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STT3A-mediated viral N-glycosylation underlies the tumor selectivity of oncolytic virus M1. Oncogene Oncolytic viruses are emerging as promising anticancer agents. Although the essential biological function of N-glycosylation on viruses are widely accepted, roles of N-glycan and glycan-processing enzyme in oncolytic viral therapy are remain elusive. Here, via cryo-EM analysis, we identified three distinct N-glycans on the envelope of oncolytic virus M1 (OVM) as being necessary for efficient receptor binding. E1-N141-glycan has immediate impact on the binding of MXRA8 receptor, E2-N200-glycan mediates the maturation of E2 from its precursor PE2 which is unable to bind with MXRA8, and E2-N262-glycan slightly promotes receptor binding. The necessity of OVM N-glycans in receptor binding make them indispensable for oncolysis in vitro and in vivo. Further investigations identified STT3A, a key catalytic subunit of oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), as the determinant of OVM N-glycosylation, and STT3A expression in tumor cells is positively correlated with OVM-induced oncolysis. Increased STT3A expression was observed in various solid tumors, pointing to a broad-spectrum anticancer potential of OVM. Collectively, our research supports the importance of STT3A-mediated N-glycosylation in receptor binding and oncolysis of OVM, thus providing a novel predictive biomarker for OVM. 10.1038/s41388-023-02872-7