logo logo
LncRNA profiles of Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside ameliorated Zearalenone-induced damage in porcine granulosa cells. Gene Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), a class of RNA molecules with transcripts longer than 200 nt, is crucial for maintaining animal reproductive function. Zearalenone (ZEN) damaged animal reproduction by targeting ovarian granulosa cells (GCs), especially in pigs. Nonetheless, it is not quite clear that whether Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) exert effects on porcine GCs (pGCs) after ZEN exposure by altering lncRNA expression. Here, we sought to gain novel information regarding C3G protect against damages induced by ZEN in pGCs. The pGCs were divided into control (Ctrl), ZEN, ZEN + C3G (Z + C), and C3G groups. Results revealed that C3G effectively increased cell viability and suppressed ZEN-induced apoptosis in pGCs. 87 and 82 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) were identified in ZEN vs. Ctrl and Z + C vs. ZEN group, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis observed that the DELs were related to cell metabolism and cell-matrix adhesion biological processes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis found that the DELs were associated with the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway. In brief, we demonstrated that C3G could shield apoptosis induced by ZEN, which may be connected with the changes of lncRNA expression profiles in pGCs. This study complemented our understanding of the genetic basis and molecular mechanisms by which C3G mitigated the toxicity of ZEN in pGCs. 10.1016/j.gene.2023.147693
Betulinic acid mitigates zearalenone-induced liver injury by ERS/MAPK/Nrf2 signaling pathways in mice. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin commonly found in cereals and feedstuffs, which can induce oxidative stress and inflammation to cause liver damage in humans and animals. Betulinic acid (BA) is extracted from pentacyclic triterpenoids of many natural plants and has anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidation biological activities in many studies. However, the protective effect of BA on liver injury induced by ZEA has not been reported. Therefore, this study aims to explore the protective effect of BA on ZEA-induced liver injury and its possible mechanism. In the mice experiment, ZEA exposure increased the liver index and caused histopathological impairment, oxidative damage, hepatic inflammatory responses, and increased hepatocyte apoptosis. However, when combined with BA, it could inhibit the production of ROS, up-regulate the proteins expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 and down-regulate the expression of Keap1, and alleviate oxidative damage and inflammation in the liver of mice. In addition, BA could alleviate ZEA-induced apoptosis and liver injury in mice by inhibiting the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, this study revealed the protective effect of BA on the hepatotoxicity of ZEA for the first time, providing a new perspective for the development of ZEA antidote and the application of BA. 10.1016/j.fct.2023.113811
Toxic effects of zearalenone on gametogenesis and embryonic development: A molecular point of review. Yang Dacheng,Jiang Xinwei,Sun Jianxia,Li Xia,Li Xusheng,Jiao Rui,Peng Ziyao,Li Yuqi,Bai Weibin Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association Zearalenone is commonly generated from moldy cereal grain, which is toxic to the development of gametogenesis and embryo in human and animals. The zearalenone-induced reproductive damage is mainly attributed to four mechanisms. Firstly, zearalenone as an oestrogen-like compound binds to estrogen receptor and causes damage to germ cells and testicular structure. Secondly, zearalenone disrupts the blood-testis barrier, and causes the damage to germ cells. Thirdly, zearalenone elevates oxidative stress, which increases the production of lipid peroxides, and results in the damage to the antioxidant defense system. Fourth, zearalenone increases DNA damage and promotes cells apoptosis. In addition, Zearalenone induces inflammatory reactions and leads to the disorders of reproductive hormones. In this study, we systematically introduced the toxic effects of zearalenone on gametogenesis and embryonic development in animals, and focused on the molecular pathways, which providing a basis for further prevention of zearalenone-induced injury. 10.1016/j.fct.2018.06.003
Zearalenone Promotes Cell Proliferation or Causes Cell Death? Zheng Wanglong,Wang Bingjie,Li Xi,Wang Tao,Zou Hui,Gu Jianhong,Yuan Yan,Liu Xuezhong,Bai Jianfa,Bian Jianchun,Liu Zongping Toxins Zearalenone (ZEA), one of the mycotoxins, exerts different mechanisms of toxicity in different cell types at different doses. It can not only stimulate cell proliferation but also inhibit cell viability, induce cell apoptosis, and cause cell death. Thus, the objective of this review is to summarize the available mechanisms and current evidence of what is known about the cell proliferation or cell death induced by ZEA. An increasing number of studies have suggested that ZEA promoted cell proliferation attributing to its estrogen-like effects and carcinogenic properties. What’s more, many studies have indicated that ZEA caused cell death via affecting the distribution of the cell cycle, stimulating oxidative stress and inducing apoptosis. In addition, several studies have revealed that autophagy and some antioxidants can reverse the damage or cell death induced by ZEA. This review thoroughly summarized the metabolic process of ZEA and the molecular mechanisms of ZEA stimulating cell proliferation and cell death. It concluded that a low dose of ZEA can exert estrogen-like effects and carcinogenic properties, which can stimulate the proliferation of cells. While, in addition, a high dose of ZEA can cause cell death through inducing cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress, DNA damage, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis. 10.3390/toxins10050184
Zearalenone and Its Metabolites-General Overview, Occurrence, and Toxicity. Toxins Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi and represent one of the most common groups of food contaminants with low molecular weight. These toxins are considered common and can affect the food chain at various stages of production, harvesting, storage and processing. Zearalenone is one of over 400 detected mycotoxins and produced by fungi of the genus ; it mainly has estrogenic effects on various organisms. Contaminated products can lead to huge economic losses and pose risks to animals and humans. In this review, we systemize information on zearalenone and its major metabolites. 10.3390/toxins13010035