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Local drug delivery in periodontitis treatment: A review of contemporary literature. Szulc Małgorzata,Zakrzewska Aneta,Zborowski Jacek Dental and medical problems Traditional methods of non-surgical treatment of periodontitis, including mechanical scaling/root planing (SRP), do not guarantee remission of the disease. Local delivery of antimicrobial agents in periodontitis entails antimicrobial therapy placed directly in periodontal pockets. The advantage of this form of treatment is that the concentration of the drug after application significantly exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and persists for up to several weeks. Therefore, many systems of locally applied devices, using a variety of antibiotics or antiseptics have been developed. There is continuous research aimed at introducing new forms of locally administered drugs, some of which have not proved to be effective, while others are promising. For almost 30 years such systems have been used for treatment as an adjuvant to SRP, and their efficacy has been evaluated. The aim of this article is to systematically review the contemporary literature regarding the currently available chemotherapeutics locally administered in the treatment of periodontitis. 10.17219/dmp/94890
Periodontal therapeutics: Current host-modulation agents and future directions. Periodontology 2000 With the recognition in the 1960s and 1970s of the periodontopathic importance of the microbial biofilm and its specific anaerobic microorganisms, periodontitis was treated as an infectious disease (more recently, as a dysbiosis). Subsequently, in the 1980s, host-response mechanisms were identified as the mediators of the destruction of the collagen-rich periodontal tissues (gingiva, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone), and the periodontopathogens were now regarded as the "trigger" of the inflammatory/collagenolytic response that characterizes actively destructive periodontitis. Also at this time a new pharmacologic strategy emerged, entitled "host-modulation therapy", based on 2 major findings: (1) that the ability of tetracycline antibiotics to inhibit periodontal breakdown was due (in large part) to their previously unrecognized ability to inhibit the host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (notably, the collagenases, gelatinases, macrophage metalloelastase), and by mechanisms unrelated to the antimicrobial properties of these medications; and (2) that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as flurbiprofen, again by nonantimicrobial mechanisms, could reduce the severity of periodontitis (however, the adverse effects of long-term therapy precluded their development as safe and effective host-modulatory agents). Additional mechanistic studies resulted in the development of novel nonantimicrobial formulations (Periostat® [now generic] and Oracea®) and compositions of tetracyclines (notably chemically modified tetracycline-3) as host-modulator drugs for periodontitis, arthritis, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, cancer, and, more recently, for local and systemic bone loss in postmenopausal women. Identification of the cation-binding active site in the tetraphenolic chemically modified tetracycline molecules drove the development of a new category of matrix metalloproteinase-inhibitor compounds, with a similar active site, the biphenolic chemically modified curcumins. A lead compound, chemically modified curcumin 2.24, has demonstrated safety and efficacy in vitro, in cell culture, and in vivo in mouse, rat, rabbit, and dog models of disease. In conclusion, novel host-modulation compounds have shown significant promise as adjuncts to traditional local therapy in the clinical management of periodontal disease; appear to reduce systemic complications of this all-too-common "inflammatory/collagenolytic" disease; and Oracea® is now commonly prescribed for inflammatory dermatologic diseases. 10.1111/prd.12315