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Post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation immune-mediated anemia: a literature review and novel therapeutics. Blood advances Anemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be immune or non-immune mediated. Auto- or alloimmunity resulting from blood group incompatibility remains an important cause in post-HSCT immune-mediated anemia. ABO incompatibility is commonly encountered in HSCT and may lead to serious clinical complications, including acute hemolysis, pure red cell aplasia, and passenger lymphocyte syndrome. It remains controversial whether ABO incompatibility may affect HSCT outcomes, such as relapse, nonrelapse mortality, graft-versus-host disease, and survival. Non-ABO incompatibility is less frequently encountered but can have similar complications to ABO incompatibility, causing adverse clinical outcomes. It is crucial to identify the driving etiology of post-HSCT anemia in order to prevent and treat this condition. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of anemia in blood group-incompatible HSCT and the temporal association between HSCT and anemia. In this review, we summarize the literature on post-HSCT immune-mediated anemia with a focus on ABO and non-ABO blood group incompatibility, describe the underlying mechanism of anemia, and outline preventive and treatment approaches. 10.1182/bloodadvances.2021006279