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Analysis of long non-coding RNAs associated with disulfidptosis for prognostic signature and immunotherapy response in uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma. Scientific reports Disulfidptosis, the demise of cells caused by the abnormal breakdown of disulfide bonds and actin in the cytoprotein backbone, has attracted attention in studies concerning disulfide-related cell death and its potential implications in cancer treatment. This study utilized bioinformatics to detect disulfidptosis associated lncRNA prognostic markers (DALPMs) with Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma (UCEC)-related to investigate the correlation between these indicators and the tumor immune microenvironment. The RNA sequencing data and somatic mutation information of patients with UCEC were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Patients were randomly divided into Train and Test groups. The findings revealed a potential prognostic model comprising 14 DALPMs. Both univariate and multivariate Cox analyses demonstrated that the model-derived risk score functioned as a standalone prognostic indicator for patients. Significant disparities in survival outcomes were observed between the high- and low-risk groups as defined by the model. Differences in tumor mutational burden (TMB), tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE), and tumor microenvironment (TME) stromal cells between patients of the high- and low-risk groups were also observed. The forecast model comprising long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with disulfidptosis can effectively anticipate patients' prognoses. 10.1038/s41598-023-49750-6
Cystine transporter regulation of pentose phosphate pathway dependency and disulfide stress exposes a targetable metabolic vulnerability in cancer. Liu Xiaoguang,Olszewski Kellen,Zhang Yilei,Lim Esther W,Shi Jiejun,Zhang Xiaoshan,Zhang Jie,Lee Hyemin,Koppula Pranavi,Lei Guang,Zhuang Li,You M James,Fang Bingliang,Li Wei,Metallo Christian M,Poyurovsky Masha V,Gan Boyi Nature cell biology SLC7A11-mediated cystine uptake is critical for maintaining redox balance and cell survival. Here we show that this comes at a significant cost for cancer cells with high levels of SLC7A11. Actively importing cystine is potentially toxic due to its low solubility, forcing cancer cells with high levels of SLC7A11 (SLC7A11) to constitutively reduce cystine to the more soluble cysteine. This presents a significant drain on the cellular NADPH pool and renders such cells dependent on the pentose phosphate pathway. Limiting glucose supply to SLC7A11 cancer cells results in marked accumulation of intracellular cystine, redox system collapse and rapid cell death, which can be rescued by treatments that prevent disulfide accumulation. We further show that inhibitors of glucose transporters selectively kill SLC7A11 cancer cells and suppress SLC7A11 tumour growth. Our results identify a coupling between SLC7A11-associated cystine metabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway, and uncover an accompanying metabolic vulnerability for therapeutic targeting in SLC7A11 cancers. 10.1038/s41556-020-0496-x
Disulfidptosis: disulfide stress-induced cell death. Trends in cell biology The cystine transporter solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) (also known as xCT) promotes glutathione synthesis and counters oxidative stress-induced cell death, including ferroptosis, by importing cystine. Also, SLC7A11 plays a crucial role in tumor development. However, recent studies have uncovered an unexpected role of SLC7A11 in promoting disulfidptosis, a novel form of regulated cell death induced by disulfide stress. In this review, we examine the opposing roles of SLC7A11 in regulating redox homeostasis and cell survival/death, summarize current knowledge on disulfidptosis, and explore its potential in disease treatment. A deeper understanding of disulfidptosis will offer new insights into fundamental cellular homeostasis and facilitate the development of innovative therapies for disease treatment. 10.1016/j.tcb.2023.07.009
Impact of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor (TAS1R and TAS2R) genomic and expression alterations in solid tumors on survival. Scientific reports Originally identified on the tongue for their chemosensory role, the receptors for sweet, umami, and bitter taste are expressed in some cancers where they regulate important cellular processes including apoptosis and proliferation. We examined DNA mutations (n = 5103), structural variation (n = 7545), and expression (n = 6224) of genes encoding sweet or umami receptors (TAS1Rs) and bitter receptors (TAS2Rs) in 45 solid tumors subtypes compared to corresponding normal tissue using The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Genotype Tissue Expression Project databases. Expression of TAS1R and TAS2R genes differed between normal and cancer tissue, and nonsilent mutations occurred in many solid tumor taste receptor genes (~ 1-7%). Expression levels of certain TAS1Rs/TAS2Rs were associated with survival differences in 12 solid tumor subtypes. Increased TAS1R1 expression was associated with improved survival in lung adenocarcinoma (mean survival difference + 1185 days, p = 0.0191). Increased TAS2R14 expression was associated with worse survival in adrenocortical carcinoma (-1757 days, p < 0.001) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (-640 days, p = 0.0041), but improved survival in non-papillary bladder cancer (+ 343 days, p = 0.0436). Certain taste receptor genes may be associated with important oncologic pathways and could serve as biomarkers for disease outcomes. 10.1038/s41598-022-12788-z
PLTP is a p53 target gene with roles in cancer growth suppression and ferroptosis. The Journal of biological chemistry The tumor suppressor protein p53 suppresses cancer by regulating processes such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, senescence, and ferroptosis, which is an iron-mediated and lipid peroxide-induced cell death pathway. Whereas numerous p53 target genes have been identified, only a few appear to be critical for the suppression of tumor growth. Additionally, while ferroptosis is clearly implicated in tumor suppression by p53, few p53 target genes with roles in ferroptosis have been identified. We have previously studied germline missense p53 variants that are hypomorphic or display reduced activity. These hypomorphic variants are associated with increased risk for cancer, but they retain the majority of p53 transcriptional function; as such, study of the transcriptional targets of these hypomorphs has the potential to reveal the identity of other genes important for p53-mediated tumor suppression. Here, using RNA-seq in lymphoblastoid cell lines, we identify PLTP (phospholipid transfer protein) as a p53 target gene that shows impaired transactivation by three different cancer-associated p53 hypomorphs: P47S (Pro47Ser, rs1800371), Y107H (Tyr107His, rs368771578), and G334R (Gly334Arg, rs78378222). We show that enforced expression of PLTP potently suppresses colony formation in human tumor cell lines. We also demonstrate that PLTP regulates the sensitivity of cells to ferroptosis. Taken together, our findings reveal PLTP to be a p53 target gene that is extremely sensitive to p53 transcriptional function and which has roles in growth suppression and ferroptosis. 10.1016/j.jbc.2022.102637
Asparagine transport through SLC1A5/ASCT2 and SLC38A5/SNAT5 is essential for BCP-ALL cell survival and a potential therapeutic target. British journal of haematology B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) blasts strictly depend on the transport of extra-cellular asparagine (Asn), yielding a rationale for L-asparaginase (ASNase) therapy. However, the carriers used by ALL blasts for Asn transport have not been identified yet. Exploiting RS4;11 cells as BCP-ALL model, we have found that cell Asn is lowered by either silencing or inhibition of the transporters ASCT2 or SNAT5. The inhibitors V-9302 (for ASCT2) and GluγHA (for SNAT5) markedly lower cell proliferation and, when used together, suppress mTOR activity, induce autophagy and cause a severe nutritional stress, leading to a proliferative arrest and a massive cell death in both the ASNase-sensitive RS4;11 cells and the relatively ASNase-insensitive NALM-6 cells. The cytotoxic effect is not prevented by coculturing leukaemic cells with primary mesenchymal stromal cells. Leukaemic blasts of paediatric ALL patients express ASCT2 and SNAT5 at diagnosis and undergo marked cytotoxicity when exposed to the inhibitors. ASCT2 expression is positively correlated with the minimal residual disease at the end of the induction therapy. In conclusion, ASCT2 and SNAT5 are the carriers exploited by ALL cells to transport Asn, and ASCT2 expression is associated with a lower therapeutic response. ASCT2 may thus represent a novel therapeutic target in BCP-ALL. 10.1111/bjh.19516
Machine-learning based integrating bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing reveals the SLC38A5-CCL5 signaling as a promising target for clear cell renal cell carcinoma treatment. Translational oncology Cancer-associated fibroblasts paly critical roles in regulating cancer cell biological properties by intricate and dynamic communication networks. But the mechanism of CAFs in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is not clear. In our study, we identified CAFs and malignant cells from the integrated scRNA-seq datasets and establish a CAF-derived communication signature based on the highly activated regulons ETS1 and MEF2C. We stratified the ccRCC TME into two molecular subtypes with distinct prognoses, immune cell infiltration landscapes, and immune-related characteristics. The model derived from signature demonstrated high accuracy and robustness in predicting prognosis and ICIs therapy responses. Subsequently, the SLC38A5 of the model was found upregulated in CAFs and was related to decreased survival probabilities, inflamed TME, and upregulated inhibitory checkpoints. SLC38A5 inhibition could attenuate the pro-tumoral abilities of CAFs in terms of proliferation, migration, and invasion. Mechanically, CCL5 could restore these properties induced by SLC38A5 inhibition. In conclusion, our communication signature and its derived model enabled a more precise selection of ccRCC patients who were potential beneficiaries of ICIs. Besides, the SLC38A5-CCL5 axis may serve as a promising target for ccRCC treatment. 10.1016/j.tranon.2023.101790
SLC38A5 promotes glutamine metabolism and inhibits cisplatin chemosensitivity in breast cancer. Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan) BACKGROUND:Solute carrier family 38 member 5 (SLC38A5), as an amino acid transporter, play a vital role in cellular biological processes. In this study, we analyzed the function of SLC38A5 and its potential mechanism in breast cancer (BC) progression. METHODS:The expression of SLC38A5 in cancer and adjacent-normal tissues was analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot, and its correlation with patient prognosis was analyzed. The immunohistochemical staining of cancer tissues and adjacent-normal tissues was performed on SLC38A5-positive specimens. BC mice were successfully applied to examine the role of SLC38A5 on tumor proliferation using the CCK-8 assay. In BC cells and mouse tumor tissues, SLC38A5 and PCNA expression were determined by Western blotting. RESULTS:The study found that SLC38A5 was highly expressed in BC patients and associated with a poor survival. SLC38A5 silencing inhibited BC cell viability and glutamine uptake. In addition, SLC38A5 overexpression promoted BC cell viability via the glutamine metabolism. SLC38A5 inhibited cisplatin chemosensitivity in BC cells. Importantly, SLC38A5 silencing inhibited tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that SLC38A5 enhances BC cell viability by glutamine metabolism, inhibits the chemical sensitivity of cisplatin in BC cells, and promotes tumor growth, emphasizing the clinical relevance of SLC38A5 in BC management as a novel potential therapeutic target. 10.1007/s12282-023-01516-8
Amino acid transporter SLC38A5 is a tumor promoter and a novel therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. Scientific reports Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells have a great demand for nutrients in the form of sugars, amino acids, and lipids. Particularly, amino acids are critical for cancer growth and, as intermediates, connect glucose, lipid and nucleotide metabolism. PDAC cells meet these requirements by upregulating selective amino acid transporters. Here we show that SLC38A5 (SN2/SNAT5), a neutral amino acid transporter is highly upregulated and functional in PDAC cells. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of SLC38A5, we show its tumor promoting role in an in vitro cell line model as well as in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model. Using metabolomics and RNA sequencing, we show significant reduction in many amino acid substrates of SLC38A5 as well as OXPHOS inactivation in response to SLC38A5 deletion. Experimental validation demonstrates inhibition of mTORC1, glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in KO cells, suggesting a serious metabolic crisis associated with SLC38A5 deletion. Since many SLC38A5 substrates are activators of mTORC1 as well as TCA cycle intermediates/precursors, we speculate amino acid insufficiency as a possible link between SLC38A5 deletion and inactivation of mTORC1, glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, and the underlying mechanism for PDAC attenuation. Overall, we show that SLC38A5 promotes PDAC, thereby identifying a novel, hitherto unknown, therapeutic target for PDAC. 10.1038/s41598-023-43983-1
SLC6A14 and SLC38A5 Drive the Glutaminolysis and Serine-Glycine-One-Carbon Pathways in Cancer. Sniegowski Tyler,Korac Ksenija,Bhutia Yangzom D,Ganapathy Vadivel Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland) The glutaminolysis and serine-glycine-one-carbon pathways represent metabolic reactions that are reprogramed and upregulated in cancer; these pathways are involved in supporting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Glutaminolysis participates in the production of lactate, an oncometabolite, and also in anabolic reactions leading to the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. The serine-glycine-one-carbon pathway is involved in the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines and the control of the epigenetic signature (DNA methylation, histone methylation) in cancer cells. Methionine is obligatory for most of the methyl-transfer reactions in the form of S-adenosylmethionine; here, too, the serine-glycine-one-carbon pathway is necessary for the resynthesis of methionine following the methyl-transfer reaction. Glutamine, serine, glycine, and methionine are obligatory to fuel these metabolic pathways. The first three amino acids can be synthesized endogenously to some extent, but the need for these amino acids in cancer cells is so high that they also have to be acquired from extracellular sources. Methionine is an essential amino acid, thus making it necessary for cancer cells to acquire this amino acid solely from the extracellular milieu. Cancer cells upregulate specific amino acid transporters to meet this increased demand for these four amino acids. SLC6A14 and SLC38A5 are the two transporters that are upregulated in a variety of cancers to mediate the influx of glutamine, serine, glycine, and methionine into cancer cells. SLC6A14 is a Na/Cl -coupled transporter for multiple amino acids, including these four amino acids. In contrast, SLC38A5 is a Na-coupled transporter with rather restricted specificity towards glutamine, serine, glycine, and methionine. Both transporters exhibit unique functional features that are ideal for the rapid proliferation of cancer cells. As such, these two amino acid transporters play a critical role in promoting the survival and growth of cancer cells and hence represent novel, hitherto largely unexplored, targets for cancer therapy. 10.3390/ph14030216