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A metal ions-mediated natural small molecules carrier-free injectable hydrogel achieving laser-mediated photo-Fenton-like anticancer therapy by synergy apoptosis/cuproptosis/anti-inflammation. Bioactive materials Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in the tumorigenesis, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Thereby developing synergistic anticancer strategies with multiple mechanisms are urgent. Copper is widely used in the treatment of tumor chemodynamic therapy (CDT) due to its excellent laser-mediated photo-Fenton-like reaction. Additionally, copper can induce cell death through cuproptosis, which is a new modality different from the known death mechanisms and has great promise in tumor treatment. Herein, we report a natural small molecules carrier-free injectable hydrogel (NCTD Gel) consisted of Cu-mediated self-assembled glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and norcantharidin (NCTD), which are mainly governed by coordination and hydrogen bonds. Under 808 nm laser irradiation, NCTD Gel can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), consume glutathione (GSH) and overcome hypoxia in TME, leading to synergistically regulate TME via apoptosis, cuproptosis and anti-inflammation. In addition, NCTD Gel's CDT display high selectivity and good biocompatibility as it relies on the weak acidity and HO overexpression of TME. Notably, NCTD Gel's components are originated from clinical agents and its preparation process is easy, green and economical, without any excipients. This study provides a new carrier-free hydrogel synergistic antitumor strategy, which has a good prospect in industrial production and clinical transformation. 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2023.06.018
Polyphenol nanocomplex modulates lactate metabolic reprogramming and elicits immune responses to enhance cancer therapeutic effect. Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy Cancer lactate metabolic reprogramming induces an elevated level of extracellular lactate and H, leading to an acidic immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TEM). High lactic acid level may affect the metabolic programs of various cells that comprise an antitumor immune response, therefore, restricting immune-mediated tumor destruction, and leading to therapeutic resistance and unsatisfactory prognosis. Here, we report a metal-phenolic coordination-based nanocomplex loaded with a natural polyphenol galloflavin, which inhibits the function of lactate dehydrogenase, reducing the production of lactic acid, and alleviating the acidic immunosuppressive TME. Besides, the co-entrapped natural polyphenol carnosic acid and the synthetic PEG-Ce6 polyphenol derivative (serving as a photosensitizer) could induce immunogenic cancer cell death upon laser irradiation, which further activates immune system and promotes immune cell recruitment and infiltration in tumor tissues. We demonstrated that this nanocomplex-based combinational therapy could reshape the TME and elicit immune responses in a murine breast cancer model, which provides a promising strategy to enhance the therapeutic efficiency of drug-resistant breast cancer. 10.1016/j.drup.2024.101060
Coordination Self-Assembled AuTPyP-Cu Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets with pH/Ultrasound Dual-Responsiveness for Synergistically Triggering Cuproptosis-Augmented Chemotherapy. ACS nano Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated tumor cell death is a powerful anticancer strategy. Cuproptosis is a copper-dependent and ROS-mediated prospective tumor therapy strategy. However, the complex tumor microenvironment (TME), low tumor specificity, poor therapy efficiency, and lack of imaging capability impair the therapy output of current cuproptosis drugs. Herein, we designed a dual-responsive two-dimensional metal-organic framework (2D MOF) nanotheranostic via a coordination self-assembly strategy using Au(III) tetra-(4-pyridyl) porphine (AuTPyP) as the ligand and copper ions (Cu) as nodes. The dual-stimulus combined with the protonation of the pyridyl group in AuTPyP and deep-penetration ultrasound (US) together triggered the controlled release in an acidic TME. The ultrathin structure (3.0 nm) of nanotheranostics promoted the release process. The released Cu was reduced to Cu by depleting the overexpressed glutathione (GSH) in the tumor, which not only activated the Ferredoxin 1 (FDX1)-mediated cuproptosis but also catalyzed the overexpressed hydrogen peroxide (HO) in the tumor into reactive oxygen species via Fenton-like reaction. Simultaneously, the released AuTPyP could specifically bind with thioredoxin reductase and activate the redox imbalance of tumor cells. These together selectively induced significant mitochondrial vacuoles and prominent tumor cell death but did not damage the normal cells. The fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results verified this nanotheranostic could target the HeLa tumor to greatly promote the self-enhanced effect of chemotherapy/cuproptosis and tumor inhibition efficiency. The work helped to elucidate the controlled assembly of multiresponsive nanotheranostics and the high-specificity ROS regulation for application in anticancer therapy. 10.1021/acsnano.3c13225
A Tumor-Targeting Metal-Organic Nanoparticle Constructed by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry toward Accurately Redressing Carcinogenic Wnt Cascade. Liu Tianya,Yan Jin,He Chenchen,You Weiming,Ma Fang,Chang Zhuo,Li Yong,Han Suxia,He Wangxiao,Liu Wenjia Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) Targeted and immunological therapy have revolutionized the malignancy treatment, but is suffering from the dose-limiting side effects and inadequate responsiveness. The emerging nanoscale infinite coordination polymers provide a feasible strategy for tumor targeting and immune sensitization. Herein, a "one-pot" self-assembled strategy based on dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) principle is designed to construct a tumor-targeting metal-organic nanoparticle (MOICP) through a spontaneous co-assembling among three metal-organic coordination polymers tuned by a Wnt-inhibitor carnosic acid (CA). Responding to the tumor microenvironment, MOICP presents an optimized tumor-preferential accumulation and the satisfactory biosafety. MOICP is more active in vitro and in vivo than CA in suppressing of Wnt signaling pathway, and potently inhibits tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft model of Wnt-activated pancreatic carcinoma. Moreover, MOICP reverses the lack of intratumoral infiltration of T lymphocytes, and hence augments the action of Anti-PD1 (programmed cell death protein 1) immunotherapy in B16F10 melanoma allograft mice model. This clinically viable MOICP can not only be applied to Wnt inhibition for cancer targeted therapy and immunotherapeutic sensitization, but also provides a de novo pattern for nanomedicine architecture with cargo-initiated co-self-assembly guided by DCC, thereby bringing new inspiration in general for disease intervention. 10.1002/smll.202104849
Engineering Radiosensitizer-Based Metal-Phenolic Networks Potentiate STING Pathway Activation for Advanced Radiotherapy. Yan Jie,Wang Guohao,Xie Lisi,Tian Hao,Li Jie,Li Bei,Sang Wei,Li Wenxi,Zhang Zhan,Dai Yunlu Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Radiotherapy, a mainstay of first-line cancer treatment, suffers from its high-dose radiation-induced systemic toxicity and radioresistance caused by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The synergy between radiosensitization and immunomodulation may overcome these obstacles for advanced radiotherapy. Here, the authors propose a radiosensitization cooperated with stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway activation strategy by fabricating a novel lanthanide-doped radiosensitizer-based metal-phenolic network, NaGdF :Nd@NaLuF @PEG-polyphenol/Mn (DSPM). The amphiphilic PEG-polyphenol successfully coordinates with NaGdF :Nd@NaLuF (radiosensitizer) and Mn via robust metal-phenolic coordination. After cell internalization, the pH-responsive disassembly of DSPM triggers the release of their payloads, wherein radiosensitizer sensitizes cancer cells to X-ray and Mn promote STING pathway activation. This radiosensitizer-based DSPM remarkably benefits dendritic cell maturation, anticancer therapeutics in primary tumors, accompanied by robust systemic immune therapeutic performance against metastatic tumors. Therefore, a powerful radiosensitization with STING pathway activation mediated immunostimulation strategy is highlighted here to optimize cancer radiotherapy. 10.1002/adma.202105783
Tumor Microenvironment Responsive Shape-Reversal Self-Targeting Virus-Inspired Nanodrug for Imaging-Guided Near-Infrared-II Photothermal Chemotherapy. Li Yang,Lin Jinyan,Wang Peiyuan,Luo Qiang,Lin Huirong,Zhang Yun,Hou Zhenqing,Liu Jingfeng,Liu Xiaolong ACS nano Tumor microenvironment responsive multimodal synergistic theranostic strategies can significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy while avoiding severe side effects. Inspired by the fact that special morphology could enhance photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) and cellular delivery, we developed an acidic tumor microenvironment responsive shape-reversal metal-organic virus-inspired nanodrug for enhancing near-infrared (NIR)-II PCE, increasing cell adhesion, and activating tumor targeting. First, a NIR-I fluorescence probe (IR825), a chemo-drug (pemetrexed, PEM), and a rare-earth metal ion (Nd(III)) were chosen to synthesize a virus-like nanodrug coordination-driven assembly. Then, the spike-like surface of the nanodrug was further camouflaged by an acidity-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol) "shell" to create virus-core and sphere-shell hierarchical nanoassemblies, which could efficiently prevent immune clearance and prolong systemic circulation. Interestingly, the acidic tumor microenvironment could trigger the shell detachment of nanoassemblies for shape reversal to produce a virus-like surface followed by re-exposure of PEM to synergistically amplify the cellular internalization while enhancing NIR-II PCE. By utilizing the shell-detached virus-like nanodrug core, the tumor microenvironment specific enhanced NIR-II photothermal chemotherapy can be realized under the precise guidance of fluorescence/photoacoustic imaging, thereby achieving complete tumor elimination without recurrence in a single treatment cycle. We envision that integrating the tumor microenvironment responsive ability with  "sphere-to-virus" shape reversal will provide a promising strategy for biomimetic targeted cancer therapy. 10.1021/acsnano.9b05425
Tumor Microenvironment-Activated NIR-II Nanotheranostic System for Precise Diagnosis and Treatment of Peritoneal Metastasis. Ling Sisi,Yang Xiaohu,Li Chunyan,Zhang Yejun,Yang Hongchao,Chen Guangcun,Wang Qiangbin Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) Activatable theranostic systems show potential for improved tumor diagnosis and therapy owing to high detection specificities, effective ablation, and minimal side-effects. Herein, a tumor microenvironment (TME)-activated NIR-II nanotheranostic system (FEAD1) for precise diagnosis and treatment of peritoneal metastases is presented. FEAD1 was fabricated by self-assembling the peptide Fmoc-His, mercaptopropionic-functionalized Ag S quantum dots (MPA-Ag S QDs), the chemodrug doxorubicin (DOX), and NIR absorber A1094 into nanoparticles. We show that in healthy tissue, FEAD1 exists in an NIR-II fluorescence "off" state, because of Ag S QDs-A1094 interactions, while DOX remains in stealth mode. Upon delivery of FEAD1 to the tumor, the acidic TME triggers its disassembly through breakage of the Fmoc-His metal coordination and DOX hydrophobic interactions. Release of A1094 switches on Ag S fluorescence, illuminating the tumor, accompanied by burst release of DOX within the tumor tissue, thereby achieving precise tumor theranostics. This TME-activated theranostic strategy holds great promise for future clinical applications. 10.1002/anie.202000947
Collagenase-Encapsulated pH-Responsive Nanoscale Coordination Polymers for Tumor Microenvironment Modulation and Enhanced Photodynamic Nanomedicine. Liu Jingjing,Tian Longlong,Zhang Rui,Dong Ziliang,Wang Hairong,Liu Zhuang ACS applied materials & interfaces The abundant tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) could result in insufficient tumor retention and ineffective intratumor penetration of therapeutic agents as well as an acidic and hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME), leading to unsatisfactory therapeutic outcomes for many types of therapies. Therefore, developing strategies to modulate the TME by selectively degrading the condensed ECM may be helpful to improve existing cancer therapies. Herein, collagenase (CLG)-encapsulated nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) are synthesized based on Mn and an acid-sensitive benzoic-imine organic linker and then modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG). Upon intravenous (iv) injection, these CLG@NCP-PEG nanoparticles show efficient accumulation within the tumor, in which CLG would be released because of the collapse of NCP structures within the acidic TME. The released CLG enzyme could then specifically degrade collagens, the major component of ECM, leading to a loosened ECM structure, enhanced tumor perfusion, and relieved hypoxia. As a result, the second wave of nanoparticles, chlorin e6 (Ce6)-loaded liposomes (liposome@Ce6), would exhibit enhanced retention and penetration within the tumor. Such phenomena together with relieved tumor hypoxia could then lead to greatly enhanced photodynamic therapeutic effect of liposome@Ce6 for mice pretreated with CLG@NCP-PEG. Our work thus presents a unique strategy for TME modulation using pH-responsive NCPs as smart enzyme carriers. 10.1021/acsami.8b17684