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Epidermal barrier function and systemic diseases. Ramos-e-Silva Marcia,Jacques Claudio de-Moura-Castro Clinics in dermatology The skin is a vital organ for life and, among its many functions, the role as a protective barrier is one of the most important. It is the main boundary between the body and the external environment. As defensive barrier, the epidermis protects internal organs from physical and chemical trauma, microorganism invasion, and ultraviolet radiation. It also acts in the regulation of transepidermal movement of water and electrolytes, and in preventing dehydration, all of which are essential for sustaining life. The main role is allotted to the stratum corneum and to the lipid matrix located in the intercellular space. The occurrence of dysfunction in the epidermal barrier is an important factor in the physiopathogenesis of skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. There are few, but important, systemic changes that influence or are influenced by dysfunctions in the epidermal barrier. We review the effects of some systemic diseases on the maintenance of the skin's homeostasis. 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2011.08.025
Numerical study on the effects of blood perfusion and body metabolism on the temperature profile of human forearm in hyperthermia conditions. Shirkavand Abolfazl,Nazif Hamid Reza Journal of thermal biology The development of mathematical models for describing the thermal behavior of living tissues under normal or hyperthermia conditions is of increasing importance. In this research, a 3D forearm model based on anthropometric measurement of 25 samples in Tehran, Iran was developed. The tissue temperature distribution is obtained via the Finite Volume Method (FVM) by considering the appropriate boundary conditions, blood perfusion, body metabolism, and the application of hyperthermia conditions on the tissue. The Pennes Bioheat Transfer Equation (PBHTE) is considered in this regard. Also, various thermophysical properties are assumed for the model in order to clarify the effects of such parameters on the tissue temperature distribution. The results of this study indicate that it is possible to provide the desired conditions for many therapeutic processes by controlling the parameters such as blood perfusion, body metabolism and the type of external heat source applied on the tissue. Generally, by decreasing the body metabolism, increasing the blood perfusion rate in tissue and applying a fluctuating heat flux, instead of uniform heat flux on the surface of the forearm skin, it is possible to provide the hyperthermia conditions without causing damages such as burn injuries to the other parts of the tissue. By using the results of this study, the appropriate conditions of hyperthermia can be obtained. 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2019.07.023
Thyroid diseases and skin autoimmunity. Baldini Enke,Odorisio Teresa,Tuccilli Chiara,Persechino Severino,Sorrenti Salvatore,Catania Antonio,Pironi Daniele,Carbotta Giovanni,Giacomelli Laura,Arcieri Stefano,Vergine Massimo,Monti Massimo,Ulisse Salvatore Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders The skin is the largest organ of the body, at the boundary with the outside environment. Primarily, it provides a physical and chemical barrier against external insults, but it can act also as immune organ because it contains a whole host of immune-competent cells of both the innate and the adaptive immune systems, which cooperate in eliminating invading pathogens following tissue injury. On the other hand, improper skin immune responses lead to autoimmune skin diseases (AISD), such as pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, vitiligo, and alopecia. Although the interplay among genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors has been shown to play a major role in AISD etiology and progression, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease development are far from being fully elucidated. In this context, epidemiological studies aimed at defining the association of different AISD with other autoimmune pathologies revealed possible shared molecular mechanism(s) responsible for disease progression. In particular, over the last decades, a number of reports have highlighted a significant association between thyroid diseases (TD), mainly autoimmune ones (AITD), and AISD. Here, we will recapitulate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and pathogenesis of the main AISD, and we will summarize the epidemiological evidence showing the associations with TD as well as possible molecular mechanism(s) underlying TD and AISD pathological manifestations. 10.1007/s11154-018-9450-7