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Tectorigenin attenuates diabetic nephropathy by improving vascular endothelium dysfunction through activating AdipoR1/2 pathway. Yang Shu,Ma Chuanrui,Wu Han,Zhang Hao,Yuan Fengyi,Yang Guangyan,Yang Qi,Jia Lijing,Liang Zhen,Kang Lin Pharmacological research Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a kind of microvascular complication, is a primary cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. However, therapeutic drugs for DN treatment are still in lack. The glomerular endothelium is essential to maintain selective permeability of glomerular filtration barrier and glomerular vasculature function. Growing evidences show that endothelial dysfunction or injury is the initial stage of vascular damage in DN, which can be induced by hyperglycemia, lipotoxicity, and inflammation. Therefore, to improve the function of vascular endothelium in kidney is a key point for treatment of DN. As a plant isoflavone, tectorigenin (TEC) has attracted considerable attention due to its anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory functions. However, whether TEC could inhibit the DN development remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of TEC on DN development in db/db mice, a type of genetic defect diabetic mice that can spontaneously develop into severe renal dysfunction. Intriguingly, TEC treatment restored diabetes-induced glucose and lipid metabolic disorder; and improved the deterioration of renal function, particularly the renal endothelium function in db/db mice. Additionally, TEC inhibited the renal inflammation via reducing macrophages infiltration and M1 polarization. Moreover, TEC inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial injury and M1 polarization in vitro. Mechanistically, TEC partially restored the reduction in expression of adiponectin receptor 1/2 (AdipoR1/2), pi-LKB1, pi-AMPKα, and PPARα in vitro and in vivo. Noteworthy, these beneficial pharmacological activities mediated by TEC were significantly attenuated after AdipoR1/2 knockdown by siRNA, indicating that AdipoR1/2 plays a critical role in protection against DN. Collectively, these results suggested that TEC have a potently effect for retarding type 2 diabetes-associated DN. 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104678
Pioglitazone increases VEGFR3 expression and promotes activation of M2 macrophages via the peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ. Zhang Conghui,Zhang Ying,Zhang Chunxiu,Liu Yang,Liu Yanyan,Xu Gang Molecular medicine reports The peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone has been widely used in previous studies to ameliorate diabetes mellitus and regulate inflammation. However, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of pioglitazone on macrophages and determine its impact on renal fibrosis in vivo. Firstly, bone marrow‑derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to detect the effects of pioglitazone on macrophages in vitro. It was demonstrated that pioglitazone promoted M2 macrophage activation and induced vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) upregulation in a PPARγ‑dependent manner. Furthermore, pioglitazone increased macrophage proliferation and macrophage VEGFR3 expression in a murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model; however, it had no therapeutic effect on renal fibrosis in vivo. Therefore, the results in the present study implied that presence of M2 macrophages may inhibit pioglitazone's ability to attenuate UUO‑induced renal fibrosis. In addition, the results demonstrated that macrophage‑associated VEGFR3 could be induced by pioglitazone, although it is still unclear what role VEGFR3+ M2 macrophages have in renal fibrosis. 10.3892/mmr.2019.9945
Inhibition of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 Attenuated Kidney Fibrosis by Mediating Macrophage-to-Myofibroblast Transition. Frontiers in immunology The macrophage-to-myofibroblast transition (MMT) process is an important pathway that contributing to renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) deteriorated RIF via promoting inflammation in obstructive nephropathy. However, the clinical significance of FABP4 in fibrotic kidney disease remains to be determined and little is known of the FABP4 signaling in MMT. Biopsy specimens of chronic kidney disease patients and kidneys subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) of FABP4-deficient mice or FABP4 inhibitor-treated mice were collected for the investigation of FABP4 mediating MMT of RIF. We conducted kidney RNA-seq transcriptomes and TGF-β1-induced bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) assays to determine the mechanisms of FABP4. We found that FABP4 expression correlated with RIF in biopsy specimens and the injured kidneys of UUO mice where FABP4 was co-expressed with MMT cells. In UUO mice, FABP4 deficiency and a highly selective FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 treatment both suppressed RIF. FABP4 ablation also attenuated the UUO-induced number of MMT cells and serum amyloid A1 (Saa1) expression. The siRNA-mediated Saa1 knockdown decreased the number of MMT cells . In conclusion, FABP4 is an important factor contributing to RIF by mediating MMT, and genetic/pharmacological inhibition of FABP4 provides a novel approach for the treatment of kidney fibrosis. 10.3389/fimmu.2020.566535
Ferroptosis of CD163 tissue-infiltrating macrophages and CD10 PC epithelial cells in lupus nephritis. Frontiers in immunology Background:Dysregulation of cell death and defective clearance of dying cells are closely related to the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN). However, the contribution of a recently discovered form of programmed cell death (PCD) called ferroptosis to LN has not been explored in detail. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of ferroptosis and its associated metabolic pathways in the pathogenesis of LN. Methods:The composite gene expression scores were calculated by averaging the z-scored transformed log2 expressed genes within each form of PCD and pathway. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays were used to verify the bioinformatics results. Results:We determined that ferroptosis is prominently and specifically elevated in the glomerular compartment of LN patients compared to other forms of PCD and kidney disease. This finding was then verified by immunohistochemical staining of 4-HNE (a key indicator for ferroptosis) expression in our own cohort (P < 0.0001). Intercorrelation networks were observed between 4-HNE and blood urea nitrogen, SLE disease activity index, serum creatinine, and complement 4, and negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate in our own LN cohort (P < 0.05). Furthermore, enhanced iron metabolism and reduced fatty acid synthesis may be the most important factors for ferroptosis within the glomerulus. Through analysis of a single cell sequencing dataset and verification of immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining, aberrantly activated lipid peroxidation in CD163+ macrophages and CD10+ PC+ (pyruvate carboxylase) epithelial cells indicated that they may be undergoing ferroptosis in the glomerular compartment. Conclusions:Two dysregulated genes, CD163 and PC, were identified and verified that were significantly associated with lipid peroxidation. Targeting ferroptosis in CD163+ macrophages and CD10+ PC+ epithelial cells may provide novel therapeutic approaches in LN. 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1171318
Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia Promotes Recovery from Ischemic Organ Injury by Modulating the Phenotype of Macrophages. Cells Acute organ injury, such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and disease (AKD), are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hyperuricemia (HU) is common in patients with impaired kidney function but the impact of asymptomatic HU on the different phases of AKI/AKD is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that asymptomatic HU would attenuate AKD because soluble, in contrast to crystalline, uric acid (sUA) can attenuate sterile inflammation. In vitro, 10 mg/dL sUA decreased reactive oxygen species and interleukin-6 production in macrophages, while enhancing fatty acid oxidation as compared with a physiological concentration of 5 mg/dL sUA or medium. In transgenic mice, asymptomatic HU of 7-10 mg/dL did not affect post-ischemic AKI/AKD but accelerated the recovery of kidney excretory function on day 14. Improved functional outcome was associated with better tubular integrity, less peritubular inflammation, and interstitial fibrosis. Mechanistic studies suggested that HU shifted macrophage polarization towards an anti-inflammatory M2-like phenotype characterized by expression of anti-oxidative and metabolic genes as compared with post-ischemic AKI-chronic kidney disease transition in mice without HU. Our data imply that asymptomatic HU acts as anti-oxidant on macrophages and tubular epithelial cells, which endorses the recovery of kidney function and structure upon AKI. 10.3390/cells11040626
STAT6 promoting oxalate crystal deposition-induced renal fibrosis by mediating macrophage-to-myofibroblast transition via inhibiting fatty acid oxidation. Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.] OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN:Kidney stones commonly occur with a 50% recurrence rate within 5 years, and can elevate the risk of chronic kidney disease. Macrophage-to-myofibroblast transition (MMT) is a newly discovered mechanism that leads to progressive fibrosis in different forms of kidney disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of MMT in renal fibrosis in glyoxylate-induced kidney stone mice and the mechanism by which signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) regulates MMT. METHODS:We collected non-functioning kidneys from patients with stones, established glyoxylate-induced calcium oxalate stone mice model and treated AS1517499 every other day in the treatment group, and constructed a STAT6-knockout RAW264.7 cell line. We first screened the enrichment pathway of the model by transcriptome sequencing; detected renal injury and fibrosis by hematoxylin eosin staining, Von Kossa staining and Sirius red staining; detected MMT levels by multiplexed immunofluorescence and flow cytometry; and verified the binding site of STAT6 at the PPARα promoter by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and fibrosis-related genes were detected by western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:In this study, we found that FAO was downregulated, macrophages converted to myofibroblasts, and STAT6 expression was elevated in stone patients and glyoxylate-induced kidney stone mice. The promotion of FAO in macrophages attenuated MMT and upregulated fibrosis-related genes induced by calcium oxalate treatment. Further, inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) eliminated the effect of STAT6 deletion on FAO and fibrosis-associated protein expression. Pharmacological inhibition of STAT6 also prevented the development of renal injury, lipid accumulation, MMT, and renal fibrosis. Mechanistically, STAT6 transcriptionally represses PPARα and FAO through cis-inducible elements located in the promoter region of the gene, thereby promoting MMT and renal fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS:These findings establish a role for STAT6 in kidney stone injury-induced renal fibrosis, and suggest that STAT6 may be a therapeutic target for progressive renal fibrosis in patients with nephrolithiasis. 10.1007/s00011-023-01803-2
Glomerular expression and urinary excretion of fatty acid-binding protein 4 in IgA nephropathy. Journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) is secreted from adipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue and acts as an adipokine. It has recently been reported that FABP4, but not liver-type FABP (L-FABP/FABP1), is also expressed in injured glomerular endothelial cells and infiltrating macrophages in the glomerulus and that urinary FABP4 (U-FABP4) is associated with proteinuria and kidney function impairment in nephrotic patients. However, the link between glomerular FABP4 and U-FABP4 has not been fully addressed in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). METHODS:We investigated the involvement of FABP4 in human and mouse IgAN. RESULTS:In patients with IgAN (n = 23), the ratio of FABP4-positive area to total area within glomeruli (G-FABP4-Area) and U-FABP4 were positively correlated with proteinuria and were negatively correlated with eGFR. In 4-28-week-old male grouped ddY mice, a spontaneous IgAN-prone mouse model, FABP4 was detected in glomerular endothelial cells and macrophages, and G-FABP4-Area was positively correlated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r = 0.957, P < 0.001). Endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were detected in glomeruli of human and mouse IgAN. In human renal glomerular endothelial cells, FABP4 was induced by treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor and was secreted from the cells. Treatment of human renal glomerular endothelial cells or mouse podocytes with palmitate-bound recombinant FABP4 significantly increased gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, and the effects of FABP4 in podocytes were attenuated in the presence of an anti-FABP4 antibody. CONCLUSION:FABP4 in the glomerulus contributes to proteinuria in IgAN, and U-FABP4 level is a useful surrogate biomarker for glomerular damage in IgAN. 10.1007/s40620-022-01551-2
Role of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 (FABP4) in Kidney Disease. Shi Min,Ma Liang,Fu Ping Current medicinal chemistry Accumulating evidences indicated that obesity and metabolic syndrome were independent risk factors for the development and progression of kidney diseases. Apart from inflammation, lipotoxicity, and hemodynamic factors, adipokines have been proposed to play crucial roles in the relationship between kidney diseases and metabolic disorders. As one of the key adipokines, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), which is mainly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, has recently been shown to be associated with renal dysfunction and kidney damage. Both clinical and experimental studies have proposed circulating FABP4 as a novel predictor for renal injuries, and it might also be a predictor for cardiovascular events in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). FABP4 has also been detected in the glomerular cells and epithelial tubular cells in mouse and human kidneys, and the expression of FABP4 in these cells has been involved in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. In addition, experimental studies suggested that inhibition of FABP4 had protective effects on renal damage. Here, we reviewed current knowledge regarding the role of FABP4 in pathophysiological insights as well as its potential function as a predictor and therapeutic target for kidney diseases. 10.2174/0929867325666181008154622
Enhanced fatty acid oxidation through metformin and baicalin as therapy for COVID-19 and associated inflammatory states in lung and kidney. Redox biology Progressive respiratory failure is the primary cause of death in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is the final outcome of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by an initial exacerbated inflammatory response, metabolic derangement and ultimate tissue scarring. A positive balance of cellular energy may result crucial for the recovery of clinical COVID-19. Hence, we asked if two key pathways involved in cellular energy generation, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) signaling and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) could be beneficial. We tested the drugs metformin (AMPK activator) and baicalin (CPT1A activator) in different experimental models mimicking COVID-19 associated inflammation in lung and kidney. We also studied two different cohorts of COVID-19 patients that had been previously treated with metformin. These drugs ameliorated lung damage in an ARDS animal model, while activation of AMPK/ACC signaling increased mitochondrial function and decreased TGF-β-induced fibrosis, apoptosis and inflammation markers in lung epithelial cells. Similar results were observed with two indole derivatives, IND6 and IND8 with AMPK activating capacity. Consistently, a reduced time of hospitalization and need of intensive care was observed in COVID-19 patients previously exposed to metformin. Baicalin also mitigated the activation of pro-inflammatory bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and reduced kidney fibrosis in two animal models of kidney injury, another key target of COVID-19. In human epithelial lung and kidney cells, both drugs improved mitochondrial function and prevented TGF-β-induced renal epithelial cell dedifferentiation. Our results support that favoring cellular energy production through enhanced FAO may prove useful in the prevention of COVID-19-induced lung and renal damage. 10.1016/j.redox.2023.102957
Bioinformatics prediction and experimental verification of key biomarkers for diabetic kidney disease based on transcriptome sequencing in mice. PeerJ Background:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of death in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The main objective of this study is to find the potential biomarkers for DKD. Materials and Methods:Two datasets (GSE86300 and GSE184836) retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were used, combined with our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) results of DKD mice (C57 BLKS-32w db/db) and non-diabetic (db/m) mice for further analysis. After processing the expression matrix of the three sets of data using R software "Limma", differential expression analysis was performed. The significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (-logFC- > 1, -value < 0.05) were visualized by heatmaps and volcano plots respectively. Next, the co-expression genes expressed in the three groups of DEGs were obtained by constructing a Venn diagram. In addition, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were further analyzed the related functions and enrichment pathways of these co-expression genes. Then, qRT-PCR was used to verify the expression levels of co-expression genes in the kidney of DKD and control mice. Finally, protein-protein interaction network (PPI), GO, KEGG analysis and Pearson correlation test were performed on the experimentally validated genes, in order to clarify the possible mechanism of them in DKD. Results:Our RNA-seq results identified a total of 125 DEGs, including 59 up-regulated and 66 down-regulated DEGs. At the same time, 183 up-regulated and 153 down-regulated DEGs were obtained in GEO database GSE86300, and 76 up-regulated and 117 down-regulated DEGs were obtained in GSE184836. Venn diagram showed that 13 co-expression DEGs among the three groups of DEGs. GO analysis showed that biological processes (BP) were mainly enriched inresponse to stilbenoid, response to fatty acid, response to nutrient, positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation, triglyceride metabolic process. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the three major enriched pathways were cholesterol metabolism, drug metabolism-cytochrome P450, PPAR signaling pathway. After qRT-PCR validation, we obtained 11 genes that were significant differentially expressed in the kidney tissues of DKD mice compared with control mice. (The mRNA expression levels of Aacs, Cpe, Cd36, Slc22a7, Slc1a4, Lpl, Cyp7b1, Akr1c14 and Apoh were declined, whereas Abcc4 and Gsta2 were elevated). Conclusion:Our study, based on RNA-seq results, GEO databases and qRT-PCR, identified 11 significant dysregulated DEGs, which play an important role in lipid metabolism and the PPAR signaling pathway, which provide novel targets for diagnosis and treatment of DKD. 10.7717/peerj.13932