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Undulatory topographical waves for flow-induced foulant sweeping. Science advances Diverse bioinspired antifouling strategies have demonstrated effective fouling-resistant properties with good biocompatibility, sustainability, and long-term activity. However, previous studies on bioinspired antifouling materials have mainly focused on material aspects or static architectures of nature without serious consideration of kinetic topographies or dynamic motion. Here, we propose a magnetically responsive multilayered composite that can generate coordinated, undulatory topographical waves with controlled length and time scales as a new class of dynamic antifouling materials. The undulatory surface waves of the dynamic composite induce local and global vortices near the material surface and thereby sweep away foulants from the surface, fundamentally inhibiting their initial attachment. As a result, the dynamic composite material with undulating topographical waves provides an effective means for efficient suppression of biofilm formation without surface modification with chemical moieties or nanoscale architectures. 10.1126/sciadv.aax8935
Antibacterial Liquid Metals: Biofilm Treatment Magnetic Activation. Elbourne Aaron,Cheeseman Samuel,Atkin Paul,Truong Nghia P,Syed Nitu,Zavabeti Ali,Mohiuddin Md,Esrafilzadeh Dorna,Cozzolino Daniel,McConville Chris F,Dickey Michael D,Crawford Russell J,Kalantar-Zadeh Kourosh,Chapman James,Daeneke Torben,Truong Vi Khanh ACS nano Antibiotic resistance has made the treatment of biofilm-related infections challenging. As such, the quest for next-generation antimicrobial technologies must focus on targeted therapies to which pathogenic bacteria cannot develop resistance. Stimuli-responsive therapies represent an alternative technological focus due to their capability of delivering targeted treatment. This study provides a proof-of-concept investigation into the use of magneto-responsive gallium-based liquid metal (LM) droplets as antibacterial materials, which can physically damage, disintegrate, and kill pathogens within a mature biofilm. Once exposed to a low-intensity rotating magnetic field, the LM droplets become physically actuated and transform their shape, developing sharp edges. When placed in contact with a bacterial biofilm, the movement of the particles resulting from the magnetic field, coupled with the presence of nanosharp edges, physically ruptures the bacterial cells and the dense biofilm matrix is broken down. The antibacterial efficacy of the magnetically activated LM particles was assessed against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial biofilms. After 90 min over 99% of both bacterial species became nonviable, and the destruction of the biofilms was observed. These results will impact the design of next-generation, LM-based biofilm treatments. 10.1021/acsnano.9b07861
Flexible bioelectronic device fabricated by conductive polymer-based living material. Science advances Living materials are worked as an inside collaborative system that could naturally respond to changing environmental conditions. The regulation of bioelectronic processes in living materials could be effective for collecting biological signals and detecting biomarkers. Here, we constructed a living material with conjugated polymers poly[3-(3'-,,-triethylamino-1'-propyloxy)-4-methyl-2,5-thiophene chloride] (PMNT) and MR-1 biofilm. In addition, the living material was integrated as a flexible bioelectronic device for lactate detection in physiological fluids (sweat, urine, and plasma). Owing to the electroconductivity of conjugated polymers, PMNT could optimize the bioelectronic process in the living material. The collected electrical signal could be wirelessly transferred to a portable smartphone for reading and analyzing. Because lactate is also a biomarker for cancer treatment, the flexible bioelectronic device was further used to detect and count the cancer cells. The proof of the bioelectronic device using conductive polymer-based living material exhibits promising applications in the next-generation personal health monitoring systems. 10.1126/sciadv.abo1458
Living Bioelectrochemical Composites. McCuskey Samantha R,Su Yude,Leifert Dirk,Moreland Alex S,Bazan Guillermo C Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Composites, in which two or more material elements are combined to provide properties unattainable by single components, have a historical record dating to ancient times. Few include a living microbial community as a key design element. A logical basis for enabling bioelectronic composites stems from the phenomenon that certain microorganisms transfer electrons to external surfaces, such as an electrode. A bioelectronic composite that allows cells to be addressed beyond the confines of an electrode surface can impact bioelectrochemical technologies, including microbial fuel cells for power production and bioelectrosynthesis platforms where microbes produce desired chemicals. It is shown that the conjugated polyelectrolyte CPE-K functions as a conductive matrix to electronically connect a three-dimensional network of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to a gold electrode, thereby increasing biocurrent ≈150-fold over control biofilms. These biocomposites spontaneously assemble from solution into an intricate arrangement of cells within a conductive polymer matrix. While increased biocurrent is due to more cells in communication with the electrode, the current extracted per cell is also enhanced, indicating efficient long-range electron transport. Further, the biocomposites show almost an order-of-magnitude lower charge transfer resistance than CPE-K alone, supporting the idea that the electroactive bacteria and the conjugated polyelectrolyte work synergistically toward an effective bioelectronic composite. 10.1002/adma.201908178
α-Helix-Mediated Protein Adhesion. Journal of the American Chemical Society Proteins have been adopted by natural living organisms to create robust bioadhesive materials, such as biofilms and amyloid plaques formed in microbes and barnacles. In these cases, β-sheet stacking is recognized as a key feature that is closely related to the interfacial adhesion of proteins. Herein, we challenge this well-known recognition by proposing an α-helix-mediated interfacial adhesion model for proteins. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, it was discovered that the reduction of disulfide bonds in BSA results in random coils from unfolded BSA dragging α-helices to gather at the solid/liquid interface (SLI). The hydrophobic residues in the α-helix then expose and break through the hydration layer of the SLI, followed by the random deposition of hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues to achieve interfacial adhesion. As a result, the first assembled layer is enriched in the α-helix secondary structure, which is then strengthened by intermolecular disulfide bonds and further initiates stepwise layering protein assembly. In this process, β-sheet stacking is transformed from the α-helix in a gradually evolving manner. This finding thus indicates a valuable clue that β-sheet-featuring amyloid may form after the interfacial adhesion of proteins. Furthermore, the finding of the α-helix-mediated interfacial adhesion model of proteins affords a unique strategy to prepare protein nanofilms with a well-defined layer number, presenting robust and modulable adhesion on various substrates and exhibiting good resistance to acid, alkali, organic solvent, ultrasonic, and adhesive tape peeling. 10.1021/jacs.3c03581
Neutrophil Function Conversion Driven by Immune Switchpoint Regulator against Diabetes-Related Biofilm Infections. Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Reinforced biofilm structures and dysfunctional neutrophils induced by excessive oxidative stress contribute to the refractoriness of diabetes-related biofilm infections (DRBIs). Herein, in contrast to traditional antibacterial therapies, an immune switchpoint-driven neutrophil immune function conversion strategy based on a deoxyribonuclease I loaded vanadium carbide MXene (DNase-I@V C) nanoregulator is proposed to treat DRBIs via biofilm lysis and redirecting neutrophil functions from NETosis to phagocytosis in diabetes. Owing to its intrinsic superoxide dismutase/catalase-like activities, DNase-I@V C effectively scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a high oxidative stress microenvironment to maintain the biological activity of DNase-I. By increasing the depth of biofilm penetration of DNase-I, DNase-I@V C thoroughly degrades extracellular DNA and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in extracellular polymeric substances, thus breaking the physical barrier of biofilms. More importantly, as an immune switchpoint regulator, DNase-I@V C can skew neutrophil functions from NETosis toward phagocytosis by intercepting ROS-NE/MPO-PAD4 and activating ROS-PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways in diabetic microenvironment, thereby eliminating biofilm infections. Biofilm lysis and synergistic neutrophil function conversion exert favorable therapeutic effects on biofilm infections in vitro and in vivo. This study serves as a proof-of-principle demonstration of effectively achieving DRBIs with high therapeutic efficacy by regulating immune switchpoint to reverse neutrophil functions. 10.1002/adma.202310320
Beneficial applications of biofilms. Nature reviews. Microbiology Many microorganisms live in the form of a biofilm. Although they are feared in the medical sector, biofilms that are composed of non-pathogenic organisms can be highly beneficial in many applications, including the production of bulk and fine chemicals. Biofilm systems are natural retentostats in which the biocatalysts can adapt and optimize their metabolism to different conditions over time. The adherent nature of biofilms allows them to be used in continuous systems in which the hydraulic retention time is much shorter than the doubling time of the biocatalysts. Moreover, the resilience of organisms growing in biofilms, together with the potential of uncoupling growth from catalytic activity, offers a wide range of opportunities. The ability to work with continuous systems using a potentially self-advancing whole-cell biocatalyst is attracting interest from a range of disciplines, from applied microbiology to materials science and from bioengineering to process engineering. The field of beneficial biofilms is rapidly evolving, with an increasing number of applications being explored, and the surge in demand for sustainable and biobased solutions and processes is accelerating advances in the field. This Review provides an overview of the research topics, challenges, applications and future directions in beneficial and applied biofilm research. 10.1038/s41579-023-00985-0