logo logo
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Malard Florent,Mohty Mohamad Lancet (London, England) Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia develops in both children and adults, with a peak incidence between 1 year and 4 years. Most acute lymphoblastic leukaemia arises in healthy individuals, and predisposing factors such as inherited genetic susceptibility or environmental exposure have been identified in only a few patients. It is characterised by chromosomal abnormalities and genetic alterations involved in differentiation and proliferation of lymphoid precursor cells. Along with response to treatment, these abnormalities are important prognostic factors. Disease-risk stratification and the development of intensified chemotherapy protocols substantially improves the outcome of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, particularly in children (1-14 years), but also in adolescents and young adults (15-39 years). However, the outcome of older adults (≥40 years) and patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia remains poor. New immunotherapeutic strategies, such as monoclonal antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, are being developed and over the next few years could change the options for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment. 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)33018-1
CAR T-cell therapy in autoimmune diseases. Lancet (London, England) Despite the tremendous progress in the clinical management of autoimmune diseases, many patients do not respond to the currently used treatments. Autoreactive B cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibodies, such as rituximab, have poor therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases, mainly due to the persistence of autoreactive B cells in lymphatic organs and inflamed tissues. The adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to target tumour cells via chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has emerged as an effective treatment modality in B-cell malignancies. In the last 2 years treatment with autologous CAR T cells directed against the CD19 antigen has been introduced in therapy of autoimmune disease. CD19 CAR T cells induced a rapid and sustained depletion of circulating B cells, as well as in a complete clinical and serological remission of refractory systemic lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. In this paper, we discuss the evolving strategies for targeting autoreactive B cells via CAR T cells, which might be used for targeted therapy in autoimmune diseases. 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)01126-1