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Biomechanical analysis of the jump shot in basketball. Struzik Artur,Pietraszewski Bogdan,Zawadzki Jerzy Journal of human kinetics Basketball players usually score points during the game using the jump shot. For this reason, the jump shot is considered to be the most important element of technique in basketball and requires a high level of performance. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the lower limbs during a jump shot without the ball and a countermovement jump without an arm swing. The differences between variables provide information about the potential that an athlete can utilise during a game when performing a jump shot. The study was conducted among 20 second-league basketball players by means of a Kistler force plate and the BTS SMART system for motion analysis. The variables measured included the take-off time, mean power, peak power, relative mean power, jump height, maximum landing force and calculated impact ratio. Surprisingly, more advantageous variables were found for the jump shot. This finding suggests a very high performance level in the jump shot in the studied group and a maximum utilisation of their motor abilities. Both types of jumps were characterised by high mean and peak power values and average heights. The high forces at landing, which result in considerable impact ratios, may have prompted the studied group to land softly. Use of the countermovement jump without an arm swing is recommended to assess and predict the progression of player's jumping ability. 10.2478/hukin-2014-0062
How Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury was averted during Knee Collapse in a NBA Point Guard. Annals of musculoskeletal medicine Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur with rapid decelerations and pivoting. A recent injury to a high-level National Basketball Association (NBA) player demonstrated neuromuscular control and injury-sparing mechanisms that resulted in only minor ligament injury to the medial collateral ligament. We analyzed biomechanical mechanisms via publically available orthogonal 2-D video to demonstrate how this potential ACL injury was averted. Analysis of the knee injury mechanism demonstrated that the NBA player experienced low ground reaction force, high sagittal plane flexion, and maintenance of frontal plane stability with neuromuscular control. The outcome of these factors inhibited dynamic valgus collapse of the knee throughout the fall, avoiding ACL injury - a potentially career-altering injury. Many athletes, professional and recreational, will be subjected to similar mechanisms of injury and will have improved outcomes if they can successfully utilize preventive strategies of neuromuscular control to limit injury mechanisms.
Association of Strength Following Achilles Tendon Repair With Return to Same Level of Play in High-Level Athletes. Holzgrefe Russell E,McCarthy Timothy P,Wilson Jacob M,Bariteau Jason T,Labib Sameh Foot & ankle international BACKGROUND:Rupture of the Achilles tendon is a common injury and the ability to return to the same level of sporting activity after treatment is an important outcome for patients. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between ankle strength and the ability to return to previous level of play following operative repair of an Achilles tendon rupture. METHODS:Patients aged 18 to 50 years at a minimum 1 year postoperation from surgical repair of an Achilles tendon returned for a study visit. Patients reported both preinjury and current activity level using the 10-point Tegner Activity Level Scale. Isokinetic strength testing was performed and the Isokinetic Strength Score (ISS) was calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between ISS and return to play by Tegner level. A total of 36 patients (mean 35 years old, 72% male) completed the study protocol at a mean 1.8 years postoperatively. RESULTS:Logistic regression revealed no association between ISS and return to play in the complete cohort. Subgroup analysis revealed that for 20 high-level athletes (preinjury Tegner ≥ 7), for every 16-point increase in ISS, the odds ratio (OR) for return to same level of play was 8.3 ( = .055) and the OR for return to within 1 Tegner level of play was 6.3 ( = .043). There was no association between ISS and return to previous activity in the 16 patients with lower preinjury levels of activity. CONCLUSION:Improved ankle strength was associated with return to previous level of activity in patients participating in high-level athletic activity, suggesting that these patients were more dependent on recovery of ankle strength in the postoperative time period in order to return to their previous high level of play. In contrast, regaining strength may be less important for returning to normal activities for less active patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III, comparative series. 10.1177/1071100720936276
Neuropsychological Screening of Sport-Related Concussion. McCrea Michael A,Asken Breton,Nelson Lindsay D Neurologic clinics Neuropsychological assessment is a key component of the multidimensional approach recommended by international consensus guidelines for evaluation of athletes affected by sport-related concussion (SRC). Over the past 2 decades, a number of conventional and computerized neuropsychological test batteries have been developed for the assessment of SRC. Standardized neurocognitive assessment tools are now commonly used across the continuum of concussion care, ranging from the sports sideline to critical care setting and the outpatient concussion clinic. We provide a brief, high-level overview of current approaches to best practice in neuropsychological assessment of SRC. 10.1016/j.ncl.2017.03.005
In elite athletes with meniscal injuries, always repair the lateral, think about the medial! A systematic review. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA PURPOSE:This study aimed to evaluate and compare the time required to return to sports (RTS) after surgery, the rate of revision surgery and the time required for RTS after revision surgery in elite athletes undergoing meniscal repair or partial meniscectomy, particularly analysing the difference between medial and lateral menisci. It was hypothesised that both procedures would entail similar, high rates of RTS, with the lateral meniscus exhibiting higher potential healing postprocedure compared to the medial meniscus. METHODS:A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines. Quality assessment of the systematic review was performed using the AMSTAR-2 checklist. The following search terms were browsed in the title, abstract and keyword fields: 'meniscus' or 'meniscal' AND 'tear,' 'injury' or 'lesion' AND 'professional,' 'elite' or 'high-level' AND 'athletes,' 'sports,' 'sportsman,' 'soccer,' 'basketball,' 'football' or 'handball'. The resulting measures extracted from the studies were the rate of RTS, level of RTS, complications, revision surgery and subsequent RTS, Tegner, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). RESULTS:In this study, the cohort consisted of 421 patients [415 (98.6%) men and 6 (1.4%) women] with a mean age of 23.0 ± 3.0 years. All patients were elite athletes in wrestling, baseball, soccer, rugby or handball. While 327 (77.7%) patients received partial meniscectomy at a mean age of 23.3 ± 2.6 years, 94 (22.3%) patients received meniscal repair at a mean age of 22.1 ± 4.0 years. After partial meniscectomy, 277 patients (84.7%) returned to their competitive sports activity and 256 (78.3%) returned to their pre-injury activity levels. A total of 12 (3.7%) patients required revision surgery because of persistent pain [5 (1.5%) patients], chondrolysis [2 (0.7%) patients] or both chondrolysis and lateral instability [5 (1.5%) patients]. Ten (83.3%) of the twelve patients had involvement of the lateral meniscus, whereas the location of injury was not specified in the remaining two patients. After revision surgery, all patients (100%) resumed sports activity. However, after meniscal repair, 80 (85.1%) athletes returned to their competitive sports activity and 71 (75.5%) returned to their pre-injury activity levels. A total of 16 (17.0%) patients required partial meniscectomy in cases of persistent pain or suture failure. Of these, 4 (25%) patients involved lateral and medial menisci each and 8 (50%) patients were not specified. After revision surgery, more than 80.0% of the patients (13) resumed sports activity. CONCLUSIONS:In elite athletes with isolated meniscal injury, partial meniscectomy and meniscal suture exhibited similar rates of RTS and return to pre-injury levels. Nonetheless, athletes required more time for RTS after meniscal repair and exhibited an increased rate of revision surgery associated with a reduced rate of RTS after the subsequent surgery. For lateral meniscus tears, meniscectomy was associated with a high rate of revision surgery and risk of chondrolysis, whereas partial medial meniscectomy allowed for rapid RTS but with the potential risk of developing knee osteoarthritis over the years. The findings of this systematic review suggested a suture on the lateral meniscus in elite athletes because of the high healing potential after the procedure, the reduced risk of developing chondrolysis and the high risk of revision surgery after partial meniscectomy. Furthermore, it is important to evaluate several factors while dealing with the medial meniscus. If rapid RTS activity is needed, a hyperselective meniscectomy is recommended; otherwise, a meniscal suture is recommended to avoid accelerated osteoarthritis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level IV. STUDY REGISTRATION:PROSPERO-CRD42022351979 ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=351979 ). 10.1007/s00167-022-07208-8
Systematic Review of Injuries in the Men's and Women's National Basketball Association. The American journal of sports medicine BACKGROUND:Numerous studies have reported the incidence and outcomes of injuries in the men's and women's National Basketball Association (NBA and WNBA, respectively). PURPOSE:To synthesize published data regarding the incidence and outcomes of all injuries in the NBA and WNBA in a comprehensive review. STUDY DESIGN:Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS:Following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, we searched 3 electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase) for studies of all levels of evidence since 1990 pertaining to injuries sustained by active players in the NBA and WNBA. Studies were excluded if the cohort of interest included ≤3 active players. RESULTS:The initial search of the 3 databases yielded 1253 unique studies, of which 49 met final inclusion criteria for this review. Only 4 studies included athletes in the WNBA. Based on the mean annual incidence, the 5 most common orthopaedic sports injuries sustained in the NBA were concussions (9.5-14.9 per year), fractures of the hand (3.5-5.5 per year), lower extremity stress fractures (4.8 per year), meniscal tears (2.3-3.3 per year), and anterior cruciate ligament tears (1.5-2.6 per year). Cartilage defects treated using microfracture, Achilles tendon ruptures, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries were 3 injuries that led to significant reductions in performance measurements after injury. CONCLUSION:With advances in sports technology and statistical analysis, there is rapidly growing interest in injuries among professional basketball athletes. High-quality prospective studies are needed to understand the prevalence and effect of injuries on player performance and career length. This information can inform preventative and treatment measures taken by health care providers to protect players and guide safe return to play at a high level. 10.1177/03635465211014506