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Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism. Nambara Eiji,Marion-Poll Annie Annual review of plant biology The level of abscisic acid (ABA) in any particular tissue in a plant is determined by the rate of biosynthesis and catabolism of the hormone. Therefore, identifying all the genes involved in the metabolism is essential for a complete understanding of how this hormone directs plant growth and development. To date, almost all the biosynthetic genes have been identified through the isolation of auxotrophic mutants. On the other hand, among several ABA catabolic pathways, current genomic approaches revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A genes encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases, which catalyze the first committed step in the predominant ABA catabolic pathway. Identification of ABA metabolic genes has revealed that multiple metabolic steps are differentially regulated to fine-tune the ABA level at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Furthermore, recent ongoing studies have given new insights into the regulation and site of ABA metabolism in relation to its physiological roles. 10.1146/annurev.arplant.56.032604.144046
Abscisic acid: biosynthesis, inactivation, homoeostasis and signalling. Dong Ting,Park Youngmin,Hwang Inhwan Essays in biochemistry The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in numerous physiological processes during plant growth and abiotic stress responses. The endogenous ABA level is controlled by complex regulatory mechanisms involving biosynthesis, catabolism, transport and signal transduction pathways. This complex regulatory network may target multiple levels, including transcription, translation and post-translational regulation of genes involved in ABA responses. Most of the genes involved in ABA biosynthesis, catabolism and transport have been characterized. The local ABA concentration is critical for initiating ABA-mediated signalling during plant development and in response to environmental changes. In this chapter we discuss the mechanisms that regulate ABA biosynthesis, catabolism, transport and homoeostasis. We also present the findings of recent research on ABA perception by cellular receptors, and ABA signalling in response to cellular and environmental conditions. 10.1042/bse0580029
ABA and cytokinins: challenge and opportunity for plant stress research. Verslues Paul E Plant molecular biology Accumulation of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces many cellular mechanisms associated with drought resistance. Recent years have seen a rapid advance in our knowledge of how increased ABA levels are perceived by ABA receptors, particularly the PYL/RCAR receptors, but there has been relatively less new information about how ABA accumulation is controlled and matched to stress severity. ABA synthesis and catabolism, conjugation and deconjugation to glucose, and ABA transport all are involved in controlling ABA levels. This highly buffered system of ABA metabolism represents both a challenge and opportunity in developing a mechanistic understanding of how plants detect and respond to drought. Recent data have also shown that direct manipulation of cytokinin levels in transgenic plants has dramatic effect on drought phenotypes and prompted new interest in the role of cytokinins and cytokinin signaling in drought. Both ABA and cytokinins will continue to be major foci of drought research but likely with different trajectories both in terms of basic research and in translational research aimed at increasing plant performance during drought. 10.1007/s11103-016-0458-7
Decoding ABA and osmostress signalling in plants from an evolutionary point of view. Komatsu Kenji,Takezawa Daisuke,Sakata Yoichi Plant, cell & environment The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is fundamental for land plant adaptation to water-limited conditions. Osmostress, such as drought, induces ABA accumulation in angiosperms, triggering physiological responses such as stomata closure. The core components of angiosperm ABA signalling are soluble ABA receptors, group A protein phosphatase type 2C and SNF1-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2). ABA also has various functions in non-angiosperms, however, suggesting that its role in adaptation to land may not have been angiosperm-specific. Indeed, among land plants, the core ABA signalling components are evolutionarily conserved, implying their presence in a common ancestor. Results of ongoing functional genomics studies of ABA signalling components in bryophytes and algae have expanded our understanding of the evolutionary role of ABA signalling, with genome sequencing uncovering the ABA core module even in algae. In this review, we describe recent discoveries involving the ABA core module in non-angiosperms, tracing the footprints of how ABA evolved as a phytohormone. We also cover the latest findings on Raf-like kinases as upstream regulators of the core ABA module component SnRK2. Finally, we discuss the origin of ABA signalling from an evolutionary perspective. 10.1111/pce.13869
Desensitization of ABA-Signaling: The Swing From Activation to Degradation. Ali Akhtar,Pardo Jose M,Yun Dae-Jin Frontiers in plant science Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key plant stress-signaling hormone that accumulates upon osmotic stresses such as drought and high salinity. Several proteins have been identified that constitute the ABA-signaling pathway. Among them ABA receptors (PYR/PYL/RCAR), co-receptor PP2Cs (protein phosphatases), SnRK2 kinases (SNF1-related protein kinases) and ABI5/ABFs (transcription factors) are the major components. Upon ABA signal, PYR/PYL receptors interact with and recruit PP2Cs, releasing SnRK2s kinases from sequestration with PP2Cs. This allows SnKR2s to promote the activation of downstream transcription factors of ABA pathway. However, apart from activation, ubiquitination and degradation of core proteins in the ABA pathway by the ubiquitin proteasome system is less explored. In this review we will focus on the recent findings about feedback regulation of ABA signaling core proteins through degradation, which is emerging as a critical step that modulates and eventually ceases the signal relay. Additionally, we also discuss the importance of the recently identified effector protein HOS15, which negatively regulate ABA-signaling through degradation of OST1. 10.3389/fpls.2020.00379
ABA Transport and Plant Water Stress Responses. Kuromori Takashi,Seo Mitsunori,Shinozaki Kazuo Trends in plant science To understand the integrative networks of signaling molecules, the sites of their biosynthesis and action must be clarified, particularly for phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA). The relationship between the sites of ABA biosynthesis and transport has been discussed extensively in the context of guard cells and stomatal regulation. However, guard cells are not the only site of ABA action. Recent studies have reported multiple sites of ABA biosynthesis and multiple ABA transporters, indicating that ABA transport regulation is not unidirectional but rather forms complex networks. Therefore, it is important to determine how multiple ABA sources coordinately contribute to individual biological processes under various physiological conditions. 10.1016/j.tplants.2018.04.001
Function of ABA in Stomatal Defense against Biotic and Drought Stresses. Lim Chae Woo,Baek Woonhee,Jung Jangho,Kim Jung-Hyun,Lee Sung Chul International journal of molecular sciences The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes involved in plant development and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Under stress conditions, plants synthesize ABA in various organs and initiate defense mechanisms, such as the regulation of stomatal aperture and expression of defense-related genes conferring resistance to environmental stresses. The regulation of stomatal opening and closure is important to pathogen defense and control of transpirational water loss. Recent studies using a combination of approaches, including genetics, physiology, and molecular biology, have contributed considerably to our understanding of ABA signal transduction. A number of proteins associated with ABA signaling and responses--especially ABA receptors--have been identified. ABA signal transduction initiates signal perception by ABA receptors and transfer via downstream proteins, including protein kinases and phosphatases. In the present review, we focus on the function of ABA in stomatal defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, through analysis of each ABA signal component and the relationships of these components in the complex network of interactions. In particular, two ABA signal pathway models in response to biotic and abiotic stress were proposed, from stress signaling to stomatal closure, involving the pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR-like (PYL) or regulatory component of ABA receptor (RCAR) family proteins, 2C-type protein phosphatases, and SnRK2-type protein kinases. 10.3390/ijms160715251
Updated role of ABA in seed maturation, dormancy, and germination. Ali Faiza,Qanmber Ghulam,Li Fuguang,Wang Zhi Journal of advanced research Background:Seed is vital for plant survival and dispersion, however, its development and germination are influenced by various internal and external factors. Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the most important phytohormones that influence seed development and germination. Until now, impressive progresses in ABA metabolism and signaling pathways during seed development and germination have been achieved. At the molecular level, ABA biosynthesis, degradation, and signaling genes were identified to play important roles in seed development and germination. Additionally, the crosstalk between ABA and other hormones such as gibberellins (GA), ethylene (ET), Brassinolide (BR), and auxin also play critical roles. Although these studies explored some actions and mechanisms by which ABA-related factors regulate seed morphogenesis, dormancy, and germination, the complete network of ABA in seed traits is still unclear. Aim of review:Presently, seed faces challenges in survival and viability. Due to the vital positive roles in dormancy induction and maintenance, as well as a vibrant negative role in the seed germination of ABA, there is a need to understand the mechanisms of various ABA regulators that are involved in seed dormancy and germination with the updated knowledge and draw a better network for the underlying mechanisms of the ABA, which would advance the understanding and artificial modification of the seed vigor and longevity regulation. Key scientific concept of review:Here, we review functions and mechanisms of ABA in different seed development stages and seed germination, discuss the current progresses especially on the crosstalk between ABA and other hormones and signaling molecules, address novel points and key challenges (e.g., exploring more regulators, more cofactors involved in the crosstalk between ABA and other phytohormones, and visualization of active ABA in the plant), and outline future perspectives for ABA regulating seed associated traits. 10.1016/j.jare.2021.03.011
Role of Basal ABA in Plant Growth and Development. Brookbank Benjamin P,Patel Jasmin,Gazzarrini Sonia,Nambara Eiji Genes Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates various aspects of plant physiology, including promoting seed dormancy and adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In addition, ABA plays an im-portant role in growth and development under non-stressed conditions. This review summarizes phenotypes of ABA biosynthesis and signaling mutants to clarify the roles of basal ABA in growth and development. The promotive and inhibitive actions of ABA in growth are characterized by stunted and enhanced growth of ABA-deficient and insensitive mutants, respectively. Growth regulation by ABA is both promotive and inhibitive, depending on the context, such as concentrations, tissues, and environmental conditions. Basal ABA regulates local growth including hyponastic growth, skotomorphogenesis and lateral root growth. At the cellular level, basal ABA is essential for proper chloroplast biogenesis, central metabolism, and expression of cell-cycle genes. Basal ABA also regulates epidermis development in the shoot, by inhibiting stomatal development, and deposition of hydrophobic polymers like a cuticular wax layer covering the leaf surface. In the root, basal ABA is involved in xylem differentiation and suberization of the endodermis. Hormone crosstalk plays key roles in growth and developmental processes regulated by ABA. Phenotypes of ABA-deficient and insensitive mutants indicate prominent functions of basal ABA in plant growth and development. 10.3390/genes12121936
ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development. Nakashima Kazuo,Yamaguchi-Shinozaki Kazuko Plant cell reports KEY MESSAGE : We review the recent progress on ABA signaling, especially ABA signaling for ABA-dependent gene expression, including the AREB/ABF regulon, SnRK2 protein kinase, 2C-type protein phosphatases and ABA receptors. Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops. Drought causes osmotic stress to organisms, and the osmotic stress causes dehydration in plant cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under osmotic stress conditions, and it plays an important role in the stress response and tolerance of plants. ABA regulates many genes under osmotic stress conditions. It also regulates gene expression during seed development and germination. The ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB)/ABRE-binding factor (ABF) transcription factors (TFs) regulate ABRE-dependent gene expression. Other TFs are also involved in ABA-responsive gene expression. SNF1-related protein kinases 2 are the key regulators of ABA signaling including the AREB/ABF regulon. Recently, ABA receptors and group A 2C-type protein phosphatases were shown to govern the ABA signaling pathway. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress-response and seed development. The control of the expression of ABA signaling factors may improve tolerance to environmental stresses. 10.1007/s00299-013-1418-1
ABA perception and signalling. Raghavendra Agepati S,Gonugunta Vijay K,Christmann Alexander,Grill Erwin Trends in plant science Plant productivity is continuously challenged by pathogen attack and abiotic stress such as drought and salt stress. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key endogenous messenger in plants' responses to such stresses and understanding ABA signalling is essential for improving plant performance in the future. Since the discovery of ABA as a leaf abscission- and seed dormancy-promoting sesquiterpenoid in the 1960s, our understanding of the action of the phytohormone ABA has come a long way. Recent breakthroughs in the field of ABA signalling now unfold a unique hormone perception mechanism where binding of ABA to the ABA receptors RCARs/PYR1/PYLs leads to inactivation of type 2C protein phosphatases such as ABI1 and ABI2. The protein phosphatases seem to function as coreceptors and their inactivation launches SNF1-type kinase action which targets ABA-dependent gene expression and ion channels. 10.1016/j.tplants.2010.04.006
Reactive oxygen species signaling and stomatal movement in plant responses to drought stress and pathogen attack. Qi Junsheng,Song Chun-Peng,Wang Baoshan,Zhou Jianmin,Kangasjärvi Jaakko,Zhu Jian-Kang,Gong Zhizhong Journal of integrative plant biology Stomata, the pores formed by a pair of guard cells, are the main gateways for water transpiration and photosynthetic CO exchange, as well as pathogen invasion in land plants. Guard cell movement is regulated by a combination of environmental factors, including water status, light, CO levels and pathogen attack, as well as endogenous signals, such as abscisic acid and apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under abiotic and biotic stress conditions, extracellular ROS are mainly produced by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, whereas intracellular ROS are produced in multiple organelles. These ROS form a sophisticated cellular signaling network, with the accumulation of apoplastic ROS an early hallmark of stomatal movement. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the ROS signaling network, primarily during drought stress and pathogen attack. We summarize the roles of apoplastic ROS in regulating stomatal movement, ABA and CO signaling, and immunity responses. Finally, we discuss ROS accumulation and communication between organelles and cells. This information provides a conceptual framework for understanding how ROS signaling is integrated with various signaling pathways during plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress stimuli. 10.1111/jipb.12654
Auxin contributes to jasmonate-mediated regulation of abscisic acid signaling during seed germination in Arabidopsis. The Plant cell Abscisic acid (ABA) represses seed germination and postgerminative growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Auxin and jasmonic acid (JA) stimulate ABA function; however, the possible synergistic effects of auxin and JA on ABA signaling and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that exogenous auxin works synergistically with JA to enhance the ABA-induced delay of seed germination. Auxin biosynthesis, perception, and signaling are crucial for JA-promoted ABA responses. The auxin-dependent transcription factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR10 (ARF10) and ARF16 interact with JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) repressors of JA signaling. ARF10 and ARF16 positively mediate JA-increased ABA responses, and overaccumulation of ARF16 partially restores the hyposensitive phenotype of JAZ-accumulating plants defective in JA signaling in response to combined ABA and JA treatment. Furthermore, ARF10 and ARF16 physically associate with ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), a critical regulator of ABA signaling, and the ability of ARF16 to stimulate JA-mediated ABA responses is mainly dependent on ABI5. ARF10 and ARF16 activate the transcriptional function of ABI5, whereas JAZ repressors antagonize their effects. Collectively, our results demonstrate that auxin contributes to the synergetic modulation of JA on ABA signaling, and explain the mechanism by which ARF10/16 coordinate with JAZ and ABI5 to integrate the auxin, JA, and ABA signaling pathways. 10.1093/plcell/koac362
Abscisic acid dynamics, signaling, and functions in plants. Chen Kong,Li Guo-Jun,Bressan Ray A,Song Chun-Peng,Zhu Jian-Kang,Zhao Yang Journal of integrative plant biology Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone regulating plant growth, development, and stress responses. It has an essential role in multiple physiological processes of plants, such as stomatal closure, cuticular wax accumulation, leaf senescence, bud dormancy, seed germination, osmotic regulation, and growth inhibition among many others. Abscisic acid controls downstream responses to abiotic and biotic environmental changes through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. During the past 20 years, ABA biosynthesis and many of its signaling pathways have been well characterized. Here we review the dynamics of ABA metabolic pools and signaling that affects many of its physiological functions. 10.1111/jipb.12899