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[Specific markers of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus with mental disorders - review of the literature]. Zarzycki Marcin,Flaga-Łuczkiewicz Magdalena,Czuwara Joanna,Rudnicka Lidia Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960) Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multiorgan autoimmune disease belonging to spectrum of interest of many medical specialties. Wide range of patients 14-75% with SLE suffers from neuropsychiatric disorders. The problematic diagnosis of neuropsychiatric SLE has generated many studies focusing on etiology of the disease with the presence of specific autoantibodies, abnormalities which can be detected by imaging examinations or correlation with catecholamine levels. The aim of this review paper is to discuss the frequency of neuropsychiatric disturbances in patients with SLE and their potential association with immunological abnormalities and specific disease markers. So far published literature regarding this topic indicates the usefulness of autoantibodies specificity. The use of the specific antibodies may be helpful in targeting diagnostics towards psychiatric disorders, especially depressive ones. Imaging scanning techniques such as computed tomography (CT) have limited value in psychiatric disorders diagnosis but can be useful in neurological symptoms and complains. Therapeutic use of systemic glucocorticosteroids due to anti-inflammatory properties with multidirectional action, may also significantly influence the course of neuropsychiatric diseases, especially in patients with SLE. Awareness of the morbidity of neuropsychiatric disorders and the possibilities of their diagnosis are important in the management of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, which significantly affects the quality of life of patients, treatment efficacy and psyche.
B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus: Targets of new therapies and surveillance tools. Frontiers in medicine B cell hyperactivity is a hallmark of the complex autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which has justified drug development focusing on B cell altering agents during the last decades, as well as the off-label use of B cell targeting biologics. About a decade ago, the anti-B cell activating factor (BAFF) belimumab was the first biological agent to be licensed for the treatment of adult patients with active yet non-renal and non-neuropsychiatric SLE, to later be expanded to include treatment of pediatric SLE and, recently, lupus nephritis. B cell depletion is recommended as an off-label option in refractory cases, with the anti-CD20 rituximab having been the most used B cell depleting agent to date while agents with a slightly different binding specificity to CD20 such as obinutuzumab have also shown promise, forming a part of the current pipeline. In addition, terminally differentiated B cells have also been the targets of experimental therapies, with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib being one example. Apart from being promising drug targets, B and plasma cells have also shown promise in the surveillance of patients with SLE, especially for monitoring B cell depleting or B cell altering therapies. Inadequate B cell depletion may signify poor expected clinical response to rituximab, for example, while prominent reductions in certain B cell subsets may signify a protection against flare development in patients treated with belimumab. Toward an era with a richer therapeutic armamentarium in SLE, including to a large extent B cell altering treatments, the challenge that emerges is to determine diagnostic means for evidence-based therapeutic decision-making, that uses clinical information, serological markers, and gene expression patterns to guide individualized precision strategies. 10.3389/fmed.2022.952304
The conundrum of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: Current and novel approaches to diagnosis. Frontiers in neurology Recognising neuropsychiatric involvement by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is of growing importance, however many barriers to this exist at multiple levels of our currently available diagnostic algorithms that may ultimately delay its diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The heterogeneous and non-specific clinical syndromes, serological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers and neuroimaging findings that often do not mirror disease activity, highlight important research gaps in the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). Formal neuropsychological assessments or the more accessible screening metrics may also help improve objective recognition of cognitive or mood disorders. Novel serum and CSF markers, including autoantibodies, cytokines and chemokines have also shown increasing utility as part of diagnosis and monitoring, as well as in distinguishing NPSLE from SLE patients without SLE-related neuropsychiatric manifestations. Novel neuroimaging studies also expand upon our existing strategy by quantifying parameters that indicate microarchitectural integrity or provide an assessment of neuronal function. Some of these novel markers have shown associations with specific neuropsychiatric syndromes, suggesting that future research move away from considering NPSLE as a single entity but rather into its individually recognized neuropsychiatric manifestations. Nevertheless, it is likely that a composite panel of these investigations will be needed to better address the gaps impeding recognition of neuropsychiatric involvement by SLE. 10.3389/fneur.2023.1111769
Prevalence of Neuropsychiatric Lupus in Psychosis Patients Who Have Tested Positive for Antinuclear Antibodies. Spies Michael C,Gutjahr-Holland Johannes A,Bertouch James V,Sammel Anthony M Arthritis care & research OBJECTIVE:Psychosis is a rare manifestation of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). Current guidelines do not make a recommendation regarding the use of antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing in the assessment of patients with psychosis. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of NPSLE in patients with psychosis who were positive for ANAs. METHODS:A retrospective review of patients who were admitted to the mental health service of 2 metropolitan tertiary referral centers with a diagnosis of psychosis and had been tested for ANAs was conducted. A diagnosis of SLE was made when the 2019 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology (EULAR) classification criteria were fulfilled. Attribution of psychosis-related events to NPSLE were made according to validated criteria. RESULTS:There were 10,205 mental health admissions with diagnoses of psychosis representing 4,766 individual patients, 911 patients (19%) were tested for ANAs, 135 (15%) of those tests returned a positive result with a titer of ≥1:160. The mean ± SD follow-up time was 47 ± 26 months. At discharge, there were 4 patients who met 2019 ACR/EULAR criteria for SLE, 2 of whom met criteria for NPSLE (2 patients had other manifestations of SLE), yielding an NPSLE prevalence of 1.5% (2 of 135) among patients who were positive for ANAs, and 0.2% (2 of 911) among all patients who underwent testing for ANAs. CONCLUSION:The prevalence of NPSLE in patients with psychosis who were positive for ANAs was low, at 1.5%. The low rate of clinically significant positive results would argue against routine testing for ANAs in patients with psychosis. 10.1002/acr.24472
Application of Plasma Exchange in Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy. Jiang Yuting,Tian Xin,Gu Yixue,Li Feng,Wang Xuefeng Frontiers in immunology Plasma exchange has been widely used in autoimmune neurological diseases and is the standard treatment for myasthenia gravis crisis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. A growing body of research suggests that, in the clinical application of steroid-responsive encephalopathy, such as for Hashimoto's encephalopathy, limbic encephalitis, systemic lupus erythematosus encephalopathy, ANCA-associated vasculitis encephalopathy, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, plasma exchange is a safe, and effective option when steroids or other immunosuppressive therapies are ineffective in the short term or when contraindications are present. Additionally, plasma exchange can also be used alone or in combination with steroids, immunoglobulins, or other immunosuppressive agents to treat steroid-responsive encephalopathy. This paper reviews the clinical application of plasma exchange in steroid-responsive encephalopathy, including its indications, onset time, course, curative effects, and side effects. 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00324
The effects of disease activity on neuronal and behavioural cognitive processes in systemic lupus erythematosus. Barraclough Michelle,McKie Shane,Parker Ben,Elliott Rebecca,Bruce Ian N Rheumatology (Oxford, England) OBJECTIVES:Factors common across many chronic diseases, such as fatigue and depression affect cognitive dysfunction (CD) but the effect of SLE disease activity on CD remains unclear. We aimed to explore the effects of disease activity in SLE on cognitive function whilst taking into consideration other potential mediators. METHODS:Two groups of SLE patients were recruited; stable/low disease activity (SLE-S, n = 36) and active disease (SLE-F, n = 26). The SLE-F group were studied during a flare; with a second visit when disease activity had reduced. In addition to demographic, clinical and psychiatric data, CD was measured using a computerised battery of tests (CANTAB®). Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to examine neuronal responses to working memory and emotional processing tasks. RESULTS:No differences between the groups/visits were found using the CANTAB® battery. The fMRI results showed that the SLE-F group had a less attenuated response in the medial prefrontal cortex (a default mode network-DMN region) compared with the SLE-S group during the working memory task (P =0.012). Exploratory correlations within the SLE-F group showed associations between neuronal responses and depression, cognitive fatigue, disease activity measures and IL-6. CONCLUSION:Functional brain processes but not cognitive behavioural measures were affected by disease activity. Flaring SLE patients were less able to suppress DMN regions during a working memory task. This could reflect emotional interference during cognitive tasks and may cause cognitive fatigue. A number of factors are associated with brain function in flaring patients, which has potential implications for holistic treatments. 10.1093/rheumatology/keab256
Headache in lupus: look for dense clot and empty delta signs. Kopp Chirag Rajkumar,Chattopadhyay Arghya,Jain Sanjay,Dhir Varun Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 10.1093/rheumatology/keaa482
[Neuropathology of Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE)]. Takao Masaki Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyu no shinpo Neuropathologic alterations of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) are characterized by small vessel changes such as endothelial proliferation, fibrosis, hyalinization, fibrinoid necrosis, and thrombus formation. Pathologic ischemic and hemorrhagic changes. In some instances, vasculitis and perivascular infiltration of inflammatory cells are seen. In the spinal cord, degenerative changes of entire margin of the spinal cord may also be present. 10.11477/mf.1416201300
Cardiovascular events risk in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases: a prognostic systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society BACKGROUND:Chronic inflammation is considered a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) events. We seek to assess the risk of CV events in patients with Systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD), such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Psoriasis (Ps) and Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), compared with the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS:A systematic search of MEDLINE from inception up to May 2021 was performed. Observational studies including individuals with and without autoimmune diseases (SLE, RA, Ps, AS), which reported a measure of association and variability for the effect of SAD on CV events, were included. The random effects meta-analysis was performed using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman approach to obtain the pooled estimates. Cardiovascular Events including CV mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke and coronary revascularization were the main outcomes evaluated. Fifty-four studies were selected, with a total of 24,107,072 participants. The presence of SAD was associated with an increased risk of CV mortality (HR 1.49 [95% CI 1.10-2.03]), non-fatal MI (HR 1.42 [95% CI 1.23-1.62]), and non-fatal stroke (HR 1.47 [95% CI 1.28-1.70]). RA, SLE, and Ps (particularly with arthritis) were significantly associated with a higher risk of MI and stroke. SAD was also associated with an increased risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE) (HR 1.45 [95% CI 1.16-1.83]). CONCLUSION:Patients with SAD present an increased risk of CV morbidity and mortality, which should be considered when establishing therapeutic strategies. These findings support the role of systemic inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis-driven disease. 10.1007/s00392-023-02291-4
Blood-brain barrier disruption and neuroinflammation as pathophysiological mechanisms of the diffuse manifestations of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Duarte-Delgado Nancy P,Vásquez Gloria,Ortiz-Reyes Blanca L Autoimmunity reviews Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease that can involve nervous system commitment known as neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). The diagnostic of NPSLE is complex because the symptoms range from focal symptoms (e.g., strokes, thrombotic events) to diffuse disorders affecting cognition, mood and level of consciousness (e.g. acute confusional state, psychosis). Both type of manifestations of NPSLE differ in their pathological mechanisms. The focus of this review will be on the mechanisms that lead to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and to the neuroinflammation related with the diffuse manifestations of NPSLE. 10.1016/j.autrev.2018.12.004
Treatment of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical challenges and future perspectives. Nikolopoulos Dionysis,Fanouriakis Antonis,Bertsias George Expert review of clinical immunology : Neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement represents an emerging frontier in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), posing significant challenges due to its clinical diversity and obscure pathophysiology. The authors herein discuss selected aspects in the management of NPSLE based on existing literature and our experience, aiming to facilitate routine medical care.: Research related to diagnosis, neuroimaging, treatment and outcome is discussed, focusing on data published in PubMed during the last 5 years. Selected translational studies of clinical relevance are included.: Identification of NPSLE patients who may benefit from appropriate treatment can be facilitated by attribution algorithms. Immunosuppressants are typically indicated in recurrent seizures, optic neuritis, myelopathy, psychosis and peripheral nerve disease, although a low threshold is recommended for cerebrovascular disease and other NP manifestations, especially when SLE is active. With the exception of stroke with positive antiphospholipid antibodies, anti-coagulation is rarely indicated in other syndromes. Refractory NPSLE can be treated with rituximab, whereas the role of other biologics remains unknown. Advances in the fields of biomarkers, neuroimaging for brain structural, perfusion or functional abnormalities, and design of novel compounds targeting not only systemic autoimmunity but also inflammatory and regenerative pathways within the nervous system, hold promise for optimizing NPSLE management. 10.1080/1744666X.2021.1899810
Relevant domains and outcome measurement instruments in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic literature review. Silvagni Ettore,Chessa Elisabetta,Bergossi Francesca,D'Amico Maria Ester,Furini Federica,Guerrini Giulio,Cauli Alberto,Scirè Carlo Alberto,Bertsias George,Govoni Marcello,Piga Matteo,Bortoluzzi Alessandra Rheumatology (Oxford, England) OBJECTIVES:Although neuropsychiatric involvement in SLE (NPSLE) is one of the most complex and troubling manifestations of the disease, validated outcome instruments to be used as sensitive endpoints in controlled clinical trials are lacking. We performed a systematic literature review (SLR) to identify outcome measurement instruments and domains used to assess NPSLE. METHODS:The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines were used. Articles available in English (1967-2020), listed in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and the EULAR outcome measures library were screened. All domains and outcome measurement instruments were characterized according to the OMERACT Filter 2.1, considering core areas (manifestations/abnormalities, life impact, death/lifespan, societal/resource use) and contextual factors. RESULTS:Of 3392 abstracts evaluated, 83 studies were included in the SLR (15 974 patients, females 89.9%). Eligible studies included domains and instruments pertinent to all core areas defined by the OMERACT, except for 'societal/resource use'. The most common core areas were 'manifestations/abnormalities', covering 10 domains pertinent to laboratory and instrumental markers, indexes and neuropsychiatric dimension (cognitive, neurologic and psychiatric field), and 'life impact', covering 7 domains related to physical function (from both the perspective of the patient and the physician), pain and quality of life. CONCLUSION:Our study revealed great heterogeneity in the instruments derived from populations with NPSLE and none of these had high-quality evidence. This supports the need to develop and further validate a core domain set and outcome measurement instruments to promote clinical research in this field, enhancing comparability across studies. 10.1093/rheumatology/keab324
Subacute parkinsonism due to systemic lupus erythematosus and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome. Lancet (London, England) 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01691-9
A review and meta-analysis of anti-ribosomal P autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Choi May Y,FitzPatrick Rachael D,Buhler Katherine,Mahler Michael,Fritzler Marvin J Autoimmunity reviews The discovery of autoantibodies to ribosomal proteins (anti-RibP) dates back more than fifty years when antibodies to ribosomes were identified in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera. Over the years, anti-RibP autoantibodies have been the subject of extensive study and became known as a highly specific biomarker for the diagnosis of SLE and were associated with neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE), lupus nephritis (LN) and hepatitis (LH). As demonstrated by studies on cultured human cells and of murine models, there is evidence to suggest that anti-RibP may have a pathogenic role in LN and NPSLE. Despite a wealth of evidence, in comparison to other SLE autoantibodies such as anti-Sm and anti-dsDNA, anti-RibP has not been included in classification criteria for SLE. A significant challenge is the variability of assays used to detect anti-RibP, including the antigens and diagnostic platforms employed. This may account for the marked variation in frequencies (10-47%) in SLE and its association with clinical and demographic features reported in SLE cohorts. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to help clarify its prevalence, various clinical and serological associations in SLE based on the different RibP antigens and assay platforms used. 10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102463
Autoantibodies associated with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: the quest for symptom-specific biomarkers. Sato Shuzo,Temmoku Jumpei,Fujita Yuya,Yashiro-Furuya Makiko,Matsuoka Naoki,Asano Tomoyuki,Kobayashi Hiroko,Watanabe Hiroshi,Migita Kiyoshi Fukushima journal of medical science Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects multiple organs, including the central nervous system. Neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) is a severe and potentially fatal condition. Several factors including autoantibodies have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NPSLE. However, definitive biomarkers of NPSLE are yet to be identified owing to the complexity of this disease. This is a major barrier to accurate and timely diagnosis of NPSLE. Studies have identified several autoantibodies associated with NPSLE;some of these autoantibodies are well investigated and regarded as symptom-specific. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the manifestations and pathogenesis of NPSLE. In addition, we describe representative symptom-specific autoantibodies that are considered to be closely associated with the pathogenesis of NPSLE. 10.5387/fms.2020-02
Interaction Between Non-Coding RNAs and Interferons: With an Especial Focus on Type I Interferons. Frontiers in immunology Interferons (IFNs) are a group of cellular proteins with critical roles in the regulation of immune responses in the course of microbial infections. Moreover, expressions of IFNs are dysregulated in autoimmune disorders. IFNs are also a part of immune responses in malignant conditions. The expression of these proteins and activities of related signaling can be influenced by a number of non-coding RNAs. IFN regulatory factors (IRFs) are the most investigated molecules in the field of effects of non-coding RNAs on IFN signaling. These interactions have been best assessed in the context of cancer, revealing the importance of immune function in the pathoetiology of cancer. In addition, IFN-related non-coding RNAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric conditions, systemic sclerosis, Newcastle disease, Sjögren's syndrome, traumatic brain injury, lupus nephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus, and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the current review, we describe the role of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in the regulation of IFN signaling. 10.3389/fimmu.2022.877243
Insights into the role of neutrophils in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: Current understanding and future directions. Frontiers in immunology Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), termed neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE), is a major and debilitating manifestation of the disease. While patients with SLE mostly complain of common neuropsychological symptoms such headache and mild mood disorders that may not even be technically attributed to SLE, many SLE patients present with life-threatening NPSLE syndromes such as cerebrovascular disease, seizures and psychosis that are equally challenging in terms of early diagnosis and therapy. While we are just beginning to unravel some mysteries behind the immunologic basis of NPSLE, advancements in the mechanistic understanding of the complex pathogenic processes of NPSLE have been emerging through recent murine and human studies. The pathogenic pathways implicated in NPSLE are multifarious and various immune effectors such as cell-mediated inflammation, autoantibodies and cytokines including type I interferons have been found to act in concert with the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and other neurovascular interfaces. Beyond antimicrobial functions, neutrophils are emerging as decision-shapers during innate and adaptive immune responses. Activated neutrophils have been recognized to be involved in ischemic and infective processes in the CNS by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), matrix metalloproteinase-9 and proinflammatory cytokines. In the context of NPSLE, these mechanisms contribute to BBB disruption, neuroinflammation and externalization of modified proteins on NETs that serve as autoantigens. Neutrophils that sediment within the peripheral blood mononuclear cell fraction after density centrifugation of blood are generally defined as low-density neutrophils (LDNs) or low-density granulocytes. LDNs are a proinflammatory subset of neutrophils that are increased with SLE disease activity and are primed to undergo NETosis and release cytokines such as interferon-α and tumor necrosis factor. This review discusses the immunopathogenesis of NPSLE with a focus on neutrophils as a core mediator of the disease and potential target for translational research in NPSLE. 10.3389/fimmu.2022.957303
The diverse and complex modes of action of anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies. Neuropharmacology NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that are found throughout the brain and are required for both brain development and many higher order functions. A variety of human patients with diverse clinical phenotypes have been identified that carry autoantibodies directed against NMDA receptor subunits. Here we focus on two general classes of autoantibodies, anti-GluN1 antibodies associated with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and anti-GluN2 antibodies associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These two general classes of anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies display a wide range of pathophysiological mechanisms from altering synaptic composition to gating of NMDARs. While we have made progress in understanding how these autoantibodies work at the molecular and cellular level, many unanswered questions remain including their long-term actions on brain function, the significance of clonal variations, and their effects on different NMDA receptor-expressing cell types in local circuits. This information will be needed to define fully the transition from anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies to a clinical phenotype. 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108624
The effect of prolactin on immune cell subsets involved in SLE pathogenesis. Frontiers in immunology The higher frequency of autoimmune diseases in the female population compared to males suggests that certain hormones, such as prolactin (PRL), play a role in determining the prevalence of autoimmunity in women, particularly during childbearing age. PRL can act not only as a hormone but also as a cytokine, being able to modulate immune responses. Hyperprolactinemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases where it may affect disease activity. One of the conditions where PRL has such a role is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PRL regulates the proliferation and survival of both lymphoid and myeloid cells. It also affects the selection of T-cell repertoires by influencing the thymic microenvironment. In autoimmune conditions, PRL interferes with the activity of regulatory T cells. It also influences B cell tolerance by lowering the activation threshold of anergic B cells. The production of CD40L and cytokines, such as interleukin IL-6, are also promoted by PRL. This, in turn, leads to the production of autoantibodies, one of the hallmarks of SLE. PRL increases the cytotoxic activity of T lymphocytes and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The production of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly those belonging to the type 1 interferon (IFN) family, is part of the SLE characteristic genetic signature. PRL also participates in the maturation and differentiation of dendritic cells, promoting the presentation of autoantigens and high IFNα secretion. It also affects neutrophil function and the production of neutrophil traps. Macrophages and dendritic cells can also be affected by PRL, linking this molecule to the abnormal behavior of both innate and adaptive immune responses.This review aimed to highlight the importance of PRL and its actions on the cells of innate and adaptive immune responses. Additionally, by elucidating the role of PRL in SLE etiopathogenesis, this work will contribute to a better understanding of the factors involved in SLE development and regulation. 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1016427
What are the domains and outcome measures used in the existing neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus literature? Bingham Kathleen S,Strand Vibeke,Simon Lee S,Touma Zahi Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 10.1093/rheumatology/keab555
[Therapeutic Strategies of Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus]. Nakane Shunya,Ichinose Kunihiro,Kawakami Atsushi Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyu no shinpo Damage of the central and peripheral nervous systems associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is termed neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). In this review, we have discussed SLE encephalopathy, which is associated with neurological symptoms in particular. At the time of diagnosis, disease severity should be evaluated based on clinical findings, imaging, laboratory tests, including cerebrospinal fluid tests and neurophysiological tests, of the patient. Subsequently, treatment involving both definitive therapy and symptomatic treatment is initiated. After introducing definitive therapy, it is further desirable to adopt an appropriate treatment approach by identifying the predominant type of pathogenesis (inflammatory or vascular). A collaborative approach involving specialists in collagen vascular disease, neurologists, and psychiatrists is important for appropriate management of NPSLE. 10.11477/mf.1416201794
Suicidal behavior in patients with systematic lupus erythematosus: Systematic literature review and genetic linkage disequilibrium analysis. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism BACKGROUND:Previous studies suggested that patients with Systematic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) have a higher risk of suicidal behavior, including suicidal ideation, attempt and complete suicide. Systematic data describing the SLE patients' clinical characteristics and risk factors of suicidal behavior are lacking. OBJECTIVES:To determine the magnitude of suicidal behavior among SLE patients and to examine predictors associated with suicidal behavior. An additional aim was to identify common genes or coinherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) implicated in suicidal behavior and SLE. METHODS:We conducted a systematic literature review based on PRISMA guidelines using the online databases PubMed/Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science, from inception to August 2021. Full-text original articles that examined the relationship between SLE patients with suicidal behavior were eligible for our review. Two reviewers independently reviewed articles to assess eligibility using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Joanna Briggs Institute criteria. Systematic reviews, metanalysis, narrative review, case reports, case series, including less than 10 patients, and conference abstracts, were excluded. All registered genome-wide association study (GWAS) data in the GWAS catalog database for SLE and psychiatric traits (suicidal behavior, depression, anxiety, psychosis) were downloaded for further analysis. Special in silico tools were used to examine if any genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) that predispose for SLE or psychiatric traits can be inherited together as a single haplotype. This could be posing a risk factor for a coexisting psychiatric condition in SLE patients. RESULTS:Of the 64 articles identified, 22 were relevant to the study question; cross-sectional (n = 8) and prospective cohorts (n = 6) were the most frequently retrieved studies. Among the 27,106 SLE patients with SLE, 802 had suicidal behavior (2.9%), and of those, 87.9% were female. Suicide attempt occurred in 573/802 (71.4%) and complete suicide in 18/802 (3%). Major depressive disorder was the most frequently reported coexisting psychiatric condition associated with suicidal behavior, followed by psychosis and social phobia. In addition, several clinical manifestations were linked to suicidal behavior, particularly neuropsychiatric lupus, serositis, mucocutaneous, and renal involvement. Further, high scores in disease activity and damage indices were associated with suicidal behavior. A haplotype in chromosomal region 6p21.33 was found to contain a combination of risk alleles predisposing for SLE and depression, the most common psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal behavior. CONCLUSION:Suicide behavior in SLE patients was associated with depression, neuropsychiatric lupus, active disease and damage. Further evidence supports a genetic origin of psychiatric symptoms in SLE patients. Awareness of these findings can guide clinicians to recognize suicide behavior promptly and prevent suicide attempts. 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2022.151997
Diversity of neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus. Fujieda Yuichiro Immunological medicine Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by diverse organ damages resulting from various autoantibodies, such as antinuclear or anti-DNA antibodies. Neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) refers to the neurological and psychiatric disorders complicated with SLE and can be challenging for physicians to manage. NPSLE has a broad spectrum and high heterogeneity of clinical phenotypes, including headaches, psychiatric symptoms and peripheral neuropathy. Additionally, various immune effectors have been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis, including cytokines, cell-mediated inflammation and brain-reactive autoantibodies. In some patients with SLE, neuropsychiatric symptoms develop for the first time after the initiation of the steroid treatment, hindering the differentiation from steroid psychosis. The administration of high doses of steroids in patients with SLE is believed to trigger psychiatric symptoms. No clear evidence has yet been found regarding the treatment of NPSLE. Therefore, NPSLE-specific markers need to be developed, and treatment guidelines should be established. This article provides an overview of NPSLE as well as its pathogenesis and treatment. 10.1080/25785826.2020.1770947
Prolactin and autoimmunity: The hormone as an inflammatory cytokine. Borba Vânia Vieira,Zandman-Goddard Gisele,Shoenfeld Yehuda Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism Nowadays, more than 80 autoimmune disorders are recognized, in which an aberrant immune response against different organs and tissues plays a crucial role. Hormonal homeostasis has great influence in achieving competent and healthy immune system function. Prolactin has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. It influences the immune system modulation, mainly inhibiting the negative selection of autoreactive B lymphocytes. Hyperprolactinemia has been detected in many patients with different autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, systemic sclerosis, among others, and its believed to play a crucial role in disease pathogenesis. A direct correlation between prolactin levels and disease activity was not clear. Genetic factors may have a role in humans as in animal models. Dopamine agonists have proven to offer clinical benefits among autoimmune patients and represent a promising therapy to be explored. In this review, the authors attempt to provide a critical overview on the role of prolactin in the immune system, exploring its contribution to the development of autoimmune diseases. 10.1016/j.beem.2019.101324
Advanced neuroimaging in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Mackay Meggan,Tang Chris C,Vo An Current opinion in neurology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) comprises a disparate collection of syndromes affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. Progress in the attribution of neuropsychiatric syndromes to SLE-related mechanisms and development of targeted treatment strategies has been impeded by a lack of objective imaging biomarkers that reflect specific neuropsychiatric syndromes and/or pathologic mechanisms. The present review addresses recent publications of neuroimaging techniques in NPSLE. RECENT FINDINGS:Imaging studies grouping all NPSLE syndromes together are unable to differentiate between NPSLE and non-NPSLE. In contrast, diffusion tensor imaging, FDG-PET, resting, and functional MRI techniques in patients with stable non-NPSLE demonstrate abnormal network structural and functional connectivity and regional brain activity in multiple cortical areas involving the limbic system, hippocampus, frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. Some of these changes associate with impaired cognitive performance or mood disturbance, autoantibodies or inflammatory proteins. Longitudinal data suggest progression over time. DCE-MRI demonstrates increased Blood-brain barrier permeability. SUMMARY:Study design issues related to patient selection (non-NPSLE vs. NPSLE syndromes, SLE disease activity, medications) are critical for biomarker development. Regional and network structural and functional changes identified with advanced brain imaging techniques in patients with non-NPSLE may be further developed as biomarkers for cognitive and mood disorders attributable to SLE-related mechanisms. 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000822
The role of a key transcription factor PU.1 in autoimmune diseases. Frontiers in immunology PU.1, a transcription factor member of the E26 transformation-specific family, affects the function of a variety of immune cells in several physiological and pathological conditions. Previous studies studying the role of PU.1 in pathological conditions have mainly focused on immune system-related cancers, and a series of articles have confirmed that PU.1 mutation can induce a variety of immune cell-related malignancies. The underlying mechanism has also been extensively validated. However, the role of PU.1 in other major immune system-related diseases, namely, systemic autoimmune diseases, is still unclear. It was only in recent years that researchers began to gradually realize that PU.1 also played an important role in a variety of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This review article summarizes the findings of recent studies that investigated the role of PU.1 in various autoimmune diseases and the related underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, it presents new ideas and provides insight into the role of PU.1 as a potential treatment target for autoimmune diseases and highlights existing research problems and future research directions in related fields. 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1001201
Autoantibodies in neuropsychiatric lupus: still looking. Bhattacharyya Shamik Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 10.1093/rheumatology/key354
Cognitive Impairment in SLE: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches. Current rheumatology reports A wide range of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) suffer from cognitive dysfunction (CD) which severely impacts their quality of life. However, CD remains underdiagnosed and poorly understood. Here, we discuss current findings in patients and in animal models. Strong evidence suggests that CD pathogenesis involves known mechanisms of tissue injury in SLE. These mechanisms recruit brain resident cells, in particular microglia, into the pathological process. While systemic immune activation is critical to central nervous system injury, the current focus of therapy is the microglial cell and not the systemic immune perturbation. Further studies are critical to examine additional potential therapeutic targets and more specific treatments based on the cause and progress of the disease. 10.1007/s11926-021-00992-1
Systemic lupus erythematosus; stroke and myocardial infarction risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Yazdany Jinoos,Pooley Nick,Langham Julia,Nicholson Lindsay,Langham Sue,Embleton Nina,Wang Xia,Desta Barnabas,Barut Volkan,Hammond Edward RMD open OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the risk of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) in adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS:We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to May 2020 to identify observational studies (cohort and cross-sectional) that evaluated risk of stroke and MI in adult patients with SLE compared with the general population or healthy controls. Studies were included if they reported effect-size estimates that could be used for calculating pooled-effect estimates. Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs for stroke and MI. Heterogeneity quantified by the I test and sensitivity analyses assessed bias. RESULTS:In total, 26 studies were included in this meta-analysis: 14, 5 and 7 studies on stroke, MI and both stroke and MI, respectively. The pooled RR for ischaemic stroke was 2.18 (95% CI 1.78 to 2.67; I 75%), intracerebral haemorrhage 1.84 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.90; I 67%), subarachnoid haemorrhage 1.95 (95% CI 0.69 to 5.52; I 94%), composite stroke 2.13 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.61; I 88%) and MI 2.99 (95% CI 2.34 to 3.82; I 85%). There was no evidence for publication bias, and sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, patients with SLE were identified to have a twofold to threefold higher risk of stroke and MI. Future research on the interaction between known SLE-specific modifiable risk factors and risk of stroke and MI to support development of prevention and treatment strategies are needed. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42018098690. 10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001247
Stroke Is Different in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Implications for Survival and Functionality. Rossides Marios The Journal of rheumatology 10.3899/jrheum.201209
Posterior Reversible Leucoencephalopathy Syndrome: Case Series, Comments, and Diagnostic Dilemma. Current neurology and neuroscience reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To report a series of patients with clinical and radiological features suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) related to diverse etiologies emphasizing its pathophysiological basis. RECENT FINDINGS:Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) may present with a broad range of clinical symptoms from headache and visual disturbances to seizure and altered mentation. Typical imaging findings include posterior-circulation predominant vasogenic edema. Although there are many well-documented diseases associated with PRES, the exact pathophysiologic mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. Generally accepted theories revolve around disruption of the blood-brain barrier secondary to elevated intracranial pressures or endothelial injury induced by ischemia from a vasoconstrictive response to rising blood pressure or toxins/cytokines. While clinical and radiographic reversibility is common, long-standing morbidity and mortality can occur in severe forms. In patients with malignant forms of PRES, aggressive care has markedly reduced mortality and improved functional outcomes. Various factors that have been associated with poor outcome include altered sensorium, hypertensive etiology, hyperglycemia, longer time to control the causative factor, elevated C reactive protein, coagulopathy, extensive cerebral edema, and hemorrhage on imaging. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS) and primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) are invariably considered in the differential diagnosis of new cerebral arteriopathies. Recurrent thunderclap headache (TCH), and single TCH combined with either normal neuroimaging, border zone infarcts, or vasogenic edema, have 100% positive predictive value for diagnosing RCVS or RCVS-spectrum disorders. Diagnosis of PRES in some circumstances can be challenging and structural imaging may not be sufficient to distinguish it from other differential diagnostic considerations like ADEM. Advanced imaging techniques, such as MR spectroscopy or positron emission tomography (PET) can provide additional information to determine the diagnosis. Such techniques are more useful to understand the underlying vasculopathic changes in PRES and may answer some of the unresolved controversies in pathophysiology of this complex disease. Eight patients with PRES resulting from different etiologies varying from pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, post-partum headache with seizures, neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, snake bite, Dengue fever with encephalopathy, alcoholic liver cirrhosis with hepatic encephalopathy, and lastly reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). Additionally, a diagnostic dilemma between PRES and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was notable in one patient. Some of these patients did not have or only very transiently had arterial hypertension. PRES may underlie the clinical conundrum of headache, confusion, altered sensorium, seizures, and visual impairment. PRES need not necessarily be always associated with high blood pressure. Imaging findings may also be variable. Both clinicians and radiologists need to familiarize themselves with such variabilities. 10.1007/s11910-023-01281-3
Schizophrenia Genetics and Neuropsychiatric Features in Childhood-onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. The Journal of rheumatology OBJECTIVE:We examined the association between schizophrenia genetic susceptibility loci and neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) features in childhood-onset SLE (cSLE) participants. METHODS:Study participants from the Lupus Clinic at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, met ≥ 4 of the American College of Rheumatology and/or SLE International Collaborating Clinics SLE classification criteria and were genotyped using the Illumina Multi-Ethnic Global Array or the Global Screening Array. Ungenotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed, and ancestry was genetically inferred. We calculated 2 additive schizophrenia-weighted polygenic risk scores (PRS) using (1) genome-wide significant SNPs ( < 5 × 10), and (2) an expanded list of SNPs with significance at < 0.05. We defined 2 outcomes compared to absence of NPSLE features: (1) any NPSLE feature, and (2) subtypes of NPSLE features (psychosis and nonpsychosis NPSLE). We completed logistic and multinomial regressions, first adjusted for inferred ancestry only and then added for variables significantly associated with NPSLE in our cohort ( < 0.05). RESULTS:We included 513 participants with cSLE. Median age at diagnosis was 13.8 years (IQR 11.2-15.6), 83% were female, and 31% were of European ancestry. An increasing schizophrenia genome-wide association PRS was not associated with NPSLE (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87-1.26, = 0.62), nor with the NPSLE subtypes, psychosis (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.73-1.29, = 0.84) and other nonpsychosis NPSLE (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.88-1.34, = 0.45), in ancestry-adjusted models. Results were similar for the model including covariates (ancestry, malar rash, oral/nasal ulcers, arthritis, lymphopenia, Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia, lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin antibodies) and for the expanded PRS estimates. CONCLUSION:We did not observe an association between known risk loci for schizophrenia and NPSLE in a multiethnic cSLE cohort. This work warrants further validation. 10.3899/jrheum.210363
Neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus: Focusing on autoantibodies. Journal of autoimmunity Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) frequently suffer from nervous system complications, termed neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (NPLE). NPLE accounts for the poor prognosis of SLE. Correct attribution of NP events to SLE is the primary principle in managing NPLE. The vascular injuries and neuroinflammation are the fundamental neuropathologic changes in NPLE. Specific autoantibody-mediated central nerve system (CNS) damages distinguish NPLE from other CNS disorders. Though the central antibodies in NPLE are generally thought to be raised from the periphery immune system, they may be produced in the meninges and choroid plexus. On this basis, abnormal activation of microglia and disease-associated microglia (DAM) should be the common mechanisms of NPLE and other CNS disturbances. Improved understanding of both characteristic and sharing features of NPLE might yield further options for managing this disease. 10.1016/j.jaut.2022.102892
Central Nervous System Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Pathophysiologic, Clinical, and Imaging Features. Ota Yoshiaki,Srinivasan Ashok,Capizzano Aristides A,Bapuraj Jayapalli R,Kim John,Kurokawa Ryo,Baba Akira,Moritani Toshio Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by multiple immunologic abnormalities and has the potential to involve the central nervous system (CNS). The prevalence of SLE seems to be growing, possibly because of earlier diagnosis and improved survival; however, the associated mortality is still high. The mortality is associated with disease-related risk factors such as lupus disease activity, young age, and organ damage or with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE), which is caused by SLE-related CNS involvement, comprises a broad range of neurologic and psychiatric manifestations with varying severity, which can make this disease indistinguishable from other conditions that are unrelated to SLE. No unifying pathophysiology has been found in the etiology of NPSLE, suggesting that this condition has multiple contributors such as various immune effectors and the brain-intrinsic neuroimmune interfaces that are breached by the immune effectors. The postulated neuroimmune interfaces include the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, meningeal barrier, and glymphatic system. On the basis of the immunologic, pathologic, and imaging features of NPSLE, the underlying pathophysiology can be classified as vasculitis and vasculopathy, APS, demyelinating syndrome, or autoimmune antibody-mediated encephalitis. Each pathophysiology has different imaging characteristics, although the imaging and pathophysiologic features may overlap. Moreover, there are complications due to the immunocompromised status caused by SLE per se or by SLE treatment. Radiologists and clinicians should become familiar with the underlying mechanisms, radiologic findings, and complications of NPSLE, as this information may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of NPSLE. RSNA, 2022. 10.1148/rg.210045
A Systematic Review of the Progression of Cutaneous Lupus to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Frontiers in immunology Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that may manifest in a variety of organs and tissues including the skin, kidney, brain, heart and lung. Many patients present with cutaneous lupus, where disease is often limited to the skin, but are at risk for developing systemic lupus. The objective of our present study is to perform a systematic review of studies that investigated patient cohorts and populations for the occurrence of cutaneous lupus progressing to systemic lupus. Inclusion criteria required that studies present longitudinal data of patients with limited cutaneous lupus erythematosus who were followed for development of systemic lupus erythematosus. Studies were excluded if patients had concurrent diagnosis of SLE, or if they failed to present longitudinal data. Medline and Embase were searched for English language studies using the Ovid platform. A total of 25 adult studies were identified, as well as 8 pediatric studies. The rate of cutaneous to systemic lupus progression ranged between 0% to 42% in the adult studies and 0% to 31% in the pediatric groups. The variability in these rates were due to differences in patient populations, study design, criteria used to diagnose systemic lupus, and follow-up time. Common risk factors associated with systemic lupus erythematosus development including having positive anti-nuclear antibodies, hematologic abnormalities, and higher number of lupus classification criteria at baseline. This study emphasizes the importance for providers to routinely monitor for systemic lupus in patients with cutaneous lupus. 10.3389/fimmu.2022.866319
Management of inflammatory neurologic and psychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review. Papachristos D A,Oon S,Hanly J G,Nikpour M Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism BACKGROUND:The neurological and psychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) are a heterogeneous group of conditions with variable clinical presentation and significant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES:Our aim was to comprehensively assess and present the evidence for treatments used in the management of inflammatory NPSLE. METHODS:Medline, Embase, CINHAL and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched from 1990 to end of March 2019 using key words that related to NPSLE and treatment. Included studies comprised clinical trials, observational studies or case series with ≥5 patients and sufficient data related to treatment and outcome in NPSLE patients. RESULTS:There were 7222 studies identified in the search, of which 90 were included in the review. There was a notable paucity of clinical trials, with only two randomised controlled trials and one pilot study. Treatment categories included corticosteroids (14 studies), cyclophosphamide (18 studies), synthetic DMARDs (7 studies), biologic therapies (14 studies), therapeutic plasma exchange (6 studies), intravenous immunoglobulin (2 studies), autologous stem cell transplant (3 studies), other therapies (8 studies), combination therapies (6 studies), studies with grouped outcome data (5 studies) and observational studies with therapy-specific associations (7 studies). Corticosteroids are accepted as first line treatment in NPSLE and there is low-moderate evidence supporting their benefit. Moderate evidence, based on consistent data in numerous studies and some trial data, supports the use of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of NPSLE. Limited data support some synthetic DMARDs such as mycophenolate, azathioprine and intrathecal methotrexate. In refractory disease, low-moderate evidence supports rituximab therapy and limited evidence supports benefit following autologous stem cell transplant. Regarding adjuvant treatments, limited evidence favours addition of plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin and hydroxychloroquine. There exists very limited data for other therapies. CONCLUSION:There are multiple therapeutic options for the management of inflammatory NPSLE including systemic, biologic and interventional therapies; however, currently there is a paucity of high-quality trial data to guide firm recommendations. In order to better understand the optimal treatment of NPSLE and its different subtypes, further well-designed clinical trials are needed. 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.12.004
Advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Current opinion in rheumatology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Diagnosing and treating neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) remains challenging as the pathogenesis is still being debated. In this review, we discuss studies evaluating recent advances in diagnostic methods, pathogenic mediators and potential treatments. RECENT FINDINGS:Screening tools used for neurodegenerative diseases were found to be both sensitive and moderately specific for cognitive dysfunction in NPSLE. Neuroimaging can be used to distinguish systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients from healthy controls, but further refinement is needed to differentiate between lupus patients with and without neuropsychiatric manifestations. Elevated levels of specific molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid and/or serum, as well as the presence of certain autoantibodies, have been identified as potential biomarkers in attempts to facilitate a more accurate and objective diagnosis. Among such autoantibodies, anti-NR2 and anti-ribosomal P autoantibodies also have a pathogenic role, although newer studies demonstrate that blood-brain barrier damage may not always be required as previously believed. These and other observations, together with new evidence for disease attenuation after microglial modulation, suggest direct involvement of the central nervous system in NPSLE pathogenesis. SUMMARY:Neuropsychiatric involvement of SLE includes a variety of symptoms that impact quality of life and patient prognosis. There have been recent advances in improving the diagnosis of NPSLE as well as in dissecting the underlying pathogenesis. The attenuation of neuropsychiatric disease in mouse models demonstrates the potential for targeted therapies, which are based on a clearer understanding of the pathogenesis of NPSLE. Further assessment of these treatments is required in NPSLE patients, as well as the potential use of neuroimaging to distinguish between SLE patients with or without neuropsychiatric manifestations. 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000682
Neuropsychiatric lupus: new mechanistic insights and future treatment directions. Schwartz Noa,Stock Ariel D,Putterman Chaim Nature reviews. Rheumatology Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) frequently show symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, termed neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). The CNS manifestations of SLE are diverse and have a broad spectrum of severity and prognostic implications. Patients with NPSLE typically present with nonspecific symptoms, such as headache and cognitive impairment, but might also experience devastating features, such as memory loss, seizures and stroke. Some features of NPSLE, in particular those related to coagulopathy, have been characterized and an evidence-based treatment algorithm is available. The cognitive and affective manifestations of NPSLE, however, remain poorly understood. Various immune effectors have been evaluated as contributors to its pathogenesis, including brain-reactive autoantibodies, cytokines and cell-mediated inflammation. Additional brain-intrinsic elements (such as resident microglia, the blood-brain barrier and other neurovascular interfaces) are important facilitators of NPSLE. As yet, however, no unifying model has been found to underlie the pathogenesis of NPSLE, suggesting that this disease has multiple contributors and perhaps several distinct aetiologies. This heterogeneity presents a challenge for clinicians who have traditionally relied on empirical judgement in choosing treatment modalities for patients with NPSLE. Improved understanding of this manifestation of SLE might yield further options for managing this disease. 10.1038/s41584-018-0156-8
Headache and systemic lupus erythematosus: A narrative review. Headache OBJECTIVE:To review the epidemiology, the differential diagnosis, and the clinical and laboratory factors associated with the care management of headaches in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). BACKGROUND:SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease and in 12%-95% of patients, the nervous system is involved. Headache is a frequently reported, although nonspecific, symptom that may potentially represent serious underlying diagnoses. Primary headaches may also occur in these patients, thereby causing a negative and significant impact on their quality of life. METHODS:This is a narrative review. A literature review was conducted on the PubMed platform using the following terms: (1) headache and (2) lupus. All articles considered relevant were included. No limitations were imposed for the publication date. RESULTS:Headache is a frequent symptom in patients with SLE. Although its prevalence is similar to the general population, headaches nonetheless tend to have a greater negative impact on these patients. Patients with SLE are more likely to experience headache due to vascular diseases such as cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, stroke, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and vasculitis. Aseptic meningitis, neuroinfections, intracranial neoplasms, and intracranial hypertension or hypotension may also be a cause of headache in these patients. Although used in disease activity scores, the concept of lupus headache is controversial. CONCLUSIONS:Headache is a frequent symptom in patients with SLE. An appropriate approach enables the potentially serious conditions, which are the causes of secondary headaches, to be recognized and treated, together with an appropriate diagnosis and treatment of primary headaches. 10.1111/head.14501
Epilepsy in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical and experimental rheumatology Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune systemic disease characterised by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations that may also affect the central nervous system. Among the neurological symptoms, seizures were included in the criteria for the classification of SLE published by EULAR/ACR in 2019. Several studies have been undertaken to explore the role of SLE antibodies in the onset of seizures, however, their complex relation is still a matter of debate. The most common seizure type reported is generalised tonic-clonic. EEG and MRI findings are usually non-specific; background slowing, brain atrophy and hyper-intense lesions on the white matter are the most common finding. Prognosis is overall favourable, with a good response to antiepileptic drugs and immunosuppressive therapy. The purpose of this review is to summarise the most relevant literature contributions published over the years on the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment of seizures in the context of SLE. 10.55563/clinexprheumatol/43pqih
The American College of Rheumatology nomenclature and case definitions for neuropsychiatric lupus syndromes. Arthritis and rheumatism OBJECTIVE:To develop a standardized nomenclature system for the neuropsychiatric syndromes of systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). METHODS:An international, multidisciplinary committee representing rheumatology, neurology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, and hematology developed case definitions, reporting standards, and diagnostic testing recommendations. Before and after the meeting, clinician committee members assigned diagnoses to sets of vignettes randomly generated from a pool of 108 NPSLE patients. To assess whether the nomenclature system improved diagnostic agreement, a consensus index was developed and pre- and postmeeting scores were compared by t-tests. RESULTS:Case definitions including diagnostic criteria, important exclusions, and methods of ascertainment were developed for 19 NPSLE syndromes. Recommendations for standard reporting requirements, minimum laboratory evaluation, and imaging techniques were formulated. A short neuropsychological test battery for the diagnosis of cognitive deficits was proposed. In the postmeeting exercise, a statistically significant improvement in diagnostic agreement was observed. CONCLUSION:The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Nomenclature for NPSLE provides case definitions for 19 neuropsychiatric syndromes seen in SLE, with reporting standards and recommendations for laboratory and imaging tests. It is intended to facilitate and enhance clinical research, particularly multicenter studies, and reporting. In clinical settings, consultation with other specialists may be required. It should be useful for didactic purposes but should not be used uncritically or as a substitute for a clinical diagnosis. The complete case definitions are available on the ACR World Wide Web site: http://www.rheumatology .org/ar/ar.html. 10.1002/1529-0131(199904)42:4<599::AID-ANR2>3.0.CO;2-F
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: A neuropsychiatric manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Valdez-López Martín,Aguirre-Aguilar Eduardo,Valdés-Ferrer Sergio Iván,Martínez-Carrillo Francisco M,Arauz Antonio,Barrera-Vargas Ana,Merayo-Chalico Javier Autoimmunity reviews Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is an acute neurological syndrome clinically characterized by seizures, altered mental status, headache, and visual disturbances. It is caused by a variety of abnormalities in the endothelial function that ultimately result in vasogenic edema in the circulation of the central nervous system. This is reflected by the neuroimaging findings, that most often show reversible parieto-occipital edema. An important proportion of patients with PRES present with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and its complications, as their sole risk factors. This review describes the relationship between these two clinical entities and explains the pathophysiological models that have been proposed to describe the development of PRES. We explain how SLE can cause alterations in every pathway implicated in the development of PRES. Given the relatively high frequency and the distinct clinical course, PRES in the setting of SLE might be best described as a distinct neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with SLE. 10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102739
Neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: A review. Carrión-Barberà Irene,Salman-Monte Tarek Carlos,Vílchez-Oya F,Monfort Jordi Autoimmunity reviews The neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a challenge for clinicians, both at a diagnostic and therapeutic level. Although in 1999 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) proposed a set of definitions for 19 NPSLE syndromes, with the intention of homogenizing the terminology for research purposes and clinical practice, the prevalence of NPSLE varies widely according to different series and is estimated to be between 37 and 95%. This is due to multiple factors such as the unalike definitions used, the diverse design of the studies, type of population, race, type and severity of symptoms, and follow-up of the different cohorts of patients with SLE. In recent years, some authors have tried excluding minor neuropsychiatric manifestations in order to try to reduce this wide variation in the prevalence of NPSLE since they are very prevalent in the general population; others authors have developed various models for the attribution of neuropsychiatric events to SLE that can assist clinicians in this diagnostic process, and finally, some authors developed and validated in 2014 a new algorithm based on the definitions of the ACR that includes the evaluation of the patient's lupus activity together with imaging techniques and the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with the aim of trying to differentiate the true neuropsychiatric manifestations attributable to SLE. In 2010, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) developed recommendations for the management of NPSLE. We found abundant literature published later where, in addition to the recommendations for the management of the 19 NPSLE syndromes defined by the ACR, additional recommendations are given for other neurological and/or psychiatric syndromes, conditions, and complications that have been associated to SLE in recent years. We review below the diagnostic and therapeutic management of the different entities. 10.1016/j.autrev.2021.102780
Lupus Vasculitis. Calle-Botero Estefania,Abril Andy Current rheumatology reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The purpose of this manuscript is to review the most recent literature pertinent to the presence of vasculitis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including previously published landmark articles and studies and to update the different clinical and diagnostic aspects of vasculitic manifestations in patients with this important autoimmune disorder. As a multisystem autoimmune disease, systemic lupus may attack practically any organ system in the human body. Even though vasculitis is not the most common presentation or pathogenic mechanism of disease, it frequently causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE. The most common manifestation of lupus vasculitis is cutaneous involvement; visceral involvement is less common but causes severe disease; it may occur in different areas including central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, gastrointestinal system, kidneys, lungs and even retina. RECENT FINDINGS:Recent findings regarding the pathogenesis of lupus CNS and peripheral nerve disease, and vascular injury in lupus nephritis are reviewed as well. Vasculitis is an uncommon but serious manifestation of SLE; it may involve different organ systems and present in a wide variety of clinical syndromes, and thus the importance of its recognition and early diagnosis by physicians who deal with this disease, in order to start prompt and aggressive therapy when indicated. 10.1007/s11926-020-00937-0