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Engineered Paper-Based Cell Culture Platforms. Lantigua Darlin,Kelly Yan Ni,Unal Baris,Camci-Unal Gulden Advanced healthcare materials Paper is used in various applications in biomedical research including diagnostics, separations, and cell cultures. Paper can be conveniently engineered due to its tunable and flexible nature, and is amenable to high-throughput sample preparation and analysis. Paper-based platforms are used to culture primary cells, tumor cells, patient biopsies, stem cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, immune cells, bacteria, fungi, and plant cells. These platforms are compatible with standard analytical assays that are typically used to monitor cell behavior. Due to its thickness and porous nature, there are no mass transport limitations to/from the cells in paper scaffolds. It is possible to pattern paper in different scales (micrometer to centimeter), generate modular configurations in 3D, fabricate multicellular and compartmentalized tissue mimetics for clinical applications, and recover cells from the scaffolds for further analysis. 3D paper constructs can provide physiologically relevant tissue models for personalized medicine. Layer-by layer strategies to assemble tissue-like structures from low-cost and biocompatible paper-based materials offer unique opportunities that include understanding fundamental biology, developing disease models, and assembling different tissues for organ-on-paper applications. Paper-based platforms can also be used for origami-inspired tissue engineering. This work provides an overview of recent progress in engineered paper-based biomaterials and platforms to culture and analyze cells. 10.1002/adhm.201700619
Biotechnology. Paper Alert. Cass Tony,Dunwell Jim,Wackett Lawrence P,Gilardi Gianfranco,Kost Thomas A,Condreay Patrick,Projan Steven,Hugenholtz Jeroen,Kleerebezem Michiel,Turner Nicholas J,Speight Robert E Current opinion in biotechnology A selection of interesting papers that were published in the two months before our press date in major journals most likely to report significant results in biotechnology.
Mini-review: microbial problems in paper production. Flemming Hans-Curt,Meier Michael,Schild Tobias Biofouling Paper mills are open systems, which provide favorable conditions for microbial growth. Microbial contamination can cause substantial economic losses, including the deterioration of raw materials, interference with production processes by breakdowns and lowering product quality, and eventually, problems in wastewater treatment. Damage is caused by acidification, attack on raw materials, the formation of odorous products, discoloration of pigments, and the formation of methane and hydrogen, thereby producing potentially explosive conditions. Population analyses have revealed that a wide variety of microorganisms are involved, but there appear to be no typical strains associated with paper mills. Current trends in process engineering, such as chlorine-free bleaching, processing at neutral pH, closed cycles, and the use of recycled paper also favor microbial growth and biofilm (slime) formation. A fundamental problem associated with slimes is the extensive matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, which is composed of a large variety of highly hydrated polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. No 'silver bullet' against biofouling can be expected, and effective countermeasures have to be based on holistic approaches. 10.1080/08927014.2013.798865
A Biopharmaceutical Industry Perspective on the Control of Visible Particles in Biotechnology-Derived Injectable Drug Products. Mathonet Serge,Mahler Hanns-Christian,Esswein Stefan T,Mazaheri Maryam,Cash Patricia W,Wuchner Klaus,Kallmeyer Georg,Das Tapan K,Finkler Christof,Lennard Andrew PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology Regulatory monographs in Europe and the United States require drug products for parenteral administration to be "practically free" or "essentially free" of visible particles, respectively. Both terms have been used interchangeably and acknowledge the probabilistic nature of visual particle inspection. The probability of seeing a particle in a drug product container varies according to the size and nature of the particles as well as container and inspection conditions. Therefore, the term "without visible particles" can be highly misleading in the context of what is practically achievable. This may lead to differences in understanding between industry practitioners and regulatory agencies. Is this term intended to mean "zero particles", or is there any intention to distinguish between particle type such as "zero extraneous visible particles" or "zero proteinaceous particles"? Furthermore, how can "zero" particles as a criterion for release testing be reconciled with "practically free from particles" as stated in the definition and a low, justified level of proteinaceous particles after production?The purpose of this position paper is to review best practices in the industry in terms of visual inspection process and associated operator training, quality control sampling, testing, and setting acceptance criteria corresponding to "practically free of visible particles" and providing considerations when visible proteinaceous particles are deemed unavoidable. It also provides a brief overview of visible particle characterization and gives perspectives on patient safety. This position paper applies to biotechnology-derived drug products including monoclonal antibodies in late-phase development to licensed products. LAY ABSTRACT:In the 2011 monoclonal antibody monograph revision, European Pharmacopoeia experts acknowledged that protein products may also contain proteinaceous particles at release or that protein particles may form during storage. Indeed, industry experience has demonstrated that therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies can exhibit a propensity for self-association leading to the formation of aggregates that range in size from nanometres (oligomers) to microns (subvisible and visible particles). As a result, the requirement for drug product appearance for monoclonal antibodies was changed from "without visible particles" to "without visible particles unless otherwise authorised or justified". In our view, "practically free from particles" should be considered a suitable acceptance criterion for injectable biotechnology and small-molecule products, as long as appropriately defined. Furthermore, we argue that visual inspection is a suitable quality control release test and that "practically free from particles" is a suitable specification when adequately described. 10.5731/pdajpst.2015.006189