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Mechanism of quercetin therapeutic targets for Alzheimer disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Scientific reports Quercetin has demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities, suggesting therapeutic potential against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, potential molecular targets of quercetin were first identified using the Swiss Target Prediction platform and pathogenic targets of T2DM and AD were identified using online Mendelian inheritance in man (OMIM), DisGeNET, TTD, DrugBank, and GeneCards databases. The 95 targets shared among quercetin, T2DM, and AD were used to establish a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, top 25 core genes, and protein functional modules using MCODE. Metascape was then used for gene ontology and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. A protein functional module with best score was obtained from the PPI network using CytoHubba, and 6 high-probability quercetin targets (AKT1, JUN, MAPK, TNF, VEGFA, and EGFR) were confirmed by docking simulations. Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out according to the molecular docking results. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis suggested that the major shared mechanisms for T2DM and AD include "AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications," "pathways in cancer," and "MAPK signaling pathway" (the key pathway). We speculate that quercetin may have therapeutic applications in T2DM and AD by targeting MAPK signaling, providing a theoretical foundation for future clinical research. 10.1038/s41598-021-02248-5
Pharmacological mechanism of quercetin in the treatment of colorectal cancer by network pharmacology and molecular simulation. Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics Colorectal cancer is a serious threat to people's life due to its high incidence and high mortality. Quercetin can effectively treat colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but its exact mechanism of action is still unclear. Then quercetin-related target genes were obtained from Swiss Target Prediction database and Similarity Ensemble Approach (SEA) database, and CRC-related target genes were obtained from GeneCards database, respectively. Common target genes were obtained by FunRich software. String software was used to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. R package was used for gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and post-dynamics simulation were used to explore the binding stability of quercetin to key targets. In total, 103 and 141 target information of quercetin were obtained from the Swiss Target Prediction database and SEA database, respectively. 1,649 CRC-related genes were obtained from GeneCards database. FunRich software was used to draw venny map and obtain 36 intersection targets of quercetin and CRC. String software was used to construct the PPI network. The core genes were AKT1, EGFR, MMP9, KDR, MET and PTK2. There were 532 items related to biological processes, 14 items related to cellular components, and 43 items related to molecular functions among the key target GO enrichment items. KEGG enrichment pathways of key targets involved cancer pathways, PI3K-Akt signal pathway, etc. The results of molecular docking, MD simulation and post-dynamics simulation showed they had a good affinity and formed a stable effect. So quercetin may play an important role in the treatment of CRC by acting on AKT1, EGFR, MMP9, KDR, MET and PTK2 to affect the development of CRC.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma. 10.1080/07391102.2023.2235589
Quercetin improves cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by promoting microglia/macrophages M2 polarization via regulating PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie The modulation of microglial polarization from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype shows promise as a therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Quercetin, a natural flavonoid abundant in various plants, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, its effect and underlying mechanism on microglia/macrophages M1/M2 polarization in the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/RI) remain poorly explored. In the current study, we observed that quercetin ameliorated neurological deficits, reduced infarct volume, decreased the number of M1 microglia/macrophages (CD16/32/Iba1), and enhanced the number of M2 microglia/macrophages (CD206/Iba1) after establishing the CI/RI model in rats. Subsequent in vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that quercetin downregulated M1 markers (CD86, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and upregulated M2 markers (CD206, Arg-1, IL-10, and TGF-β). Network pharmacology analysis and molecular docking revealed that the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway emerged as the core pathway. Western blot confirmed that quercetin upregulated the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, while alleviating the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB both in vivo and in vitro. However, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reversed the effects of quercetin on M2 polarization and the expression of key proteins in the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway in primary microglia after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in vitro. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that quercetin facilitates microglia/macrophages M2 polarization by modulating the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in the treatment of CI/RI. These findings provide novel insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of quercetin in ischemic stroke. 10.1016/j.biopha.2023.115653
Efficacy and Mechanism of Quercetin in the Treatment of Experimental Colitis Using Network Pharmacology Analysis. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Quercetin, a flavonoid that is present in vegetables and fruits, has been found to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits colitis is uncertain. This study aimed to explore the effect and pharmacological mechanism of quercetin on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC). Mice were given a 4% () DSS solution to drink for 7 days, followed by regular water for the following 5 days. Pharmacological mechanisms were predicted by network pharmacology. High-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing was performed to detect changes in the intestinal microbiota composition. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting were performed to examine the anti-inflammatory role of quercetin in the colon. Quercetin attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening, and pathological damage to the colon. Quercetin administration modulated the composition of the intestinal microbiota in DSS-induced mice and inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria. Network pharmacology revealed that quercetin target genes were enriched in inflammatory and neoplastic processes. Quercetin dramatically inhibited the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (AKT) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Quercetin has a role in the treatment of UC, with pharmacological mechanisms that involve regulation of the intestinal microbiota, re-establishment of healthy microbiomes that favor mucosal healing, and the inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling. 10.3390/molecules28010146