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Impact of maternal whole-cell or acellular pertussis primary immunization on neonatal immune response. Frontiers in immunology With the introduction of pertussis immunization for pregnant women in many countries, there has been renewed interest in the impact of whole-cell pertussis vaccine (wP) versus acellular vaccine (aP) on disease control, particularly regarding the best approach for priming. To gather evidence on this topic, we analyzed the impact of aP or wP priming on aP vaccination during pregnancy (aPpreg) in mice. Two-mother vaccination schemes were employed (wP-wP-aPpreg and aP-aP-aPpreg), and the immune response in the mothers and their offspring, as well as the protection of the offspring against challenge, were assessed. Pertussis toxin (PTx)-specific IgG responses were detected in mothers after both the second and third doses, with higher titers after the third dose, regardless of the vaccination schedule. However, a significant reduction in PTx-IgG levels was observed after 22 weeks post aPpreg immunization in mothers with the aP-aP-aPpreg scheme but not in the wP-wP-aPpreg immunized mothers. The aP-aP-aPpreg schedule triggered a murine antibody response mainly to a Th2-profile, while wP-wP-aPpreg induced a Th1/Th2 mixed profile. Both immunization schemes administered to the mothers protected the offspring against pertussis, but the wP-wP-aPpreg vaccination conferred offspring protection in all pregnancies at least up to 20 weeks after receiving the aPpreg-dose. In contrast, the immunity induced by aP-aP-aPpreg began to decline in births that occurred 18 weeks after receiving the aPpreg dose. For the aP-aP-aPpreg scheme, pups born from gestations furthest from aPpreg (+22 weeks) had lower PTx-specific IgG levels than those born closer to the application of the dose during pregnancy. In contrast, for pups born to wP-wP-aPpreg vaccinated mothers, the PTx-specific IgG levels were maintained over time, even for those born at the longest time studied (+22 weeks). It is noteworthy that only the pups born from mothers with aP-aP-aPpreg and receiving a neonatal dose of either aP or wP were more susceptible to infection than mice with only maternal immunity, suggesting interference with the induced immunity (p<0.05). However, it should be noted that mice with maternal immunity, whether vaccinated or not with neonatal doses, are better protected against colonization with than mice without maternal immunity but vaccinated with aP or wP. 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1192119
Vertically Transferred Immunity in Neonates: Mothers, Mechanisms and Mediators. Albrecht Marie,Arck Petra Clara Frontiers in immunology Over the last years, an increasing number of outbreaks of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases has been reported. Besides elderly and immunocompromised individuals, newborns and small infants are most susceptible to infections, as their immune system is still immature. This vulnerability during infancy can be mitigated by the transplacental transfer of pathogen-specific antibodies and other mediators of immunity from mother to the fetus during pregnancy, followed postnatally by breast milk-derived immunity. Since this largely antibody-mediated passive immunity can prevent the newborn from infections, neonatal immunity depends strongly on the maternal concentration of respective specific antibodies during pregnancy. If titers are low or wane rapidly after birth, the protection transferred to the child may not be sufficient to prevent disease. Moreover, emerging concepts propose that mothers may transfer active immunity to the newborns via vertical transfer of pathogen-specific T cells. Overall, a promising strategy to augment and prolong neonatal immunity is to vaccinate the mother before or during pregnancy in order to boost maternal antibody concentrations or availability of specific T cells. Hence, a large number of pre-and postconceptional vaccine trials have been carried out to test and confirm this concept. We here highlight novel insights arising from recent research endeavors on the influence of prenatal maternal vaccination against pathogens that can pose a threat for newborns, such as measles, pertussis, rubella and influenza A. We delineate pathways involved in the transfer of specific maternal antibodies. We also discuss the consequences for children's health and long-term immunity resulting from an adjustment of prenatal vaccination regimes. 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00555
Roads to the development of improved pertussis vaccines paved by immunology. Brummelman Jolanda,Wilk Mieszko M,Han Wanda G H,van Els Cécile A C M,Mills Kingston H G Pathogens and disease Current acellular pertussis vaccines have various shortcomings, which may contribute to their suboptimal efficacy and waning immunity in vaccinated populations. This calls for the development of new pertussis vaccines capable of inducing long-lived protective immunity. Immunization with whole cell pertussis vaccines and natural infection with Bordetella pertussis induce distinct and more protective immune responses when compared with immunization with acellular pertussis vaccines. Therefore, the immune responses induced with whole cell vaccine or after infection can be used as a benchmark for the development of third-generation vaccines against pertussis. Here, we review the literature on the immunology of B. pertussis infection and vaccination and discuss the lessons learned that will help in the design of improved pertussis vaccines. 10.1093/femspd/ftv067