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Mitochondrial interaction of fibrosis-protective 5-methoxy tryptophan enhances collagen uptake by macrophages. Free radical biology & medicine 5-methoxy tryptophan (5-MTP) is an anti-fibrotic metabolite made by fibroblasts and epithelial cells, present in a micromolar concentrations in human blood, and is associated with the progression of fibrotic kidney disease, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, we show by microscopy and functional assays that 5-MTP influences mitochondria in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. As a result, the mitochondrial membranes are more rigid, more branched, and are protected against oxidation. The macrophages also change their metabolism by reducing mitochondrial import of acyl-carnitines, intermediates of fatty acid metabolism, driving glucose import. Moreover, 5-MTP increases the endocytosis of collagen by macrophages, and experiments with inhibition of glucose uptake showed that this is a direct result of their altered metabolism. However, 5-MTP does not affect the macrophages following pathogenic stimulation, due to 5-MTP degradation by induced expression of indole-amine oxygenase-1 (IDO-1). Thus, 5-MTP is a fibrosis-protective metabolite that, in absence of pathogenic stimulation, promotes collagen uptake by anti-inflammatory macrophages by altering the physicochemical properties of their mitochondrial membranes. 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2022.06.235
Enhancing kidney DDAH-1 expression by adenovirus delivery reduces ADMA and ameliorates diabetic nephropathy. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide and increased oxidative stress, is a hallmark characteristic in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). High levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are observed in several diseases including DN and are a strong prognostic marker for cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease. ADMA, an endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) inhibitor, is selectively metabolized by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). Low DDAH levels have been associated with cardiac and renal dysfunction, but its effects on DN are unknown. We hypothesized that enhanced renal DDAH-1 expression would improve DN by reducing ADMA and restoring NOS3 levels. DBA/2J mice injected with multiple low doses of vehicle or streptozotocin were subsequently injected intrarenally with adenovirus expressing DDAH-1 (Ad-h-DDAH-1) or vector control [Ad-green fluorescent protein (GFP)], and mice were followed for 6 wk. Diabetes was associated with increased kidney ADMA and reduced kidney DDAH activity and DDAH-1 expression but had no effect on kidney DDAH-2 expression. Ad-GFP-treated diabetic mice showed significant increases in albuminuria, histological changes, glomerular macrophage recruitment, inflammatory cytokine and fibrotic markers, kidney ADMA levels, and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances excretion as an indicator of oxidative stress, along with a significant reduction in kidney DDAH activity and kidney NOS3 mRNA compared with normal mice. In contrast, Ad-h-DDAH-1 treatment of diabetic mice reversed these effects. These data indicate, for the first time, that DDAH-1 mediates renal tissue protection in DN via the ADMA-NOS3-interaction. Enhanced renal DDAH-1 activity could be a novel therapeutic tool for treating patients with diabetes. 10.1152/ajprenal.00518.2019
Hydroxyproline stimulates inflammation and reprograms macrophage signaling in a rat kidney stone model. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease Meals rich in oxalate are associated with calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stone disease. Hydroxy-L-proline (HLP) is an oxalate precursor found in milk and collagen-containing foods. HLP has been shown to induce CaOx crystal formation in rodents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HLP induced oxalate levels on inflammation and renal leukocytes during crystal formation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6-8 weeks old) were fed a control diet containing no oxalate for 3 days before being randomized to continue the control diet or 5% HLP for up to 28 days. Blood, 24 h urine, and kidneys were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, or 28. Urinary oxalate levels, crystal deposition, and renal macrophage markers were evaluated using ion chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunohistochemistry, and qRT-PCR. Renal leukocytes were assessed using flow cytometry and RNA-sequencing. HLP feeding increased urinary oxalate levels and renal crystal formation in animals within 7 days. HLP also increased renal macrophage populations on Days 14 and 28. Transcriptome analysis revealed that renal macrophages from animals fed HLP for 7 days were involved in inflammatory response and disease, stress response to LPS, oxidative stress, and immune cell trafficking. Renal macrophages isolated on Day 14 were involved in cell-mediated immunological pathways, ion homeostasis, and inflammatory response. Collectively, these findings suggest that HLP-mediated oxalate levels induce markers of inflammation, leukocyte populations, and reprograms signaling pathways in macrophages in a time-dependent manner. Additional studies investigating the significance of oxalate on renal macrophages could aid in our understanding of kidney stone formation. 10.1016/j.bbadis.2022.166442
Arginine and citrulline and the immune response in sepsis. Wijnands Karolina A P,Castermans Tessy M R,Hommen Merel P J,Meesters Dennis M,Poeze Martijn Nutrients Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid is an important initiator of the immune response. Arginine serves as a precursor in several metabolic pathways in different organs. In the immune response, arginine metabolism and availability is determined by the nitric oxide synthases and the arginase enzymes, which convert arginine into nitric oxide (NO) and ornithine, respectively. Limitations in arginine availability during inflammatory conditions regulate macrophages and T-lymfocyte activation. Furthermore, over the past years more evidence has been gathered which showed that arginine and citrulline deficiencies may underlie the detrimental outcome of inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis and endotoxemia. Not only does the immune response contribute to the arginine deficiency, also the impaired arginine de novo synthesis in the kidney has a key role in the eventual observed arginine deficiency. The complex interplay between the immune response and the arginine-NO metabolism is further underscored by recent data of our group. In this review we give an overview of physiological arginine and citrulline metabolism and we address the experimental and clinical studies in which the arginine-citrulline NO pathway plays an essential role in the immune response, as initiator and therapeutic target. 10.3390/nu7031426
l-Homoarginine supplementation prevents diabetic kidney damage. Physiological reports l-homoarginine is an endogenous, non-proteinogenic amino acid that has emerged as a new player in health and disease. Specifically, low l-homoarginine levels are associated with cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and reduced kidney function. However, the role of l-homoarginine in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is not known. Experiments were conducted in 6-week-old Ins2 mice supplemented with l-homoarginine via drinking water or mini osmotic pump for 12 weeks. Both plasma and kidney l-homoarginine levels were significantly reduced in diabetic mice compared to nondiabetic controls. Untreated Ins2 mice showed significant increases in urinary albumin excretion, histological changes, glomerular macrophage recruitment, the inflammatory cytokine KC-GRO/CXCL1, and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) excretion as an indicator of oxidative stress, along with a significant reduction in kidney nitrate + nitrite levels compared to control mice at 18 weeks of age. In contrast, l-homoarginine supplementation for 12 weeks in Ins2 mice, via either drinking water or mini osmotic pump, significantly reduced albuminuria, renal histological changes, glomerular macrophage recruitment, KC-GRO/CXCL1 levels, urinary TBARS excretion, and largely restored kidney nitrate + nitrite levels. These data demonstrate that l-homoarginine supplementation attenuates specific features of DN in mice and could be a potential new therapeutic tool for treating diabetic patients. 10.14814/phy2.14235