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Cross-Sectional Soft-Tissue Composition and the Distribution of Blue Cutaneous Discoloration in the Lower Eyelid after Hyaluronic Acid Injection. Essilfie Juliet O,Kattan Jaffer,Demer Joseph L,Rootman Daniel B Plastic and reconstructive surgery The soft-tissue composition of the eyelid varies from lateral to medial, in that the orbicularis area (in square millimeters) is greatest medially and least laterally, whereas the reverse is true for the preauricularis and postorbicularis fat. The purpose of this study was to describe the relative contribution of tissue types to the volume of the lower eyelid-midface junction. This is an observational cohort study of 11 subjects (20 eyes) without a history of orbital or periorbital surgery or abnormality. Quasi-sagittal surface coil magnetic resonance imaging scans in planes parallel to the long axis of each orbit were obtained during central gaze fixation. Measurements of the tissue area (in square millimeters) of the skin, preorbicularis fat, orbicularis, and postorbicularis fat were obtained in the center, medial, and lateral eyelid regions. Differences in tissue area across the eyelid were assessed. The segmental cross-sectional area and percentage of total segment represented by the orbicularis muscle increased from the lateral (9.4 mm; 21.8 percent) to the central (14.1 mm; 35.0 percent) and to the medial (18.5 mm; 47.0 percent) eyelid (p < 0.01). The inverse pattern was noted for both preorbicularis and postorbicularis fat, each occupying less area (in square millimeters) from lateral to medial (p < 0.01). Skin thickness did not vary significantly across the eyelid. The soft-tissue composition of the eyelid varies from lateral to medial in that the orbicularis increases in area, whereas the reverse is true for the preorbicularis and postorbicularis fat. This anatomical progression may help to explain the stereotypical location of blue discoloration in some patients after hyaluronic acid filler injection. 10.1097/PRS.0000000000005833
Cerebral Embolism as a Result of Facial Filler Injections: A Literature Review. Aesthetic surgery journal BACKGROUND:With the growth in the popularity of facial filler injections, increased numbers of severe adverse events, such as cerebral embolism, have been reported. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this article was to summarize the clinical manifestations and proposed mechanisms of filler-induced cerebral embolism (FICE). METHODS:A literature review was performed with the search keywords "filler injection," "hyaluronic acid," "fat graft," "cerebral infarction," "cerebral embolism," "stroke," "cerebrovascular infarction," "disorders of consciousness," and "hemiplegia." RESULTS:Among the 43 cases of FICE enrolled from 35 articles, 37 patients were female, and 6 were male. Twenty-nine of these patients had received fat grafting, and 12 hyaluronic acid injection. Most FICE patients had been injected in the glabella, followed by the temporal, forehead, and nasal areas. Among 30 patients injected under local anesthesia, 43.33% presented with neurologic symptoms during the procedure. The main symptoms were consciousness disorders and hemiplegia. Most of the embolization sites were in the middle cerebral artery, followed by frontal lobe infarction and anterior cerebral artery infarction. Three patients developed cerebral hemorrhage after embolism. Twenty-six patients presented with newly acquired vision loss. The management for FICE cases included embolectomy, thrombolysis, decompressive craniectomy, antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy, and symptomatic and nutritional treatment. Nearly half of the patients recovered or exhibited improved neurologic manifestations but not visual loss. Five patients died. CONCLUSIONS:FICE is a severe complication following facial filler injection. Careful prevention, timely identification, and treatment are crucial to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of FICE. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4: 10.1093/asj/sjab193