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Catechin promotes the germination of Pistacia chinensis seeds via GA biosynthesis. Annals of botany BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Chinese pistachio (Pistacia chinensis Bunge), an important horticultural plant species, holds great ornamental value with beautiful leaves and fruits. Seedling propagation of this tree species is restricted by its erratic seed germination, however, the germination mechanism is ambiguous yet. The aim of this study was to figure out the germination mechanism from the novel perspective based on the multi-omics data. METHODS:The multi-omics technique combined with hormone content measurement was first applied in seed germination of Chinese pistachio. KEY RESULTS:Due to the great accumulation during seed germination, catechin stood out from the identified metabolites by broadly targeted metabolomic analysis. Exogenous catechin of 10 mg/L significantly improved the germination of Chinese pistachio seeds. An interesting result of hormone analysis showed that the improving effect of catechin could be attributed to increase of the gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) content rather than decrease of the abscisic acid (ABA) content before germination. The paclobutrazol (PAC, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor) and PAC + catechin treatments also showed that the promoting effect of catechin on seed germination depends on GA biosynthesis. Transcriptome analysis and qRT‒PCR further revealed that catechin induced the expression of PcGA20ox5 to activate GA biosynthesis. Several transcription factors were induced by catechin and GA treatments, such as TCP, bZIP and C3H, which may play an important regulatory role in GA biosynthesis in a catechin-mediated way. CONCLUSIONS:Catechin promotes seed germination via GA biosynthesis in Chinese pistachios. This study proposes a novel mechanism by which catechin promotes seed germination via the GA pathway, which provides new insight into a comprehensive understanding of seed dormancy and germination. 10.1093/aob/mcae061
The impact of global warming on the potential suitable planting area of Pistacia chinensis is limited. The Science of the total environment Pistacia chinensis Bunge. is one of the main woody oil crops with a large artificial planting area in China and has important economic and ecological value. Here, based on 237 occurrence data and 22 environmental variables, we explored the potential planting area of P. chinensis in China in the present and future climate change scenarios by using a comprehensive model method. To fully consider the potential planting area of P. chinensis under specific climate change conditions and the limitations of soil conditions, we separately built two niche models to simulate the climate niche and soil demand niche, and then used the intersection of the two models as the result of the comprehensive habitat suitability model, finally, we used land-use data to filter the CHS model result. Our results showed, that under the baseline condition, the potential planting area of P. chinensis covers approximately 0.74 × 10 km in China. The future projection showed that the impact of global warming on the potentially suitable planting area of P. chinensis is limited, and most of the existing suitable habitats are not affected by climate change. With increasing temperature, the potential planting area will expand northward and slightly contract in the south margin, and its area will be slightly increased. Therefore, this species has great planting potential in China and should be given priority in the future afforestation plan. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.161007
Prediction of global marginal land resources for Pistacia chinensis Bunge by a machine learning method. Scientific reports Biofuel has attracted worldwide attention due to its potential to combat climate change and meet emission reduction targets. Pistacia chinensis Bunge (P. chinensis) is a prospective plant for producing biodiesel. Estimating the global potential marginal land resources for cultivating this species would be conducive to exploiting bioenergy yielded from it. In this study, we applied a machine learning method, boosted regression tree, to estimate the suitable marginal land for growing P. chinensis worldwide. The result indicated that most of the qualified marginal land is found in Southern Africa, the southern part of North America, the western part of South America, Southeast Asia, Southern Europe, and eastern and southwest coasts of Oceania, for a grand total of 1311.85 million hectares. Besides, we evaluated the relative importance of the environmental variables, revealing the major environmental factors that determine the suitability for growing P. chinensis, which include mean annual water vapor pressure, mean annual temperature, mean solar radiation, and annual cumulative precipitation. The potential global distribution of P. chinensis could provide a valuable basis to guide the formulation of P. chinensis-based biodiesel policies. 10.1038/s41598-022-09830-5
Determination of superior Pistacia chinensis accession with high-quality seed oil and biodiesel production and revelation of LEC1/WRI1-mediated high oil accumulative mechanism for better developing woody biodiesel. BMC plant biology BACKGROUND:Based on our previous studied on different provenances of Pistacia chinensis, some accessions with high quality and quantity of seed oils has emerged as novel source of biodiesel. To better develop P. chinensis seed oils as woody biodiesel, a concurrent exploration of oil content, FA profile, biodiesel yield, and fuel properties was conducted on the seeds from 5 plus germplasms to determine superior genotype for ideal biodiesel production. Another vital challenge is to unravel mechanism that govern the differences in oil content and FA profile of P. chinensis seeds across different accessions. FA biosynthesis and oil accumulation of oil plants are known to be highly controlled by the transcription factors. An integrated analysis of our recent transcriptome data, qRT-PCR detection and functional identification was performed as an attempt to highlight LEC1/WRI1-mediated transcription regulatory mechanism for high-quality oil accumulation in P. chinensis seeds. RESULTS:To select ideal germplasm and unravel high oil accumulative mechanism for developing P. chinensis seed oils as biodiesel, five plus trees (accession PC-BJ/PC-AH/PC-SX/PC-HN/PC-HB) with high-yield seeds were selected to assess the variabilities in weight, oil content, FA profile, biodiesel yield and fuel property, revealing a variation in the levels of seed oil (50.76-60.88%), monounsaturated FA (42.80-70.72%) and polyunsaturated FA (18.78-43.35%), and biodiesel yield (84.98-98.15%) across different accessions. PC-HN had a maximum values of seed weight (26.23 mg), oil (60.88%) and biodiesel yield (98.15%), and ideal proportions of C18:1 (69.94%), C18:2 (17.65%) and C18:3 (1.13%), implying that seed oils of accession PC-HN was the most suitable for ideal biodiesel production. To highlight molecular mechanism that govern such differences in oil content and FA profile of different accessions, a combination of our recent transcriptome data, qRT-PCR detection and protein interaction analysis was performed to identify a pivotal role of LEC1/WRI1-mediated transcription regulatory network in high oil accumulation of P. chinensis seeds from different accessions. Notably, overexpression of PcWRI1 or PcLEC1 from P. chinensis seeds in Arabidopsis could facilitate seed development and upregulate several genes relevant for carbon flux allocation (plastidic glycolysis and acetyl-CoA generation), FA synthesis, TAG assembly and oil storage, causing an increase in seed oil content and monounsaturated FA level, destined for biodiesel fuel property improvement. Our findings may present strategies for better developing P. chinensis seed oils as biodiesel feedstock and bioengineering its high oil accumulation. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first report on the cross-accessions assessments of P. chinensis seed oils to determine ideal accession for high-quality biodiesel production, and an effective combination of PcWRI1 or PcLEC1 overexpression, morphological assay, oil accumulation and qRT-PCR detection was applied to unravel a role of LEC1/WRI1-mediated regulatory network for oil accumulation in P. chinensis seeds, and to highlight the potential application of PcWRI1 or PcLEC1 for increasing oil production. Our finding may provide new strategies for developing biodiesel resource and molecular breeding. 10.1186/s12870-023-04267-y
Genome-wide identification of Pistacia R2R3-MYB gene family and function characterization of PcMYB113 during autumn leaf coloration in Pistacia chinensis. Song Xiehai,Yang Qinsong,Liu Yong,Li Jinjin,Chang Xiaochao,Xian Lihong,Zhang Jin International journal of biological macromolecules Pistacia chinensis is known for its biodiesel production. Several varieties of this plant have leaves that produce anthocyanin, which is responsible for their reddish coloration in autumn. This reddish hue is what makes them useful as ornamental plants. However, the mechanism of anthocyanin accumulation during autumn leaf coloration remains unclear. R2R3-MYB proteins reportedly regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in many plant species. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis and expression profiles of R2R3-MYB transcription factor in Pistacia. A total of 158 R2R3-MYB proteins were identified and grouped into 32 clades. Combining the data from RNA-seq and qRT-PCR, one key gene, EVM0016534, was screened and identified to have the highest correlation with anthocyanin accumulation. It was named PcMYB113 due to its sequence similarity to AtMYB113 and it could bind to the promoter of PcF3H. Furthermore, ectopic expression of PcMYB113 in Arabidopsis promoted the accumulation of anthocyanin in the seed coat, cotyledon, and mature leaves, thus confirming the function of PcMYB113 in anthocyanin biosynthesis. In addition, PcMYB113 had a specifically higher expression in senesced red leaves than in mature green leaves and young red leaves in P. chinensis, thereby suggesting the potential role of PcMYB113 in promoting anthocyanin biosynthesis during autumn leaf coloration. These findings enrich our understanding of the function of R2R3-MYB genes in anthocyanin biosynthesis and autumn leaf coloration. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.09.092