. Despite efforts at limb salvage, some patients elect late amputation. This article reviews risk factors that predispose to late amputation. Using a MEDLINE search, English language peer-reviewed articles from 1993 to 2013 having data on late amputation following limb salvage were included. Late lower extremity amputation after limb salvage varied from 3.9% to 40% in civilian patients and from 5.2% to 15.2% in military patients. Factors influencing a patient's decision to undergo late amputation included a combination of complex pain symptoms with neurologic dysfunction, infection, a desire for improved limb functionality, and unwillingness to endure an often complicated and lengthy course of treatment. In military patients, rank was a significant risk factor since officers were 2.5 times more likely to elect late amputation (p < .05) than enlisted personnel. Despite often extraordinary efforts towardlimb salvage, results maybe disappointing.
Limb salvage of severely injured extremities after military wounds. Brown K V,Henman P,Stapley S,Clasper J C Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps Severely wounded extremities following battlefield injuries present a surgical dilemma to military surgeons of whether to attempt salvage or amputate the limb. There are many considerations to be made, including local and systemic patient factors, other wounded personnel and logistical constraints. Attempts have been made previously to form objective scoring criteria so as to remove possible subjectivity in this decision-making process. Furthermore, paediatric patients present their own particular dilemmas. This paper examines these various matters and, with contemporaneous evidence, presents recommendations for management.
Limb Salvage Versus Amputation: A Review of the Current Evidence. Qureshi Mobeen K,Ghaffar Ali,Tak Sameem,Khaled Ahmad Cureus In the trauma situation where the trauma team is faced with a severely injured limb, it requires judicious thinking and evaluating not only the injury in isolation but the patient as a whole when considering the management options. The aim must be to give the best quality of life and avoid repeated admissions to hospital for associated complications in the future. The decision to amputate or salvage a limb should be based on numerous factors, such as the patient's pre-injury status, injury factors (soft tissue injury, location, contamination and physiological status), patient's wish and available resources. The biggest challenge when faced with a complex limb injury is deciding what management route to take with a satisfactory outcome for the patient being the main goal. Many studies have been undertaken looking at the outcome of successful limb salvage versus primary amputation. Studies such as the Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) study have concluded that there was no difference of outcome at the two-year stage between the two strategies. 10.7759/cureus.10092
Early versus delayed amputation in the setting of severe lower extremity trauma. Williams Zachary F,Bools Lindsay M,Adams Ashley,Clancy Thomas V,Hope William W The American surgeon Leg-threatening injuries present patients and clinicians with the difficult decision to pursue primary amputation or attempt limb salvage. The effects of delayed amputation after failed limb salvage on outcomes, such as prosthetic use and hospital deposition, are unclear. We evaluated the timing of amputations and its effects on outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed all trauma patients undergoing lower extremity amputation from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2010 at a Level 2 trauma center. Patients undergoing early amputation (amputation within 48 hours of admission) were compared with patients undergoing late amputation (amputations >48 hours after admission). Patient demographics, injury specifics, operative characteristics, and outcomes were documented. During the 11-year study period, 43 patients had a lower extremity amputation and 21 had early amputations. The two groups were similar except for a slightly higher Mangled Extremity Severity Score in the early amputation group. Total hospital length of stay significantly differed between groups, with the late amputation group length of stay being nearly twice as long. The late amputation group had significantly more ipsilateral leg complications than the early group (77% vs 15%). There was a trend toward more prosthetic use in the early group (93%vs 57%, P = 0.07). Traumatic lower extremity injuries requiring amputation are rare at our institution (0.3% incidence). Regardless of the amputation timing, most patients were able to obtain a prosthetic. Although the late group had a longer length of hospital stay and more local limb complications, attempted limb salvage still appears to be a viable option for appropriately selected trauma patients.
The mangled limb: salvage versus amputation. Wolinsky Philip R,Webb Lawrence X,Harvey Edward J,Tejwani Nirmal C Instructional course lectures A mangled extremity is defined as a limb with injury to three of four systems in the extremity. The decision to salvage or amputate the injured limb has generated much controversy in the literature, with studies to support advantages of each approach. Various scoring systems have proved unreliable in predicting the need for amputation or salvage; however, a recurring theme in the literature is that the key to limb viability seems to be the severity of the soft-tissue injury. Factors such as associated injuries, patient age, and comorbidities (such as diabetes) also should be considered. Attempted limb salvage should be considered only if a patient is hemodynamically stable enough to tolerate the necessary surgical procedures and blood loss associated with limb salvage. For persistently hemodynamically unstable patients and those in extremis, life comes before limb. Recently, the Lower Extremity Assessment Project study attempted to answer the question of whether amputation or limb salvage achieves a better outcome. The study also evaluated other factors, including return-to-work status, impact of the level of and bilaterality of the amputation, and economic cost. There appears to be no significant difference in return to work, functional outcomes, or the cost of treatment (including the prosthesis) between the two groups. A team approach with different specialties, including orthopaedics, plastic surgery, vascular surgery and trauma general surgery, is recommended for treating patients with a mangled extremity.
Perioperative differences between bone bridging and non-bone bridging transtibial amputations for wartime lower extremity trauma. Gwinn David E,Keeling John,Froehner Jerald W,McGuigan Francis X,Andersen Romney Foot & ankle international BACKGROUND:The distal bone bridge transtibial amputation technique requires additional intraoperative surgical steps when compared to the non-bone bridging technique. Comparative functional data is not available showing a clearly superior outcome from either technique. Identifying perioperative differences could influence a surgeon's decision regarding the technique of amputation to be performed. This study's purpose was to compare perioperative differences between bone bridging transtibial amputation and non-bone bridging amputation techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A retrospective review from April 2004 to April 2007 identified 37 consecutive patients with 42 transtibial amputations as a result of wartime blast injuries. Twenty-two non-bone bridging and twenty bone bridging amputations were performed. Statistical comparisons of intraoperative time, tourniquet time, estimated blood loss, the need for postoperative transfusion and frequency of wound complications was performed. RESULTS:The bone bridging amputation technique had significantly longer operative times (178.5 vs. 112.2 minutes, p<0.0005) and tourniquet times (114.8 vs. 71.0 minutes, p<0.0005). Regardless of technique used, amputations performed within the zone of injury had a 66.7% wound complication rate (p<0.0005). There was not a statistically significant difference in reoperation for wound complications between groups when controlling for zone of injury: bone bridge (6.3%) and non-bone bridge (0.0%). Amputation closure performed within the zone of injury was a significant predictor for subsequent wound problems regardless of amputation technique. CONCLUSION:Longer operative and tourniquet times should not be considered a contraindication to utilizing the bone bridging amputation technique in younger and otherwise healthy patients. Both amputation techniques have comparable rates of short term wound complications and associated blood loss. Wound closure for traumatic amputations should not be performed through the zone of injury. 10.3113/FAI.2008.0787
Mortality and reoperations following lower limb amputations. Rosen Noam,Gigi Roy,Haim Amir,Salai Moshe,Chechik Ofir The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ BACKGROUND:Above-the-knee amputations (AKA) and below-the-knee amputations (BKA) are commonly indicated in patients with ischemia, extensive tissue loss, or infection. AKA were previously reported to have better wound-healing rates but poorer rehabilitation rates than BKA. OBJECTIVES:To compare the outcomes of AKA and BKA and to identify risk factors for poor outcome following leg amputation. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study comprised 188 consecutive patients (mean age 72 years, range 25-103, 71 males) who underwent 198 amputations (91 AKA, 107 BK 10 bilateral procedures) between February 2007 and May 2010. Included were male and female adults who underwent amputations for ischemic, infected or gangrenotic foot. Excluded were patients whose surgery was performed for other indications (trauma, tumors). Mortality and reoperations (wound debridement or need for conversion to a higher levelof amputation) were evaluated as outcomes. Patient- and surgery-related risk factors were studied in relation to these primary outcomes. RESULTS:The risk factors for mortality were dementia [hazard ratio (HR) 2.769], non-ambulatory status preoperatively (HR 2.281), heart failure (HR 2.013) and renal failure (HR 1.87). Resistant bacterial infection (HR 3.083) emerged as a risk factor for reoperation. Neither AKA nor BKA was found to be an independent predictor of mortality or reoperation. CONCLUSIONS:Both AKA and BKA are associated with very high mortality rates. Mortality is most probably related to serious comorbidities (renal and heart disease) and to reduced functional status and dementia. Resistant bacterial infections are associated with high rates of reoperation. The risk factors identified can aid surgeons and patients to better anticipate and possibly prevent severe complications.
Lower limb salvage: indication and decision making for replantation, revascularisation and amputation. Märdian S,Schaser K D,Wichlas F,Jakobs C,Kraphol B,Schwabe P Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca Defining reproducible criteria for lower extremity salvage following severe high-energy trauma continues to be one of the most challenging and controversially discussed fields in orthopaedic surgery. At present, however, the difficult performance, limited availability and number of valid reconstructive options for complex injury types, i. e. simultaneous osteoligamentous trauma with neurovascular lesions and severe soft tissue defects ("composite/compound multilayer defects") represent the decisive prognostic injury components triggering and determining the fate of the limb. Consequently, due to the complex injury pattern of the extremity and the overall situation of multiple injured patient the treatment and decision making has to be made in a priority-adapted algorithm. In this treatment algorithm interdisciplinary cooperation with vascular and plastic surgeons is of tremendous importance. Although the number of severely injured patients remains stable in the last decade, changes in the treatment algorithms result from increased survival rates of multiple injured patients and improved modern reconstructive options leading to continuously increasing rates of salvaged limbs. This paper aimed to systematically review the current literature for lower extremity injuries in order to unravel the different surgical treatment options and provide guidelines for decision making with corresponding treatment algorithms for limb salvage. Furthermore, the experiences in the management of mangled extremities in our centre are presented and illustrated/underscored with different cases.
Lower extremity combat-related amputations. Tintle Scott M,Forsberg Jonathan Agner,Keeling John J,Shawen Scott B,Potter Benjamin Kyle Journal of surgical orthopaedic advances Since the onset of combat activity in Iraq and Afghanistan, there have been over 1100 major limb amputations among United States service members. With a sustained military presence in the Middle East, continued severe lower extremity trauma is inevitable. For this reason, combat surgeons must understand the various amputation levels as well as the anatomic and technical details that enable an optimal functional outcome. These amputations are unique and usually result from blast mechanisms and are complicated by broad zones of injury with severe contamination and ongoing infection. The combat servicemen are young, previously healthy, and have the promising potential to rehabilitate to very high levels of activity. Therefore, every practical effort should be made to perform sound initial and definitive trauma-related amputations so that these casualties may return to their highest possible level of function.
A Comparison of Limb Salvage Versus Amputation for Nonmetastatic Sarcomas Using Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Outcomes. Wilke Benjamin,Cooper Anna,Scarborough Mark,Gibbs Parker,Spiguel Andre The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons INTRODUCTION:The Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a scoring tool that allows comparisons between patients with rare conditions and more common ailments, or the general US population. PROMIS outcomes were compared between the limb salvage and amputee patients for nonmetastatic sarcomas to the US population. METHODS:One hundred thirty-eight patients were included in the analysis. Patients were divided into the limb salvage and amputee cohorts, as well as based on the follow-up (1 to 11 or 12+ months). RESULTS:Seven PROMIS domains were evaluated, and higher scores were found in both the limb salvage group and patients >12 months from surgery. The limb salvage group also had improved emotional health compared with the US population. DISCUSSION:Improvements in PROMIS values are observed in limb salvage patients and in patients >12 months from surgery. Limb salvage patients demonstrate improved emotional health compared with the US population. 10.5435/JAAOS-D-17-00758
The effect of systemic injury score on the decision making of mangled lower extremities. Yeh Hsuan-Keng,Fang Frank,Lin Yu-Te,Lin Cheng-Hung,Lin Chih-Hung,Hsu Chung-Chen Injury PURPOSE:Mangled lower extremity with Mangled extremity severity score (MESS) more than 7 are considered unsalvageable. We are looking for a factor helps us predicting the salvage potential in the patient with MESS score between 7 and 9. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We reviewed the patients with lower extremities open fracture type IIIB or IIIC and received salvaged procedure or amputation in CGMH between 2002/01 and 2010/09. The patients are subgroup according to their MESS score. ISS score, Gustilo open fracture classification were compared between patient with successful salvage and patient with delay amputation. Logistic regression and stepwise modeling were used to determine the effect of each covariate. RESULTS:242 patients were enrolled in the study. 33 patients had primary amputation, 160 patients had successfully salvaged limbs and 49 patients received delay amputation. Among patients with MESS score less than 7, 116 patients had successful salvage limbs and 7 patients received delay amputation. Among patient with MESS between 7 and 9, 44 patients discharged with salvaged limbs and 39 patients were failed to salvage their limbs. Successful salvaged patients in this group had significant lower ISS score in compare to delay amputated patients. Patients with ISS score more than 18 in this group has higher delay amputated rate (P value=0.01). CONCLUSION:Systemic injury severity score can help us tell potentially salvaged patient from potentially amputated patient. In patients with MESS score between 7 and 9 concurrently have ISS score less then 17 are potentially salvageable. Level of Evidence & Study Type: Level 3 Retrospective cohort study/prognostic study. 10.1016/j.injury.2016.05.023