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Challenges and Future Trends in Atopic Dermatitis. International journal of molecular sciences Atopic dermatitis represents a complex and multidimensional interaction that represents potential fields of preventive and therapeutic management. In addition to the treatment armamentarium available for atopic dermatitis, novel drugs targeting significant molecular pathways in atopic dermatitis biologics and small molecules are also being developed given the condition's complex pathophysiology. While most of the patients are expecting better efficacy and long-term control, the response to these drugs would still depend on numerous factors such as complex genotype, diverse environmental triggers and microbiome-derived signals, and, most importantly, dynamic immune responses. This review article highlights the challenges and the recently developed pharmacological agents in atopic dermatitis based on the molecular pathogenesis of this condition, creating a specific therapeutic approach toward a more personalized medicine. 10.3390/ijms241411380
Pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis: Clinical implications. Allergy and asthma proceedings Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Genetic predisposition, epidermal barrier disruption, and dysregulation of the immune system are some of the critical components of AD. An impaired skin barrier may be the initial step in the development of the atopic march as well as AD, which leads to further skin inflammation and allergic sensitization. Type 2 cytokines as well as interleukin 17 and interleukin 22 contribute to skin barrier dysfunction and the development of AD. New insights into the pathophysiology of AD have focused on epidermal lipid profiles, neuroimmune interactions, and microbial dysbiosis. Newer therapeutic strategies focus on improving skin barrier function and targeting polarized immune pathways found in AD. Further understanding of AD pathophysiology will allow us to achieve a more precision medicine approach to the prevention and the treatment of AD. 10.2500/aap.2019.40.4202
Molecular Mechanisms of Atopic Dermatitis Pathogenesis. Sroka-Tomaszewska Jowita,Trzeciak Magdalena International journal of molecular sciences Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, non-infectious inflammatory dermatosis. Acharacteristic feature is persistent itching of the skin. The chronic, relapsing course of the disease, economic burden, and the whole family's involvement in the treatment process immensely reduce the quality of life of patients and their families. The disease emerges as a social problem by increasing indirect costs, such as visiting a doctor, absenteeism from work and school, and avoiding social interactions. Thepathophysiology of atopic dermatitis is complex and multifactorial. It includes genetic disorders, a defect in the epidermal barrier, an altered immune response, anddisruption of the skin's microbial balance. The numerous complex changes at thegenetic level and innate and adaptive immunity provide the basis for characterizing the various phenotypes and endotypes of atopic dermatitis. Emerging therapies rely on the action of specific molecules involved in the disease's pathogenesis. It may be the starting point for the individualization of atopic dermatitis treatment. This paper will try to present some molecular mechanisms of atopic dermatitis and their clinical implications. 10.3390/ijms22084130