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Nrf2 activation reprograms macrophage intermediary metabolism and suppresses the type I interferon response. iScience To overcome oxidative, inflammatory, and metabolic stress, cells have evolved cytoprotective protein networks controlled by nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its negative regulator, Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1). Here, using high-resolution mass spectrometry we characterize the proteomes of macrophages with altered Nrf2 status revealing significant differences among the genotypes in metabolism and redox homeostasis, which were validated with respirometry and metabolomics. Nrf2 affected the proteome following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, with alterations in redox, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and innate immunity. Notably, Nrf2 activation promoted mitochondrial fusion. The Keap1 inhibitor, 4-octyl itaconate remodeled the inflammatory macrophage proteome, increasing redox and suppressing type I interferon (IFN) response. Similarly, pharmacologic or genetic Nrf2 activation inhibited the transcription of IFN-β and its downstream effector IFIT2 during LPS stimulation. These data suggest that Nrf2 activation facilitates metabolic reprogramming and mitochondrial adaptation, and finetunes the innate immune response in macrophages. 10.1016/j.isci.2022.103827
Suppression of myeloid PFKFB3-driven glycolysis protects mice from choroidal neovascularization. British journal of pharmacology BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Pathological angiogenesis is a major cause of irreversible blindness in individuals with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Macrophages and microglia (MΦ) contribute to aberrant ocular angiogenesis. However, the role of glucose metabolism of MΦ in nAMD is still undefined. Here, we have investigated the involvement of glycolysis, driven by the kinase/phosphatase PFKFB3, in the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:CNV was induced in mice with laser photocoagulation. Choroid/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) complexes and MΦ were isolated for analysis by qRT-PCR, western blot, flow cytometry, immunostaining, metabolic measurements and angiogenesis assays. KEY RESULTS:MΦ accumulated within the CNV of murine nAMD models and expressed high levels of glycolysis-related enzymes and M1/M2 polarization markers. This phenotype of hyper-glycolytic and activated MΦ was replicated in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated by necrotic RPE in vitro. Myeloid cell-specific knockout of PFKFB3, a key glycolytic activator, attenuated pathological neovascularization in laser-induced CNV, which was associated with decreased expression of MΦ polarization markers and pro-angiogenic factors, along with decreased sprouting of vessels in choroid/RPE complexes. Mechanistically, necrotic RPE increased PFKFB3-driven glycolysis in macrophages, leading to activation of HIF-1α/HIF-2α and NF-κB, and subsequent induction of M1/M2 markers and pro-angiogenic cytokines, finally promoting macrophage reprogramming towards an angiogenic phenotype to facilitate development of CNV. The PFKFB3 inhibitor AZ67 also inhibited activation of HIF-1α/HIF-2α and NF-κB signalling and almost completely prevented laser-induced CNV in mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Modulation of PFKFB3-mediated macrophage glycolysis and activation is a promising strategy for the treatment of nAMD. 10.1111/bph.15925
Mitochondrial STAT3 exacerbates LPS-induced sepsis by driving CPT1a-mediated fatty acid oxidation. Li Rongqing,Li Xueqin,Zhao Jie,Meng Fandong,Yao Chen,Bao Ensi,Sun Na,Chen Xin,Cheng Wanpeng,Hua Hui,Li Xiangyang,Wang Bo,Wang Hui,Pan Xiucheng,You Hongjuan,Yang Jing,Ikezoe Takayuki Theranostics We found that a subset of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) translocated into mitochondria in phagocytes, including macrophages isolated from individuals with sepsis. However, the role of mitochondrial STAT3 in macrophages remains unclear. To investigate the function of mitochondrial STAT3 , we generated inducible mitochondrial STAT3 knock-in mice. A cytokine array analysis, a CBA analysis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining and quantification and metabolic analyses were subsequently performed in an LPS-induced sepsis model. Single-cell RNA sequencing, a microarray analysis, metabolic assays, mass spectrometry and ChIP assays were utilized to gain insight into the mechanisms of mitochondrial STAT3 in metabolic reprogramming in LPS-induced sepsis. We found that mitochondrial STAT3 induced NF-κB nuclear localization and exacerbated LPS-induced sepsis in parallel with a metabolic switch from mainly using glucose to an increased reliance on fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Moreover, mitochondrial STAT3 abrogated carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a) ubiquitination and degradation in LPS-treated macrophages. Meanwhile, an interaction between CPT1a and ubiquitin-specific peptidase 50 (USP50) was observed. In contrast, knocking down USP50 decreased CPT1a expression and FAO mediated by mitochondrial STAT3. The ChIP assays revealed that NF-κB bound the USP50 promoter. Curcumin alleviated LPS-mediated sepsis by suppressing the activities of mitochondrial STAT3 and NF-κB. Our findings reveal that mitochondrial STAT3 could trigger FAO by inducing CPT1a stabilization mediated by USP50 in macrophages, at least partially. 10.7150/thno.63751
Pyruvate kinase M2 regulates Hif-1α activity and IL-1β induction and is a critical determinant of the warburg effect in LPS-activated macrophages. Cell metabolism Macrophages activated by the TLR4 agonist LPS undergo dramatic changes in their metabolic activity. We here show that LPS induces expression of the key metabolic regulator Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2). Activation of PKM2 using two well-characterized small molecules, DASA-58 and TEPP-46, inhibited LPS-induced Hif-1α and IL-1β, as well as the expression of a range of other Hif-1α-dependent genes. Activation of PKM2 attenuated an LPS-induced proinflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype while promoting traits typical of an M2 macrophage. We show that LPS-induced PKM2 enters into a complex with Hif-1α, which can directly bind to the IL-1β promoter, an event that is inhibited by activation of PKM2. Both compounds inhibited LPS-induced glycolytic reprogramming and succinate production. Finally, activation of PKM2 by TEPP-46 in vivo inhibited LPS and Salmonella typhimurium-induced IL-1β production, while boosting production of IL-10. PKM2 is therefore a critical determinant of macrophage activation by LPS, promoting the inflammatory response. 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.12.005
MyD88-dependent signaling drives toll-like receptor-induced trained immunity in macrophages. Frontiers in immunology Immunocompromised populations are highly vulnerable to developing life-threatening infections. Strategies to protect patients with weak immune responses are urgently needed. Employing trained immunity, whereby innate leukocytes undergo reprogramming upon exposure to a microbial product and respond more robustly to subsequent infection, is a promising approach. Previously, we demonstrated that the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) induces trained immunity and confers broad resistance to infection. TLR4 signals through both MyD88- and TRIF-dependent cascades, but the relative contribution of each pathway to induction of trained immunity is unknown. Here, we show that MPLA-induced resistance to infection is lost in MyD88-KO, but not TRIF-KO, mice. The MyD88-activating agonist CpG (TLR9 agonist), but not TRIF-activating Poly I:C (TLR3 agonist), protects against infection in a macrophage-dependent manner. MPLA- and CpG-induced augmentation of macrophage metabolism and antimicrobial functions is blunted in MyD88-, but not TRIF-KO, macrophages. Augmentation of antimicrobial functions occurs in parallel to metabolic reprogramming and is dependent, in part, on mTOR activation. Splenic macrophages from CpG-treated mice confirmed that TLR/MyD88-induced reprogramming occurs . TLR/MyD88-triggered metabolic and functional reprogramming was reproduced in human monocyte-derived macrophages. These data show that MyD88-dependent signaling is critical in TLR-mediated trained immunity. 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1044662
Macrophage metabolic reprogramming aggravates aortic dissection through the HIF1α-ADAM17 pathway. Lian Guan,Li Xiaopeng,Zhang Linqi,Zhang Yangming,Sun Lulu,Zhang Xiujuan,Liu Huiying,Pang Yanli,Kong Wei,Zhang Tao,Wang Xian,Jiang Changtao EBioMedicine BACKGROUND:Aortic dissection is a severe inflammatory vascular disease with high mortality and limited therapeutic options. The hallmarks of aortic dissection comprise aortic inflammatory cell infiltration and elastic fiber disruption, highlighting the involvement of macrophage. Here a role for macrophage hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) in aortic dissection was uncovered. METHODS:Immunochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot and qPCR were performed to test the change of macrophage HIF-1α in two kinds of aortic dissection models and human tissues. Metabolomics and Seahorse extracellular flux analysis were used to detect the metabolic state of macrophages involved in the development of aortic dissection. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and cytometric bead array (CBA) were employed for mechanistic studies. FINDINGS:Macrophages involved underwent distinct metabolic reprogramming, especially fumarate accumulation, thus inducing HIF-1α activation in the development of aortic dissection in human and mouse models. Mechanistic studies revealed that macrophage HIF-1α activation triggered vascular inflammation, extracellular matrix degradation and elastic plate breakage through increased a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17), identified as a novel target gene of HIF-1α. A HIF-1α specific inhibitor acriflavine elicited protective effects on aortic dissection dependent on macrophage HIF-1α. INTERPRETATION:This study reveals that macrophage metabolic reprogramming activates HIF-1α and subsequently promotes aortic dissection progression, suggesting that macrophage HIF-1α inhibition might be a potential therapeutic target for treating aortic dissection. 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.09.041
Arachidonic Acid Metabolism Controls Macrophage Alternative Activation Through Regulating Oxidative Phosphorylation in PPARγ Dependent Manner. Xu Miao,Wang Xiaohong,Li Yongning,Geng Xue,Jia Xudong,Zhang Lishi,Yang Hui Frontiers in immunology Macrophage polarization is mainly steered by metabolic reprogramming in the tissue microenvironment, thus leading to distinct outcomes of various diseases. However, the role of lipid metabolism in the regulation of macrophage alternative activation is incompletely understood. Using human THP-1 and mouse bone marrow derived macrophage polarization models, we revealed a pivotal role for arachidonic acid metabolism in determining the phenotype of M2 macrophages. We demonstrated that macrophage M2 polarization was inhibited by arachidonic acid, but inversely facilitated by its derived metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Furthermore, PPARγ bridges these two seemingly unrelated processes modulating oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Through inhibiting PPARγ, PGE2 enhanced OXPHOS, resulting in the alternative activation of macrophages, which was counterweighted by the activation of PPARγ. This connection between PGE2 biosynthesis and macrophage M2 polarization also existed in human and mouse esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Our results highlight the critical role of arachidonic acid and metabolic PGE2 as immune regulators in modulating tissue homeostasis and pathological process. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.618501
Nimbolide targeting SIRT1 mitigates intervertebral disc degeneration by reprogramming cholesterol metabolism and inhibiting inflammatory signaling. Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B Inflammation, abnormal cholesterol metabolism, and macrophage infiltration are involved in the destruction of the extracellular matrix of the nucleus pulposus (NP), culminating in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Whether nimbolide (Nim), a natural extract, can alleviate IDD is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Nim promotes cholesterol efflux and inhibits the activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways by activating sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) during inflammation. Thus, Nim balanced matrix anabolism and catabolism of NPCs. However, the inhibition of SIRT1 significantly attenuated the effects of Nim. We also found that Nim promoted the expression of SIRT1 in RAW 264.7, which enhanced the proportion of M2 macrophages by facilitating cholesterol homeostasis reprogramming and impeded M1-like macrophages polarization by blocking the activation of inflammatory signaling. Based on these results, Nim can improve the microenvironment and facilitate matrix metabolism equilibrium in NPCs. Furthermore, treatment with Nim delayed IDD progression by boosting SIRT1 expression, modulating macrophage polarization and preserving the extracellular matrix. In conclusion, Nim may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for treating IDD. 10.1016/j.apsb.2023.02.018
Choline metabolism underpins macrophage IL-4 polarization and RELMα up-regulation in helminth infection. PLoS pathogens Type 2 cytokines like IL-4 are hallmarks of helminth infection and activate macrophages to limit immunopathology and mediate helminth clearance. In addition to cytokines, nutrients and metabolites critically influence macrophage polarization. Choline is an essential nutrient known to support normal macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide; however, its function in macrophages polarized by type 2 cytokines is unknown. Using murine IL-4-polarized macrophages, targeted lipidomics revealed significantly elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine, with select changes to other choline-containing lipid species. These changes were supported by the coordinated up-regulation of choline transport compared to naïve macrophages. Pharmacological inhibition of choline metabolism significantly suppressed several mitochondrial transcripts and dramatically inhibited select IL-4-responsive transcripts, most notably, Retnla. We further confirmed that blocking choline metabolism diminished IL-4-induced RELMα (encoded by Retnla) protein content and secretion and caused a dramatic reprogramming toward glycolytic metabolism. To better understand the physiological implications of these observations, naïve or mice infected with the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus were treated with the choline kinase α inhibitor, RSM-932A, to limit choline metabolism in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of choline metabolism lowered RELMα expression across cell-types and tissues and led to the disappearance of peritoneal macrophages and B-1 lymphocytes and an influx of infiltrating monocytes. The impaired macrophage activation was associated with some loss in optimal immunity to H. polygyrus, with increased egg burden. Together, these data demonstrate that choline metabolism is required for macrophage RELMα induction, metabolic programming, and peritoneal immune homeostasis, which could have important implications in the context of other models of infection or cancer immunity. 10.1371/journal.ppat.1011658
Transcription factor Zhx2 is a checkpoint that programs macrophage polarization and antitumor response. Cell death and differentiation Macrophages are usually educated to tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in cancer with pro-tumor functions by tumor microenvironment (TME) and TAM reprogramming has been proposed as a potential tumor immunotherapy strategy. We recently demonstrated the critical role of Zinc-fingers and homeoboxes 2 (Zhx2) in macrophages' metabolic programming. However, whether Zhx2 is responsible for macrophage polarization and TAMs reprogramming is largely unknown. Here, we show that Zhx2 controls macrophage polarization under the inflammatory stimulus and TME. Myeloid-specific deletion of Zhx2 suppresses LPS-induced proinflammatory polarization but promotes IL-4 and TME-induced anti-inflammatory and pro-tumoral phenotypes in murine liver tumor models. Factors in TME, especially lactate, markedly decrease the expression of Zhx2 in TAMs, leading to the switch of TAMs to pro-tumor phenotype and consequent cancer progression. Notably, reduced ZHX2 expression in TAM correlates with poor survival of HCC patients. Mechanistic studies reveal that Zhx2 associates with NF-κB p65 and binds to the Irf1 promoter, leading to transcriptional activation of Irf1 in macrophages. Zhx2 functions in maintaining macrophage polarization by regulating Irf1 transcription, which may be a potential target for macrophage-based cancer immunotherapy. 10.1038/s41418-023-01202-4
IL-33-induced metabolic reprogramming controls the differentiation of alternatively activated macrophages and the resolution of inflammation. Faas Maria,Ipseiz Natacha,Ackermann Jochen,Culemann Stephan,Grüneboom Anika,Schröder Fenja,Rothe Tobias,Scholtysek Carina,Eberhardt Martin,Böttcher Martin,Kirchner Philipp,Stoll Cornelia,Ekici Arif,Fuchs Maximilian,Kunz Meik,Weigmann Benno,Wirtz Stefan,Lang Roland,Hofmann Joerg,Vera Julio,Voehringer David,Michelucci Alessandro,Mougiakakos Dimitrios,Uderhardt Stefan,Schett Georg,Krönke Gerhard Immunity Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) contribute to the resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. However, molecular pathways that govern their differentiation have remained incompletely understood. Here, we show that uncoupling protein-2-mediated mitochondrial reprogramming and the transcription factor GATA3 specifically controlled the differentiation of pro-resolving AAMs in response to the alarmin IL-33. In macrophages, IL-33 sequentially triggered early expression of pro-inflammatory genes and subsequent differentiation into AAMs. Global analysis of underlying signaling events revealed that IL-33 induced a rapid metabolic rewiring of macrophages that involved uncoupling of the respiratory chain and increased production of the metabolite itaconate, which subsequently triggered a GATA3-mediated AAM polarization. Conditional deletion of GATA3 in mononuclear phagocytes accordingly abrogated IL-33-induced differentiation of AAMs and tissue repair upon muscle injury. Our data thus identify an IL-4-independent and GATA3-dependent pathway in mononuclear phagocytes that results from mitochondrial rewiring and controls macrophage plasticity and the resolution of inflammation. 10.1016/j.immuni.2021.09.010
SLC3A2 promotes tumor-associated macrophage polarization through metabolic reprogramming in lung cancer. Cancer science Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are one of the most abundant immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment and possess crucial functions in facilitating tumor progression. Emerging evidence indicates that altered metabolic properties in cancer cells support the tumorigenic functions of TAMs. However, the mechanisms and mediators the underly the cross-talk between cancer cells and TAMs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we revealed that high solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2) expression in lung cancer patients was associated with TAMs and poor prognosis. Knockdown of SLC3A2 in lung adenocarcinoma cells impaired M2 polarization of macrophages in a coculture system. Using metabolome analysis, we identified that SLC3A2 knockdown altered the metabolism of lung cancer cells and changed multiple metabolites, including arachidonic acid, in the tumor microenvironment. More importantly, we showed that arachidonic acid was responsible for SLC3A2-mediated macrophage polarization in the tumor microenvironment to differentiate into M2 type both in vitro and in vivo. Our data illustrate previously undescribed mechanisms responsible for TAM polarization and suggest that SLC3A2 acts as a metabolic switch on lung adenocarcinoma cells to induce macrophage phenotypic reprogramming through arachidonic acid. 10.1111/cas.15760
Elp3-mediated codon-dependent translation promotes mTORC2 activation and regulates macrophage polarization. The EMBO journal Macrophage polarization is a process whereby macrophages acquire distinct effector states (M1 or M2) to carry out multiple and sometimes opposite functions. We show here that translational reprogramming occurs during macrophage polarization and that this relies on the Elongator complex subunit Elp3, an enzyme that modifies the wobble uridine base U34 in cytosolic tRNAs. Elp3 expression is downregulated by classical M1-activating signals in myeloid cells, where it limits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via FoxO1 phosphorylation, and attenuates experimental colitis in mice. In contrast, alternative M2-activating signals upregulate Elp3 expression through a PI3K- and STAT6-dependent signaling pathway. The metabolic reprogramming linked to M2 macrophage polarization relies on Elp3 and the translation of multiple candidates, including the mitochondrial ribosome large subunit proteins Mrpl3, Mrpl13, and Mrpl47. By promoting translation of its activator Ric8b in a codon-dependent manner, Elp3 also regulates mTORC2 activation. Elp3 expression in myeloid cells further promotes Wnt-driven tumor initiation in the intestine by maintaining a pool of tumor-associated macrophages exhibiting M2 features. Collectively, our data establish a functional link between tRNA modifications, mTORC2 activation, and macrophage polarization. 10.15252/embj.2021109353
A novel role for the ROS-ATM-Chk2 axis mediated metabolic and cell cycle reprogramming in the M1 macrophage polarization. Redox biology Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in macrophage-mediated acute inflammation. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which ROS regulate macrophage polarization remains unclear. Here, we show that ROS function as signaling molecules that regulate M1 macrophage polarization through ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), vital effector kinases in the DNA damage response (DDR) signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that Chk2 phosphorylates PKM2 at the T95 and T195 sites, promoting glycolysis and facilitating macrophage M1 polarization. In addition, Chk2 activation increases the Chk2-dependent expression of p21, inducing cell cycle arrest for subsequent macrophage M1 polarization. Finally, Chk2-deficient mice infected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) display a significant decrease in lung inflammation and M1 macrophage counts. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibiting the ROS-Chk2 axis can prevent the excessive inflammatory activation of macrophages, and this pathway can be targeted to develop a novel therapy for inflammation-associated diseases and expand our understanding of the pathophysiological functions of DDR in innate immunity. 10.1016/j.redox.2024.103059