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Dammarane-type triterpene extracts of Panax notoginseng root ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity by enhancing glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry Skeletal muscle is an important organ for controlling the development of type 2 diabetes. We discovered Panax notoginseng roots as a candidate to improve hyperglycemia through in vitro muscle cells screening test. Saponins are considered as the active ingredients of ginseng. However, in the body, saponins are converted to dammarane-type triterpenes, which may account for the anti-hyperglycemic activity. We developed a method for producing a dammarane-type triterpene extract (DTE) from Panax notoginseng roots and investigated the extract's potential anti-hyperglycemic activity. We found that DTE had stronger suppressive activity on blood glucose levels than the saponin extract (SE) did in KK-A mice. Additionally, DTE improved oral glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake, and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that DTE is a promising agent for controlling hyperglycemia by enhancing glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. 10.1080/09168451.2016.1246173
Panax Notoginseng Saponins: A Review of Its Mechanisms of Antidepressant or Anxiolytic Effects and Network Analysis on Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. Xie Weijie,Meng Xiangbao,Zhai Yadong,Zhou Ping,Ye Tianyuan,Wang Zhen,Sun Guibo,Sun Xiaobo Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) , as traditional Chinese medicine, has a long history of high clinical value, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, regulation of blood glucose and blood pressure, inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, and neuronal protection, and its main ingredients are Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS). Currently, may improve mental function, have anti-insomnia and anti-depression effects, alleviate anxiety, and decrease neural network excitation. However, the underlying effects and the mechanisms of and its containing chemical constituents (PNS) on these depression-related or anxiety-related diseases has not been completely established. This review summarized the antidepressant or anxiolytic effects and mechanisms of PNS and analyzed network targets of antidepressant or anxiolytic actions with network pharmacology tools to provide directions and references for further pharmacological studies and new ideas for clinical treatment of nervous system diseases and drug studies and development. The review showed PNS and its components may exert these effects through regulating neurotransmitter mechanism (5-HT, DA, NE), modulation of the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission, glutamatergic system, hypo-thalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system; and produce neuronal protection by anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, or inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, or platelet aggregation and its intracellular signaling pathways. Network target analysis indicated PNS and its components also may have anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, which leads to the preservation of brain nerves, and regulate the activity and secretion of nerve cells, exerting anti-depression and anxiolytic effects, which may provide new directions for further in-depth researches of related mechanisms. 10.3390/molecules23040940
Single herbal medicine for diabetic retinopathy. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Diabetic retinopathy is one of the major causes of blindness and the number of cases has risen in recent years. Herbal medicine has been used to treat diabetes and its complications including diabetic retinopathy for thousands of years around the world. However, common practice is not always evidence-based. Evidence is needed to help people with diabetic retinopathy or doctors to make judicious judgements about using herbal medicine as treatment. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effectiveness and harm of single herbal medicine for diabetic retinopathy. SEARCH METHODS:We searched CENTRAL, which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register, MEDLINE, Embase, OpenGrey, the ISRCTN registry, ClinicalTrials.gov and the ICTRP. The date of the search was 12 June 2018. We also searched the following Chinese databases in June 2013: Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), Wanfang China Dissertation Database (CDDB), Wanfang China Conference Paper Database (CCPD) and the Index to Chinese Periodical Literature. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that investigated the effects of any single herb (or extracts from a single herb) as a treatment for people with diabetic retinopathy. We considered the following comparators: placebo, no treatment, non-herbal (conventional) medicine or surgical treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the studies. Our prespecified outcomes were: progression of diabetic retinopathy, visual acuity, microaneurysms and haemorrhages in the retina, blood glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (%) and adverse effects. We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS:We included 10 studies involving 754 participants, of which nine were conducted in China and one in Poland. In all studies, participants in both groups received conventional treatment for diabetic retinopathy which included maintaining blood glucose and lipids using medicines and keeping a stable diabetic diet. In three studies, the comparator group also received an additional potentially active comparator in the form of a vasoprotective drug. The single herbs or extracts included Ruscus extract tablet, Sanqi Tongshu capsule, tetramethylpyrazine injection, Xueshuantong injection, Puerarin injection and Xuesaitong injection. The Sanqi Tongshu capsule, Xueshuantong injection and Xuesaitong injection were all made from the extract of Radix Notoginseng (San qi) and the main ingredient was sanchinoside. The risk of bias was high in all included studies mainly due to lack of masking (blinding). None of the studies reported the primary outcome of this review, progression of retinopathy.Combined analysis of herbal interventions suggested that people who took these herbs in combination with conventional treatment may have been more likely to gain 2 or more lines of visual acuity compared to people who did not take these herbs when compared to conventional intervention alone at the end of treatment (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.48; 5 trials, 541 participants; low-certainty evidence). Subgroup analyses based on the different single herbs found no evidence for different effects of different herbs, but the power of this analysis was low. One study reported Sanqi Tongshu capsule might be associated with a greater reduction in microaneurysms and haemorrhages in the retina (very low-certainty evidence). The pooled analysis of two studies on tetramethylpyrazine or Xueshuantong injection showed such herbs may have had little effect on lowering HbA1c (MD 0.00, 95% CI -0.58 to 0.58; 215 participants; low-certainty evidence).There was very low-certainty evidence on adverse events. Two studies reported minor adverse events such as uncomfortable stomach, urticaria, dizziness and headache. There was no report of observation on adverse events in the other studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:No conclusions could be drawn about the effect of any single herb or herbal extract on diabetic retinopathy from the current available evidence. It was difficult to exclude the placebo effect as a possible explanation for observed differences due to the lack of placebo control in the included studies. Further adequately designed trials are needed to establish the evidence. 10.1002/14651858.CD007939.pub2
Xueshuantong for Injection Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes. Wang Jinxin,Li Ruilin,Deng Zhiyuan,Sun Zuoyan,Chai Lijuan,Guo Hong,Wang Hong,Chen Lu,Hu Limin,Wang Shaoxia The Chinese journal of physiology Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes and becomes the chief causeof end-stage renal disease. Our study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effect andunderlying mechanism of Xueshuantong for Injection (XST) on DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-inducedrats. Effect of XST treatment (XST, 50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) lasting 60 days after STZ-induced (60 mg/kg,i.p.) diabetes was investigated. Blood sugar levels and body weight were recorded every week of theexperiment. At the 28th and 56th days after injection urine glucose and 24 h urine protein excretionwere determined. Apoptosis related factors such as cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax and inflammationrelated factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, induciblenitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were detected by PCRor western blot. The expression levels of fibronectin, Collagen Ⅰ, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TGF-β-Smad2/3 signaling pathway, and receptor foradvanced glycation end products (RAGE) was investigated. Our results showed that XST treatmentdid not affect levels of body weight, blood glucose and urine glucose levels. Our analysis revealed that XSTinhibited cell apoptosis and suppressed the properties of RAGE in the kidney. XST treatment couldalso significantly suppress the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators in kidney and preventrenal fibrosis by blocking the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, our findingssuggested that XST could provide protection against DN through reduction of RAGE accumulation,decreasing inflammation, inhibition of renal fibrosis, and blocking the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signalingpathway. 10.4077/CJP.2018.BAH637
Notoginsenoside R1 Protects db/db Mice against Diabetic Nephropathy via Upregulation of Nrf2-Mediated HO-1 Expression. Zhang Bin,Zhang Xuelian,Zhang Chenyang,Shen Qiang,Sun Guibo,Sun Xiaobo Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure, and no effective treatment is available. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is a novel saponin that is derived from , and our previous studies showed the cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects of NGR1. However, its role in protecting against DN remains unexplored. Herein, we established an experimental model in / mice and HK-2 cells exposed to advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The in vivo investigation showed that NGR1 treatment increased serum lipid, β2-microglobulin, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels of / mice. NGR1 attenuated histological abnormalities of kidney, as evidenced by reducing the glomerular volume and fibrosis in diabetic kidneys. In vitro, NGR1 treatment was further found to decrease AGE-induced mitochondria injury, limit an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reduce apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Mechanistically, NGR1 promoted nucleus nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions to eliminate ROS that induced apoptosis and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling. In summary, these observations demonstrate that NGR1 exerts renoprotective effects against DN through the inhibition of apoptosis and renal fibrosis caused by oxidative stress. NGR1 might be a potential therapeutic medicine for the treatment of DN. 10.3390/molecules24020247
Notoginseng Saponin Rg1 Prevents Cognitive Impairment through Modulating APP Processing in Aβ-injected Rats. Liu Shang-Zhi,Cheng Wei,Shao Jia-Wei,Gu Yun-Fan,Zhu Yi-Yi,Dong Qi-Jing,Bai Si-Yu,Wang Ping,Lin Li Current medical science With the intensification of the aging process of the world, Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the main type of senile dementia, has become a primary problem in the present society. Lots of strategies have been used to prevent and treat AD in animal models and clinical trials, but most of them ended in failure. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) contain a variety of monomer compositions which have been separated and identified. Among of the monomer compositions, notoginseng saponin Rg1 (Rg1) accounts for 20% of the cultivation of panax notoginseng roots. And now PNS have been reported to be widely used to treat cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and have neuroprotective effects to restrain the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)25-35-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, it is reported that PNS could accelerate the growth of nerve cells, increase the length of axons and promote synaptic plasticity. Whether Rg1 can ameliorate the cognitive impairment and the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. To study the preventive effect of Rg1 on cognitive impairment and the possible mechanism, we established the cognitive impairment model in rats through Aβ (2.6 µg/µL, 5 µL) injection and then treated the rats with Rg1 (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) administered intragastrically for 4 weeks. We observed that Aβ could induce spatial learning and memory deficits in rats. Simultaneously, Aβ injection also resulted in the reduced neuron number in cornuammonis 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus, as well as the increased level of hyperphosphorylated β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) at Thr668 site with up-regulation of β-APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and presenilin 1 (PS1) and down-regulation of a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE). Administration of Rg1 effectively rescued the cognitive impairment and neuronal loss, and inhibited the β-secretase processing of APP through reducing APP-Thr668 phosphorylation and BACE1/PS1 expression, and increasing the expression of ADAM10 and IDE. We concluded that Rg1 might have neuroprotective effects and could promote learning and memory ability, which might be a viable candidate in AD therapy probably through reducing the generation of Aβ and increasing the degradation of Aβ. 10.1007/s11596-019-2019-1
Notoginsenoside Fc Accelerates Reendothelialization following Vascular Injury in Diabetic Rats by Promoting Endothelial Cell Autophagy. Liu Jingjing,Jiang Chunyu,Ma Xu,Feng Lishuai,Wang Jianbo Journal of diabetes research Interventional therapies, such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and endovascular stent implantation, are used widely for the treatment of diabetic peripheral vascular complications. Reendothelialization is an essential process in vascular injury following interventional therapy, and hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) plays an important role in damaging endothelial layer integrity, leading to the retardance of reendothelialization and excessive neointimal formation. Notoginsenoside Fc (Fc), a novel saponin isolated from , effectively counteracts platelet aggregation. Nevertheless, the potential effects and molecular mechanisms of Fc on reendothelialization have yet to be explored. In this study, we present novel findings that show the benefit of Fc in accelerating reendothelialization and alleviating excessive neointimal formation following carotid artery injury in diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats . Simultaneously, the decreased autophagy of the injured carotid artery in diabetic rats was restored by Fc treatment. Our results also demonstrated that Fc promoted endothelial cell proliferation and migration under high-glucose treatment by increasing autophagy. In summary, this study supported the notion that Fc could accelerate reendothelialization following vascular injury in diabetic rats by promoting autophagy, suggesting that Fc may exert therapeutic benefits for early endothelial injury and restenosis following intervention in diabetes-associated vascular diseases. 10.1155/2019/9696521
[Acute toxicity mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins in larvae zebrafish based on metabonomics]. Fei Qian-Qian,Wei Ying-Jie,Wang Jing,Huang Yi-Ping,Chen Yan,Chen Bin Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica Based on metabolomics,the metabolites of larvae zebrafish with overdose of Panax notoginseng saponins( PNS) were compared with those in normal group of larvae zebrafish to investigate the possible toxicity mechanism of overdose PNS in larvae zebrafish. An experimental animal model of long-term toxicity induced by PNS overdose was established by administering 1-6 dpf at low,medium and high doses of PNS,respectively. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) technique was combined with principal component analysis( PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA) to screen and identify biomarkers associated with toxicity,and then the MetaboAnalyst database was used to analyze metabolism-related pathways. The results showed that the metabolites of each group could be distinguished distinctly,and they deviated more from the normal group in a time and dose dependent manner. Twenty-nine potential biomarkers related to toxicity( VIP>1,P<0. 05) were identified preliminarily,mainly involving six metabolic pathways. From the metabonomics point of view,the toxicity mechanism of overdose PNS may be related to the disorders of lipid metabolism,amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190429.503
Focus on Notoginsenoside R1 in Metabolism and Prevention Against Human Diseases. Liu Hai,Yang Jianqiong,Yang Wanqing,Hu Shaonan,Wu Yali,Zhao Bo,Hu Haiyan,Du Shouying Drug design, development and therapy Notoginsenoside (NG)-R1 is one of the main bioactive compounds from (PN) root, which is well known in the prescription for mediating the micro-circulatory hemostasis in human. In this article, we mainly discuss NG-R1 in metabolism and the biological activities, including cardiovascular protection, neuro-protection, anti-diabetes, liver protection, gastrointestinal protection, lung protection, bone metabolism regulation, renal protection, and anti-cancer. The metabolites produced by deglycosylation of NG-R1 exhibit higher permeability and bioavailability. It has been extensively verified that NG-R1 may ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury in cardiovascular and neuronal systems mainly by upregulating the activity of estrogen receptor α-dependent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2) pathways and downregulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. However, no specific targets for NG-R1 have been identified. Expectedly, NG-R1 has been used as a main bioactive compound in many Traditional Chinese Medicines clinically, such as Xuesaitong, Naodesheng, XueShuanTong, ShenMai, and QSYQ. These suggest that NG-R1 exhibits a significant potency in drug development. 10.2147/DDDT.S240511
Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized, ) Alleviates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Retinopathy in Rats. Li Rui-Lin,Wang Jin-Xin,Chai Li-Juan,Guo Hong,Wang Hong,Chen Lu,Hu Li-Min,Wang Shao-Xia Chinese journal of integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:To investigate the ameliorate effect and underlying mechanism of Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized, , XST) in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) rats. METHODS:Diabetes mellitus (DM) model was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetic rats were randomized into 3 groups (n=10) according to a random number table, including DM, XST50 and XST100 groups. XST treatment groups were daily i.p. injected with 50 or 100 mg/kg XST for 60 days, respectively. The control and DM groups were given i.p. injection with saline. Blood glucose level and body weight were recorded every week. Histological changes in the retina tissues were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Apoptosis and inflammation related factors, including cleaved caspase-3, glial fifibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were detected by Western blot or real-time polymerase chain reaction. Then, the levels of advanced glycation end product (AGE) and its receptor (RAGE) were investigated. Tight junctions proteins (Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), Occludin and Claudin-5) of blood-retinal barrier were detected by Western blot. The levels of retinal fifibrosis, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-Smad2/3 signaling pathway were evaluated at last. RESULTS:There was no signifificant difference in the body weight and blood glucose level between XST and DM groups (P>0.05). Compared with the DM group, XST treatment signifificantly increased the retinal thickness of rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and suppressed cleaved caspase-3 expression (P<0.01). XST increased the protein expressions of ZO-1, Occludin and Claudin-5 and decreased the mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, XST signifificantly reduced the productions of AGE and RAGE proteins in the retina of rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01), suppressed the over-expression of TNF-α, and decreased the elevated level of ICAM-1 in retina of rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). XST signifificantly reduced the levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), TGF-β1 and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 protein in rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS:XST had protective effects on DR with possible mechanisms of inhibiting the inflammation and apoptosis, up-regulating the expression of tight junction proteins, suppressing the productions of AGE and RAGE proteins, and blocking the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. XST treatment might play a role for the future therapeutic strategy against DR. 10.1007/s11655-020-3088-5
Effect of Saponins and Major Anti-Obesity Components on Weight Loss. Zhang Xuelian,Zhang Bin,Zhang Chenyang,Sun Guibo,Sun Xiaobo Frontiers in pharmacology The prevalence of individuals who are overweight or obese is rising rapidly globally. Currently, majority of drugs used to treat obesity are ineffective or are accompanied by obvious side effects; hence, the options are very limited. Therefore, it is necessary to find more effective and safer anti-obesity drugs. It has been proven and that the active ingredient notoginsenosides isolated from traditional Chinese medicine (Burk.) F. H. Chen exhibits anti-obesity effects. Notoginsenosides can treat obesity by reducing lipid synthesis, inhibiting adipogenesis, promoting white adipose tissue browning, increasing energy consumption, and improving insulin sensitivity. Although notoginsenosides are potential drugs for the treatment of obesity, their effects and mechanisms have not been analyzed in depth. In this review, the anti-obesity potential and mechanism of action of notoginsenosides were analyzed; thus laying emphasis on the timely prevention and treatment of obesity. 10.3389/fphar.2020.601751
Exploring the Mechanism of Saponins against Alzheimer's Disease by Network Pharmacology and Experimental Validation. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM BACKGROUND: saponins (PNS) have been used for neurodegenerative disorders such as cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although increasing evidences show the neuron protective effects of PNS, the vital compounds and their functional targets remain elusive. To explore the potential functional ingredients of PNS for the AD treatment and their molecular mechanisms, an neuron injured model induced by A was investigated, and the potential mechanism was predicted by network pharmacology approach and validated by molecular biology methods. METHODS:Network pharmacology approach was used to reveal the relationship between ingredient-target disease and function-pathway of PNS on the treatment of AD. The active ingredients of PNS were collected from TCMSP, PubChem database, and literature mining in PubMed database. DrugBank and GeneCards database were used to predict potential targets for AD. The STRING database was performed to reveal enrichment of these target proteins, protein-protein interactions, and related pathways. Networks were visualized by utilizing Cytoscape software. The enrichment analysis was performed by the DAVID database. Finally, neuroprotective effect and predictive mechanism of PNS were investigated in an AD model established by A -treated PC12 cells. RESULTS:An ingredient-target disease and function-pathway network demonstrated that 38 active ingredients were derived from PNS modulated 364 common targets shared by PNS and AD. GO and KEGG analysis, further clustering analysis, showed that mTOR signaling targets were associated with the neuroprotective effects of PNS. In A-treated PC12 cells, PNS treatment improved neuroprotective effect, including mTOR inhibition and autophagy activation. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, the protective effects of PNS on AD-neuron injury are related to the inhibition of mTOR and autophagy activation. 10.1155/2021/5730812
Saponin Protects Against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Through Lipid Metabolism Modulation. Journal of the American Heart Association Background People with diabetes are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases. Lipotoxicity plays a key role in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. saponin (PNS) has been used to treat diabetes and obesity. However, the role of PNS in diabetic cardiomyopathy remains unclear. Methods and Results Diabetic db/db mice received high-dose (200 mg/kg per day) or medium-dose (100 mg/kg per day) PNS by gavage for 12 weeks until week 36. Lipid accumulation and cardiac function in diabetic mice were detected and possible mechanisms involved were explored. PNS significantly improved body weight, body fat content, serum lipids, adipocytokines, and antioxidative function in db/db mice. Lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, liver, and heart were also alleviated by PNS treatment. Cardiac function and mitochondrial structure were also improved by PNS. H9c2 cells were treated with palmitate acid, and PNS pretreatment reduced lipid accumulation, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, as well as improved mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate. Levels of proteins and expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, antioxidative function, and mitochondrial dynamics were also improved by PNS administration. Conclusions PNS attenuated heart dysfunction in diabetic mice by reducing lipotoxicity as well as modulating oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. 10.1161/JAHA.121.023540
Panax notoginseng saponins prevent colitis-associated colorectal cancer via inhibition IDO1 mediated immune regulation. Chinese journal of natural medicines Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most lethal cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A key driver of CRC development is colon inflammatory responses especially in patients with inflammatory bowl disease (IBD). It has been proved that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor effects. The chemopreventive and immunomodulatory functions of PNS on colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) have not been evaluated.This present study was designed to study the potential protective effects of PNS on AOM/DSS-induced CAC mice to explore the possible mechanism of PNS against CAC. Our study showed that PNS significantly alleviated colitis severity and prevented the occurrence of CAC. Functional assays revealed that PNS relieved immunosuppression of Treg cells in the CAC microenvironment by inhibiting the expression of IDO1 mediated directly by signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) rather than phosphorylated STAT1. Ultimately, Rh1, one of the PNS metabolites, exhibited the best inhibitory effect on IDO1 enzyme activity. Our study showed that PNS exerted significant chemopreventive function and immunomodulatory properties on CAC. It could reduce macrophages accumulation and Treg cells differentiation to reshape the immune microenvironment of CAC. These findings provided a promising approach for CAC intervention. 10.1016/S1875-5364(22)60179-1
Panax notoginseng extract and total saponin suppress diet-induced obesity and endoplasmic reticulum stress in epididymal white adipose tissue in mice. Chinese medicine BACKGROUND:Investigation on protective effects of Panax notoginseng against obesity and its related mechanisms is incomplete. Present study aimed to investigate the potential anti-obesity effect of the total saponins (PNS) and ethanolic extract of P. notoginseng (PNE). METHODS:Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice received 45% kcal fat diet for 12 weeks to induce obesity. Oral administration of PNS and PNE at 20 mg/kg/day was applied for the last 4 weeks in the obese mice. Lipid profile was determined by ELISA. Histological examination was performed in liver and fat tissues. Protein levels were measured by Western blot. RESULTS:PNS and PNE did not cause weight loss. PNE but not PNS decreased the mass of epididymal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue, accompanied by a reduction in adipocyte hypertrophy. PNS and PNE improved lipid profile by reducing the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma or liver samples. PNS and PNE also relieved fatty liver in obese mice. PNS and PNE inhibited expression and phosphorylation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-responsive proteins in hypertrophic adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS:PNS and PNE can regulate ER stress-mediated apoptosis and inflammation to alleviate obesity. 10.1186/s13020-022-00629-0
Uncovering the effect and mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins on metabolic syndrome by network pharmacology strategy. Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of disease centered on obesity, which is the result of stagnation of liver qi according to traditional Chinese medicine. Panax notoginseng is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, entering liver and stomach meridians and dissipating blood stasis, in which panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the main active components. However, its effects and mechanism on metabolic syndrome has not been revealed yet. AIM OF STUDY:To evaluate the anti-MetS effect of PNS, including body weight and adiposity, glucose metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as well as to explore the mechanism and signaling pathway of PNS on MetS effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS:HPLC was utilized to affirm the percentages of saponins in PNS. In vivo, normal C57BL/6J mice and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS mice were used to evaluate anti-MetS effect of PNS. Body weight, food and water intake were recorded. NMR imager was used for NMR imaging and lipid-water analysis. Blood glucose detection, glucose and insulin tolerance test were performed to evaluate glucose metabolism. Biochemical indexes analysis and histopathological staining were used to evaluate the effect on NAFLD. The expressions of mRNA and proteins related to thermogenesis in adipose tissue were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot. In silico, network pharmacology was utilized to predict potential mechanism. In vitro, matured 3T3-L1 adipocyte was used as subject to confirm the signaling pathway by Western blot. RESULTS:We determined the content of PNS component by HPLC. In vivo, PNS could improve metabolic syndrome with weight loss, reduction of adiposity, improvement of adipose distribution, correction of glucose metabolism disorder and attenuation of NAFLD. Mechanismly, PNS boosted energy exhaustion and dramatically enhanced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), induced white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. In silico, utilizing network pharmacology strategy, we identified 307 candidate targets which were enriched in MAPK signaling pathway specifically in liver tissue and adipocyte. In vitro validation confirmed ERK and p38MAPK mediated anti-MetS effects of PNS, not JNK signaling pathway. CONCLUSION:PNS exerted protective effect on metabolic syndrome through MAPK-mediated adipose thermogenic activation, which may serve as a prospective therapeutic drug for metabolic syndrome. 10.1016/j.jep.2022.115680
Analysis of the Renal Protection and Antioxidative Stress Effects of Panax notoginseng Saponins in Diabetic Nephropathy Mice. Journal of immunology research Objective:Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a diabetes-induced chronic complication, is the major trigger of end-stage renal disease. As the main active ingredient of Panax notoginseng (PNG), Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are crucial in treating renal diseases. This study is aimed at investigating the role played by PNS in renal protection and antioxidative stress (OS) in DN mice. Methods:A DN mouse model was constructed, and then low, medium, and high doses of PNS were used to intervene the model group mice. Eight weeks after intervention, the 24 h urine protein (UPro) and urinary albumin (UAlb) were quantitatively examined, and the related blood biochemical indices were measured. HE and PAS staining were performed for pathological changes of renal tissue. ELISA and western blotting were carried out to quantify the levels of OS indexes and inflammatory factors (IFs) in mouse kidney tissues and the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), respectively. Results:The weight of DN mice decreased first compared with control animals and then gradually increased after different doses of PNS treatment. Besides, DN mice presented elevated urine volume, UPro, and UAlb, all of which were reversed by PNS intervention. SOD activity and GSH content in renal tissues of the model group mice decreased markedly versus the control group, and MDA, CRP, IL-6, and TGF-1 contents elevated statistically, while different doses of PNS effectively reduced the OS injury and IFs in mice. Compared with the model group, PNS dose-dependently increased Nrf2 and HO-1 levels in DN mice. Conclusions:PNS is protective of HFF + STZ-induced DN mice against kidney tissue damage and can reduce the excretion of UPro and relieve the OS state of mice, possibly by activating Nrf2/HO-1 axis to play an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role. 10.1155/2022/3610935
The grading quality markers identification of Panax notoginseng under the guidance of traditional experience using untargeted metabolomics and anti-myocardial ischemia evaluation of zebrafish. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Panax notoginseng (PN) was an edible Chinese herbal medicine. PN's current quality control standard cannot precisely match the traditional grading experience. PURPOSE:In this study, under the guidance of the traditional grading experience, the combined metabolomics and biological effect evaluation were used to reveal the distinct chemical quality of PN. METHODS:The quality of PN was evaluated by traditional experience and characterized by the electronic tongue. A zebrafish myocardial ischemia model was developed to verify the grading experience. The untargeted metabolomics method was used to identify and validate the grading markers of PN. RESULTS:The taste was the critical indicator for classifying the quality. Based on the experience sensory scores (ranged from 47.0 to 87.8), PNs could be divided into two grades. The experience scores were significantly associated with umami and richness of the electronic tongue(p<0.01). Besides, superior PN showed substantially stronger anti-myocardial ischemia activity(p<0.001). Thirty-nine differential components were found using UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS, of which 22 were identified. A new kind of grading quality markers alkynols in PN-associated efficacy was identified, which revealed stronger anti-myocardial ischemia activities than saponin. CONCLUSION:This study evaluated PN through untargeted metabolomics and anti-myocardial ischemia evaluation of zebrafish and proposed the critical role of alkynols in PN's quality classification. 10.1016/j.phymed.2023.154674
Study on the regulatory effect of Panax notoginseng saponins combined with bone mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on IRAK1/TRAF6-NF-κB pathway in patients with diabetic cutaneous ulcers. Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research Panax notoginseng saponins (PNSs) have been found as the major active ingredient of Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H.Chen (PN) leaves, which has the effect of reducing inflammatory response, facilitating fibroblast proliferation, as well as promoting angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the molecular basis of PNS combined with bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for treating diabetic cutaneous ulcers (DCU) and its mechanism of action. METHODS:A total of 75 SD rats were selected to make diabetic cutaneous ulcers model. According random number table method, the rats were randomly divided into a control group, a DCU group, a BMSCs group, a PNS group and BMSCs + PNS group. Five groups of rats were given without treatment. After being treated for 7 days, the rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital, and granulation tissue was collected from the central point of the wound. They were used for pathological analysis, Western blot (WB) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. RESULTS:The wound healing area was the largest in the BMSCs + PNS group. HE staining results showed that the PNS + BMSCs group could promote the formation of new epidermis and reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results showed that the PNS + BMSCs group could up-regulate the expression of Ki67 protein and cell proliferation. In addition, PNS combined with BMSCs up-regulated the expression of miR-146-5p and down-regulated the expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, IRAK1, TRAF6 and p65 in the NF-κB signaling pathway (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:PNS combined with bone mesenchymal stem cell transplantation up-regulated miR-146a-5p targeting and binding to IRAK1/TRAF6, inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway, which reduced the inflammatory response of DCU and facilitated the skin healing of DCU. Thus, this study provides a theoretical basis and a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of DFU with PNS combined with BMSCs. 10.1186/s13018-022-03467-w
Panax notoginseng saponins alleviate diabetic retinopathy by inhibiting retinal inflammation: Association with the NF-κB signaling pathway. Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a neurovascular disease that causes blindness in adults and is the most serious and common complication of diabetes mellitus. Retinal inflammation is an early stage of DR, and it is believed to play a crucial role in the development of DR. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the major active constituent in the main root of P. notoginseng, and they exhibit various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory functions. However, the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of PNS against DR remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY:This study aimed to investigate the alleviation effects of PNS on DR and the mechanisms involved. Furthermore, it intended to explore the major components that exert efficacy in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Streptozotocin (STZ) was administered intraperitoneally to Sprague Dawley rats, and PNS was administered orally for 1 month after 2 months of STZ injection. The morphological structure of the retina and retinal acellular capillaries were assessed via hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining assay. The disruption of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was detected through Evans blue dye leakage assay, and retinal leukocyte adhesion was achieved via fluorescein isothiocyanate-coupled concanavalin A lectin labeling assay. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot assays were conducted to detect the expression of tight junction proteins, adhesion molecules, and the ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1) in the retina. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in serum. In addition, the protein expression levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65, phosphorylated IκB kinase (p-IKK), phosphorylated NF-κB inhibitor (p-IκB), and phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (p-p65) were measured using Western blot assay. The ocular tissue distribution of PNS in normal and diabetic rats was determined through ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of PNS, notoginsenoside (NGR1), ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd (GRg1, GRe, GRb1, and GRd) were evaluated on human Müller (MIO-M1) cells. RESULTS:PNS increased the reduction in retinal inner nuclear layer thickness, reduced the increase in retinal acellular capillaries, and attenuated elevated BRB disruption by upregulating the decrease in protein expression of claudin-1 and occludin. Furthermore, PNS significantly abrogated microglial cell activation and reversed the increase in leukocyte adhesion by downregulating the increase in the protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Moreover, PNS reduced the elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in serum and inhibited the increased protein expression of p-IKK, p-IκB, and p-p65, and the nuclear translocation of p65. The tissue distribution results revealed that NGR1, GRg1, GRe, GRb1, and GRd were detected in the ocular tissue, while GRg1 and GRb1 were found at the highest levels compared with the other components. The cellular results showed that PNS, NGR1, GRg1, GRe, GRb1, and GRd suppressed the development of cellular inflammatory responses by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in MIO-M1 cells and that their anti-inflammatory effects were comparable. CONCLUSION:PNS suppressed retinal inflammation by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, alleviating DR. GRg1 and GRb1 may be the primary components that exert anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. 10.1016/j.jep.2023.117135
Ginsenoside Rg3 promotes hepatic stellate cell ferroptosis by epigenetically regulating ACSL4 to suppress liver fibrosis progression. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Ginsenoside Rg3 (G-Rg3), extracted from Panax notoginseng, possesses hepatoprotective properties. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation is responsible for liver fibrosis. Recent studies have reported the suppressive effects of G-Rg3 on HSC activation and proliferation. Ferroptosis is a novel iron regulated cell death. ACSL4, a key indicator of ferroptosis, is commonly methylated in various diseases. PURPOSE:However, the role of ACSL4 methylation-mediated HSC ferroptosis in G-Rg3 inhibition of hepatic fibrosis needs to be explored. METHODS:Effects of G-Rg3 on inhibiting fibrosis were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. The impact of G-Rg3 on HSC ferroptosis was assessed in vitro. Furthermore, the expression of ACSL4, ACSL4 methylation and microRNA-6945-3p (miR-6945-3p) levels were determined. RESULTS:G-Rg3 significantly alleviated CCl-induced liver fibrosis, accompanied by collagen downregulation. In vitro, G-Rg3 contributed to HSC inactivation, leading to decreased collagen production. G-Rg3 induced HSC ferroptosis, characterized by increased iron accumulation, depletion of glutathione, malondialdehyde levels, and generation of lipid reactive oxygen species. Moreover, G-Rg3 promoted ACSL4 demethylation and restored its expression. Notably, DNMT3B counteracted the effect of G-Rg3-mediated inhibition of ACSL4 methylation and was targeted by miR-6945-3p. Further investigations revealed that G-Rg3 suppressed ACSL4 methylation through miR-6945-3p-mediated DNMT3B inhibition. Consistent with this, miR-6945-3p inhibition reversed G-Rg3-induced ACSL4 expression and HSC ferroptosis. CONCLUSION:G-Rg3 inhibits ACSL4 methylation by miR-6945-3p-mediated DNMT3B inhibition, thereby promoting HSC ferroptosis and mitigating liver fibrosis. 10.1016/j.phymed.2023.155289
Notoginsenoside Fc, a novel renoprotective agent, ameliorates glomerular endothelial cells pyroptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy through regulating HMGCS2 pathway. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and the therapeutic strategies for DN are limited. Notoginsenoside Fc (Fc), a novel saponin isolated from Panax Notoginseng (PNG), has been reported to alleviate vascular injury in diabetic rats. However, the protective effects of Fc on DN remain unclear. PURPOSE:To investigate the beneficial effects and mechanisms of Fc on DN. METHODS:Db/db mice were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg·kg·d of Fc for 8 weeks. High glucose (HG) induced mouse glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 μM of Fc for 24 h. RESULTS:Our data found that Fc ameliorated urinary microalbumin level, kidney dysfunction and histopathological damage in diabetic mice. Moreover, Fc alleviated the accumulation of oxidative stress, the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and the expression of mitochondrial fission proteins, such as Drp-1 and Fis1, while increased the expression of mitochondrial fusion protein Mfn2. Fc also decreased pyroptosis-related proteins levels, such as TXNIP, NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1, and GSDMD-NT, indicating that Fc ameliorated GECs pyroptosis. In addition, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) expression was increased in diabetic group, which was partially abrogated by Fc. Our data further proved that knockdown of HMGCS2 could restrain HG-induced GECs mitochondrial dysfunction and pyroptosis. These results indicated that the inhibitory effects of Fc on mitochondrial damage and pyroptosis were associated with the suppression of HMGCS2. CONCLUSION:Taken together, this study clearly demonstrated that Fc ameliorated GECs pyroptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction partly through regulating HMGCS2 pathway, which might provide a novel drug candidate for DN. 10.1016/j.phymed.2024.155445
Notoginsenoside R1 treatment facilitated Nrf2 nuclear translocation to suppress ferroptosis via Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway to alleviated high-altitude myocardial injury. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie High-altitude myocardial injury (HAMI) represents a critical form of altitude illness for which effective drug therapies are generally lacking. Notoginsenoside R1, a prominent constituent derived from Panax notoginseng, has demonstrated various cardioprotective properties in models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy, cardiac fibrosis, and myocardial injury. The potential utility of notoginsenoside R1 in the management of HAMI warrants prompt investigation. Following the successful construction of a HAMI model, a series of experimental analyses were conducted to assess the effects of notoginsenoside R1 at dosages of 50 mg/Kg and 100 mg/Kg. The results indicated that notoginsenoside R1 exhibited protective effects against hypoxic injury by reducing levels of CK, CK-MB, LDH, and BNP, leading to improved cardiac function and decreased incidence of arrhythmias. Furthermore, notoginsenoside R1 was found to enhance Nrf2 nuclear translocation, subsequently regulating the SLC7A11/GPX4/HO-1 pathway and iron metabolism to mitigate ferroptosis, thereby mitigating cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress induced by high-altitude conditions. In addition, the application of ML385 has confirmed the involvement of Nrf2 nuclear translocation in the therapeutic approach to HAMI. Collectively, the advantageous impacts of notoginsenoside R1 on HAMI have been linked to the suppression of ferroptosis via Nrf2 nuclear translocation signaling. 10.1016/j.biopha.2024.116793
Saponins Activate Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 to Inhibit Ferroptosis and Attenuate Inflammatory Injury in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion. The American journal of Chinese medicine saponins (PNS), the primary medicinal ingredient of , mitigates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) by inhibiting inflammation, regulating oxidative stress, promoting angiogenesis, and improving microcirculation. Moreover, PNS activates nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is known to inhibit ferroptosis and reduce inflammation in the rat brain. However, the molecular regulatory roles of PNS in CIRI-induced ferroptosis remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PNS on ferroptosis and inflammation in CIRI. We induced ferroptosis in SH-SY5Y cells via erastin stimulation and oxygen glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R) . Furthermore, we determined the effect of PNS treatment in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion and assessed the underlying mechanism. We also analyzed the changes in the expression of ferroptosis-related proteins and inflammatory factors in the established rat model. OGD/R led to an increase in the levels of ferroptosis markers in SH-SY5Y cells, which were reduced by PNS treatment. In the rat model, combined treatment with an Nrf2 agonist, Nrf2 inhibitor, and PNS-Nrf2 inhibitor confirmed that PNS promotes Nrf2 nuclear localization and reduces ferroptosis and inflammatory responses, thereby mitigating brain injury. Mechanistically, PNS treatment facilitated Nrf2 activation, thereby regulating the expression of iron overload and lipid peroxidation-related proteins and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes. This cascade inhibited ferroptosis and mitigated CIRI. Altogether, these results suggest that the ferroptosis-mediated activation of Nrf2 by PNS reduces inflammation and is a promising therapeutic approach for CIRI. 10.1142/S0192415X24500332
Advancements in research on the effects of panax notoginseng saponin constituents in ameliorating learning and memory disorders. Heliyon Learning and memory disorder is a cluster of symptoms caused by neuronal aging and other diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are a series of saponins derived from the natural active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that have neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system. In this paper, we review the ameliorative effects and mechanisms of Panax notoginseng saponin-like components on learning and memory disorders to provide valuable references and insights for the development of new drugs for the treatment of learning and memory disorders. Our summary results suggest that Panax ginseng saponins have significant effects on improving learning and memory disorders, and these effects and potential mechanisms are mediated by their anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, β-amyloid lowering, mitochondrial homeostasis in vivo, neuronal structure and function improving, neurogenesis promoting, neurotransmitter release regulating, and probiotic homeostasis in vivo activities. These findings suggest the potential of Panax notoginseng saponin-like constituents as drug candidates for improving learning and memory disorders. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e28581