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The Role of Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Functional Dyspepsia: A Review. Frontiers in physiology Functional dyspepsia is a clinically common functional gastrointestinal disorder with a high prevalence, high impact and high consumption of medical resources. The microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract is a large number of families and is one of the most complex microbial reservoirs in the human body. An increasing number of studies have confirmed the close association between dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal microbiota and the occurrence and progression of functional dyspepsia. Therefore, we reviewed the role of dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal microbiota, infection and gastrointestinal microbiota metabolites in functional dyspepsia, focusing on the possible mechanisms by which dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal microbiota contributes to the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. Several studies have confirmed that dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal microbiota may cause the occurrence and progression of functional dyspepsia by disrupting the biological barrier of the intestinal mucosa, by disturbing the immune function of the intestinal mucosa, or by causing dysregulation of the microbial-gut-brain axis. Probiotics and antibiotics have also been chosen to treat functional dyspepsia in clinical studies and have shown some improvement in the clinical symptoms. However, more studies are needed to explore and confirm the relationship between dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal microbiota and the occurrence and progression of functional dyspepsia, and more clinical studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic efficacy of microbiota modulation for functional dyspepsia. 10.3389/fphys.2022.910568
Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Functional Dyspepsia. Tziatzios Georgios,Gkolfakis Paraskevas,Papanikolaou Ioannis S,Mathur Ruchi,Pimentel Mark,Giamarellos-Bourboulis Evangelos J,Triantafyllou Konstantinos Microorganisms Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most prevalent chronic functional gastrointestinal disorders. Several distinct pathophysiological mechanisms, including gastro duodenal motor disorders, visceral hypersensitivity, brain-gut interactions, duodenal subtle inflammation, and genetic susceptibility, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease, so far. However, emerging evidence suggests that both quantitative and qualitative disturbances of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also be implicated. In this context, several studies have demonstrated differences of the commensal bacterial community between patients with FD and healthy controls, while others have shown that intestinal dysbiosis might associate with disease's symptoms severity. Elucidating these complex interactions constituting the microbiota and host crosstalk, may eventually lead to the discovery of novel, targeted therapeutic approaches that may be efficacious in treating the multiple aspects of the disorder. In this review, we summarize the data of the latest research with focus on the association between gut microbiota alterations and host regarding the pathogenesis of FD. 10.3390/microorganisms8050691
Bi-Directionality of the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Patients With Functional Dyspepsia: Relevance of Psychotherapy and Probiotics. Rupp Sophia Kristina,Stengel Andreas Frontiers in neuroscience Functional dyspepsia is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders of the gut-brain interaction worldwide. The precise pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia is complex and remains incompletely understood. Therefore, advances in the understanding of functional dyspepsia could change clinical practice. The aim of this review is to highlight the relevance of psychotherapy and probiotics in the context of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in the pathophysiology and especially in the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Therefore, studies which have been conducted to investigate the role of psychotherapy and probiotics in FD and the microbiota-gut-brain axis in the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia were examined, and the outcomes of this research summarized. There might be a link between changes in the microbiome and functional dyspepsia. Even though, specific alterations in the microbiome that may be pathognomonic in functional dyspepsia remain unclear, the use of probiotics became a viable treatment option for patients with functional dyspepsia. Since mental illness also plays an important role in the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia, psychotherapy is a useful treatment method, with additional study results indicating that psychotherapy may also shift the microbiome in a favorable direction. Moreover, other findings suggest that probiotics can be used not only to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms in functional dyspepsia, but also to treat or even prevent mental disorders in these patients. In summary, in this review we highlight the bi-directionality of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia. Although there are multiple treatment approaches, the burden of disease in patients with functional dyspepsia is still enormous and a definitive therapy to cure this disease does not (yet) exist. Lastly, there is a lack of studies on the impact of dysbiosis, mental health and probiotics on pathophysiology and symptomatology in functional dyspepsia which should be investigated in future studies. 10.3389/fnins.2022.844564