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Chlorine Dioxide Inhibits African Swine Fever Virus by Blocking Viral Attachment and Destroying Viral Nucleic Acids and Proteins. Frontiers in veterinary science African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious disease and provokes severe economic losses and health threats. At present no effective vaccine or treatment is available to prevent or cure ASF. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop effective drugs against ASF virus (ASFV). Chlorine dioxide (ClO), an ideal biocide, has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and no drug resistance. Here, we found that ClO strongly inhibited ASFV replication in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The inhibitory effect of ClO occurred during viral attachment rather than entry, indicating that ClO suppressed the early stage of virus life cycle. ClO showed a potent anti-ASFV effect when added either before, simultaneously with, or after virus infection. Furthermore, ClO could destroy viral nucleic acids and proteins, which may contribute to its capacity of inactivating ASFV virions. The minimum concentration of degradation of ASFV nucleic acids by ClO is 1.2 μg/mL, and the degradation is a temperature-dependent manner. These have guiding significance for ClO prevention and control of ASFV infection in pig farms. In addition, ClO decreased the expression of ASFV-induced inflammatory cytokines. Overall, our findings suggest that ClO may be an ideal candidate for the development of novel anti-ASFV prophylactic and therapeutic drugs in swine industry. 10.3389/fvets.2022.844058
A systematic review on chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. Journal of medicine and life The COVID-19 pandemic has tremendously increased the production and sales of disinfectants. This study aimed to systematically review and analyze the efficacy and safety of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. The literature relating to the use of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant was systematically reviewed in January 2021 using databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were studies that investigated the use of chlorine dioxide to assess the efficacy, safety, and impact of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. Out of the 33 included studies, 14 studies focused on the disinfectant efficacy of chlorine dioxide, 8 studies expounded on the safety and toxicity in humans and animals, and 15 studies discussed the impact, such as water treatment disinfection using chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide is a safe and effective disinfectant, even at concentrations as low as 20 to 30 mg/L. Moreover, the efficacy of chlorine dioxide is mostly independent of pH. Chlorine dioxide can be effectively used to disinfect drinking water without much alteration of palatability and can also be used to destroy pathogenic microbes, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi from vegetables and fruits. Our review confirms that chlorine dioxide is effective against the resistant , H1N1, and other influenza viruses. Studies generally support the use of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. The concentration deemed safe for usage still needs to be determined on a case-by-case basis. 10.25122/jml-2021-0180