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Ligation of CD31/PECAM-1 modulates the function of lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils. Elias C G,Spellberg J P,Karan-Tamir B,Lin C H,Wang Y J,McKenna P J,Muller W A,Zukowski M M,Andrew D P European journal of immunology CD31 or platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) is a 130-kDa glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells, granulocytes, a subset of lymphocytes and platelets. In this study, we examined the ability of four monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against different domains of CD31 to modulate the function of T lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils. Engagement of CD31 on T lymphocytes results in co-stimulation of T lymphocyte proliferation to suboptimal doses of anti-CD31 mAb. This proliferation is accompanied by secretion of numerous cytokines and chemokines, up-regulation of CD25 and an increase in cell size. Purification of T lymphocytes into CD45RO and CD45RA subsets showed that only naive CD45RA T lymphocytes are co-stimulated by anti-CD31 mAb. Further studies on neutrophils show that engagement of CD31 results in down-regulation of CD62L and up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 as well as oxidative burst, as assessed by superoxide release. In addition, ligation of CD31 on monocytes results in TNF-alpha secretion, and studies with various cell signaling inhibitors indicate that tyrosine kinases and cAMP-dependent kinases are involved in monocyte activation via CD31. Of the four mAb used in this study, only two activated human leukocytes. These mAb were PECAM-1.3 and hec7, which bind to domains 1 and 2 of CD31. We conclude that engagement of domains 1 and 2 of CD31 results in outside-in signaling in leukocytes. 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199806)28:06<1948::AID-IMMU1948>3.0.CO;2-C