logo logo
Fall-risk increasing drugs and recurrent injurious falls association in older patients after hip fracture: a cohort study protocol. Correa-Pérez Andrea,Delgado-Silveira Eva,Martín-Aragón Sagrario,Cruz-Jentoft Alfonso J Therapeutic advances in drug safety Polypharmacy and fall-risk increasing drugs (FRIDS) have been associated with injurious falls. However, no information is available about the association between FRIDS and injurious falls after hospital discharge due to hip fracture in a very old population. We aim to assess the association between the use of FRIDS at discharge and injurious falls in patients older than 80 years hospitalized due to a hip fracture. A retrospective cohort study using routinely collected health data will be conducted at the Orthogeriatric Unit of a teaching hospital. Patients will be included at hospital discharge (2014), with a 2-year follow-up. Fall-risk increasing drugs will be recorded at hospital discharge, and exposure to drugs will be estimated from usage records during the 2-year follow-up. Injurious falls are defined as falls that lead to any kind of health care (primary or specialized care, including emergency department visits and hospital admissions). A sample size of 193 participants was calculated, assuming that 40% of patients who receive any FRID at discharge, and 20% who do not, will experience an injurious fall during follow up. This protocol explains the study methods and the planned analysis. We expect to find a relevant association between FRIDS at hospital discharge and the incidence of injurious falls in this very old, high risk population. If confirmed, this would support the need for a careful pharmacotherapeutic review in patients discharged after a hip fracture. However, results should be carefully interpreted due to the risk of bias inherent to the study design. 10.1177/2042098619868640
Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations for Selected Nonfatal Injuries Among Adults Aged ≥65 Years - United States, 2018. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report Approximately 60,000 older adults (aged ≥65 years) die from unintentional injuries each year; in 2019 these included 34,000 fall deaths, 8,000 traffic-related motor vehicle crash deaths, and 3,000 drug poisoning deaths (1). In addition, >9,000 suicide deaths occur among older adults each year (1). Deaths among older adults account for 33% of these unintentional injury deaths and 19% of suicide deaths among all age groups (1). Nonfatal injuries from these causes are more common in this age group and can lead to long-term health consequences, such as brain injury and loss of independence. This study included 2018 data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) to determine the prevalence of selected nonfatal injuries among older adults treated in emergency departments (EDs) and hospitals. Injury mechanisms among the leading causes of injury death in older adults were studied, including unintentional falls, unintentional traffic-related motor vehicle crashes, unintentional opioid overdoses, and self-harm (suicidal and nonsuicidal by any mechanism). In 2018, an estimated 2.4 million ED visits and >700,000 hospitalizations from these injuries occurred among adults aged ≥65 years. Unintentional falls accounted for >90% of the selected ED visits and hospitalizations. Injuries among older adults can be prevented (2). Educational campaigns, such as CDC's Still Going Strong* awareness campaign, that use positive messages can encourage older adults to take steps to prevent injuries. Health care providers can help prevent injuries by recommending that older patients participate in effective interventions, including referrals to physical therapy and deprescribing certain medications.. 10.15585/mmwr.mm7018a1
Risk Factors for Incident Fracture in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The Framingham Heart Study. Dufour Alyssa B,Kiel Douglas P,Williams Setareh A,Weiss Richard J,Samelson Elizabeth J Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:To identify risk factors for fracture in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This prospective study included members of the Framingham Original and Offspring Cohorts. Type 2 diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose >125 mg/dL or use of type 2 diabetes therapy. We used repeated-measures Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for associations between potential predictors and incidence of fragility fracture. RESULTS:Participants included 793 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Mean ± SD age was 70 ± 10 years; 45% were women. A total of 106 incident fractures occurred over 1,437 observation follow-up intervals. Fracture incidence increased with age (adjusted HRs 1.00, 1.44 [95% CI 0.65, 3.16], and 2.40 [1.14, 5.04] for <60, 60-70, and >70 years, respectively; = 0.02), female sex (2.23 [1.26, 3.95]), HbA (1.00, 2.10 [1.17, 3.75], and 1.29 [0.69, 2.41] for 4.45-6.46% [25-47 mmol/mol], 6.50-7.49% [48-58 mmol/mol], and 7.50-13.86% [58-128 mmol/mol]; =0.03), falls in past year (1.00, 1.87 [0.82, 4.28], and 3.29 [1.34, 8.09] for no falls, one fall, and two or more falls; =0.03), fracture history (2.05 [1.34, 3.12]), and lower grip strength (0.82 [0.69, 0.99] per 5-kg increase). Femoral neck bone mineral density, BMI, smoking, physical function, chronic diseases, medications, and physical function were not associated with fracture incidence. CONCLUSIONS:Prior falls, fractures, low grip strength, and elevated HbA are risk factors for fractures in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Evaluation of these factors may improve opportunities for early intervention and reduce fractures in this high-risk group. 10.2337/dc20-3150
Better informing everyday fall risk assessment: experimental studies with contemporary technologies. Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Age-related mobility issues and frailty are a major public health concern because of an increased risk of falls. Subjective assessment of fall risk in the clinic is limited, failing to account for an individual's habitual activities in the home or community. Equally, objective mobility trackers for use in the home and community lack extrinsic (ie, environmental) data capture to comprehensively inform fall risk. We propose a contemporary approach that combines artificial intelligence (AI) and video glasses to augment current methods of fall risk assessment. METHODS:Two case studies were performed to provide a framework to assess extrinsic factors within fall risk assessment via video glasses. The first was AI-based detection of environment and terrain type. We developed convolutional neural networks (CNN) via a bespoke dataset (>145 000 images) captured from different settings (eg, offices, high streets) via free-licenced video on social media. AI automated a textual description to uphold privacy while describing the scene (eg, indoor and carpet). In the second case study, we provided video glasses to participants within a university campus (two men, 17 women; aged 21-60 years) to capture data for automatically labelling environment and objects (eg, fall hazards) via a CNN object detection algorithm. The case studies ran from Dec 5, 2022, to March 24, 2023. FINDINGS:To date, results show promise for the efficient, and accurate AI-based approach to better inform fall risk. Each component of the framework achieved at least 75% accuracy across a range of walks (indoor and outdoor and multiple terrains) from a dataset of 6283 new images. The AI achieved a mean average precision score of 0·93 for the identification of fall risk hazards. INTERPRETATIONS:The AI-based approach provides a contemporary means to better inform fall risk while providing an ethical means to uphold privacy. The proposed approach could have significant implications for improving overall health and quality of life, enabling ageing in place through habitual data collection with contemporary wearables to decentralise fall risk assessment. A limitation was the lack of data collection on older adults within real world, unscripted settings. However, the next phase of this research is the deployment of the AI on real-world data from a cohort of more than 40 participants within UK-based homes. FUNDING:National Institute of Health and Care Research (NIHR) Applied Research Collaboration (ARC) North-East and North Cumbria (NENC), Faculty of Engineering and Environment at Northumbria University. 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)02067-6
Nonfatal and Fatal Falls Among Adults Aged ≥65 Years - United States, 2020-2021. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report In the United States, unintentional falls are the leading cause of injury and injury death among adults aged ≥65 years (older adults). Patterns of nonfatal and fatal falls differ by sex and state. To describe this variation, data from the 2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2021 National Vital Statistics System were used to ascertain the percentage of older adults who reported falling during the previous year and unintentional fall-related death rates among older adults. Measures were stratified by demographic characteristics, U.S. Census Bureau region, and state. In 2020, 14 million (27.6%) older adults reported falling during the previous year. The percentage of women who reported falling (28.9%) was higher than that among men (26.1%). The percentage of older adults who reported falling ranged from 19.9% (Illinois) to 38.0% (Alaska). In 2021, 38,742 (78.0 per 100,000 population) older adults died as the result of unintentional falls. The unintentional fall-related death rate was higher among men (91.4 per 100,000) than among women (68.3). The fall-related death rate among older adults ranged from 30.7 per 100,000 (Alabama) to 176.5 (Wisconsin). CDC's Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths and Injuries (STEADI) initiative recommends that health care providers screen and assess older adults for fall risk and intervene using effective preventive strategies. 10.15585/mmwr.mm7235a1
How does the environment in and around the home affect social care and health outcomes for older people? A national longitudinal dynamic cohort study. Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Reducing the burden of falls and fall-related admissions to hospital and care homes is an important policy area because falls cause significant injury leading to a reduced quality of life. We investigated the effect of the environment around people's homes on the risk of falls for older people in Wales. METHODS:In this longitudinal cohort study, we created a dynamic national e-cohort of individuals aged 60 years or older living in Wales between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2019. Using the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank, we linked routinely collected, anonymised health-data on general practitioner (GP) appointments; hospital and emergency admissions; and longitudinal individual-level demographic data to metrics detailing the built environment and deprivation as determined by the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation. Using adjusted cox regression models, we assessed how the risk of a fall changed with sex, age, deprivation quintile, urban or rural classification, household occupancy, care status, frailty, dementia diagnosis, and built environment metrics. Built environments of urban and rural areas are very different, so we stratified our analysis by urbanicity to compare these associations in each setting. FINDINGS:We analysed 5 536 444 person-years of data from 931 830 individuals (sex: 51·5% female, 48·5% male; age: 69·2% aged 60-64 years, 12·3% aged 65-69 years, 13·3% aged 70-79 years, 4·4% aged 80-89 years, and 0·7% aged ≥90 years). 154 060 (16·5%) had a fall between joining the cohort and Dec 31, 2019. Men had a lower risk of falling than women (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0·736 [0·729-0·742]), and the risk increased with age compared with individuals aged 60-64 years (1·395 [1·378-1·412] for 65-69 years, 1·892 [1·871-1·913] for 70-79 years, 2·668 [2·623-2·713] for 80-89 years, 3·196 [3·063-3·335] for ≥90 years) and with frailty compared with fit individuals (1·609 [1·593-1·624] for mild frailty, 2·263 [2·234-2·293] for moderate frailty, and 2·833 [2·770-2·897] for severe frailty). Those living in rural areas were less likely to fall than those in urban areas (0·711 [0·702-0·720]). All p values were less than 0·0001. INTERPRETATION:Although preliminary, these results corroborate current knowledge that as we age and become frailer, the risk of falling increases. The effect of urbanicity on risk of fall suggests that the built environment could be associated with fall risk. We only detected falls that caused emergency or hospital admission, leading to potential selection bias. Nevertheless, this research could help guide policy to reduce the incidence of injuries caused by falls in older people. FUNDING:Health and Care Research Wales. 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)02096-2
2019 EULAR points to consider for non-physician health professionals to prevent and manage fragility fractures in adults 50 years or older. Annals of the rheumatic diseases OBJECTIVE:To establish European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) points to consider for non-physician health professionals to prevent and manage fragility fractures in adults 50 years or older. METHODS:Points to consider were developed in accordance with EULAR standard operating procedures for EULAR-endorsed recommendations, led by an international multidisciplinary task force, including patient research partners and different health professionals from 10 European countries. Level of evidence and strength of recommendation were determined for each point to consider, and the mean level of agreement among the task force members was calculated. RESULTS:Two overarching principles and seven points to consider were formulated based on scientific evidence and the expert opinion of the task force. The two overarching principles focus on shared decisions between patients and non-physician health professionals and involvement of different non-physician health professionals in prevention and management of fragility fractures. Four points to consider relate to prevention: identification of patients at risk of fracture, fall risk evaluation, multicomponent interventions to prevent primary fracture and discouragement of smoking and overuse of alcohol. The remaining three focus on management of fragility fractures: exercise and nutritional interventions, the organisation and coordination of multidisciplinary services for post-fracture models of care and adherence to anti-osteoporosis medicines. The mean level of agreement among the task force for the overarching principles and the points to consider ranged between 8.4 and 9.6. CONCLUSION:These first EULAR points to consider for non-physician health professionals to prevent and manage fragility fractures in adults 50 years or older serve to guide healthcare practice and education. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-216931
Predictors of falls in older adults with and without dementia. Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association INTRODUCTION:Persons living with, versus without, dementia (PLWD) have heightened fall-risk. Little is known about whether fall-risk factors differ by dementia status. METHODS:Using the 2015 and 2016 National Health and Aging Trends Study, we prospectively identified fall-risk factors over a 12-month period among community-living older adults ≥65 years with and without dementia (n = 5581). RESULTS:Fall rates were higher among PLWD compared to persons without dementia (45.5% vs. 30.9%). In a multivariable model including sociodemographic, health, function, and environmental characteristics as predictors, vision impairment (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.12-4.40), and living with a spouse versus alone (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.09-5.43) predicted falls among PLWD, but not among persons without dementia. History of previous falls predicted subsequent falls regardless of dementia status (OR: 6.20, 95% CI: 3.81-10.09, and OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 2.50-3.40, respectively). DISCUSSION:Incorporating appropriate fall-risk factors could inform effective falls screening and prevention strategies for PLWD. HIGHLIGHTS:46% of persons with dementia had ≥1 falls versus 31% of those without dementia in 2016. Vision impairment and living with a spouse predicted falls in persons with dementia. Study results support tailored fall prevention strategies for persons with dementia. 10.1002/alz.12916
A Randomized Trial of a Multifactorial Strategy to Prevent Serious Fall Injuries. The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Injuries from falls are major contributors to complications and death in older adults. Despite evidence from efficacy trials that many falls can be prevented, rates of falls resulting in injury have not declined. METHODS:We conducted a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention that included risk assessment and individualized plans, administered by specially trained nurses, to prevent fall injuries. A total of 86 primary care practices across 10 health care systems were randomly assigned to the intervention or to enhanced usual care (the control) (43 practices each). The participants were community-dwelling adults, 70 years of age or older, who were at increased risk for fall injuries. The primary outcome, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was the first serious fall injury, adjudicated with the use of participant report, electronic health records, and claims data. We hypothesized that the event rate would be lower by 20% in the intervention group than in the control group. RESULTS:The demographic and baseline characteristics of the participants were similar in the intervention group (2802 participants) and the control group (2649 participants); the mean age was 80 years, and 62.0% of the participants were women. The rate of a first adjudicated serious fall injury did not differ significantly between the groups, as assessed in a time-to-first-event analysis (events per 100 person-years of follow-up, 4.9 in the intervention group and 5.3 in the control group; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.06; P = 0.25). The rate of a first participant-reported fall injury was 25.6 events per 100 person-years of follow-up in the intervention group and 28.6 events per 100 person-years of follow-up in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.99; P = 0.004). The rates of hospitalization or death were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS:A multifactorial intervention, administered by nurses, did not result in a significantly lower rate of a first adjudicated serious fall injury than enhanced usual care. (Funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and others; STRIDE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02475850.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2002183
Trends in Nonfatal Falls and Fall-Related Injuries Among Adults Aged ≥65 Years - United States, 2012-2018. Moreland Briana,Kakara Ramakrishna,Henry Ankita MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report Falls are the leading cause of injury among adults aged ≥65 years (older adults) in the United States. In 2018, an estimated 3 million emergency department visits, more than 950,000 hospitalizations or transfers to another facility (e.g., trauma center), and approximately 32,000 deaths resulted from fall-related injuries among older adults.* Deaths from falls are increasing, with the largest increases occurring among persons aged ≥85 years (1). To describe the percentages and rates of nonfatal falls by age group and demographic characteristics and trends in falls and fall-related injuries over time, data were analyzed from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and were compared with data from 2012, 2014, and 2016. In 2018, 27.5% of older adults reported falling at least once in the past year, and 10.2% reported an injury from a fall in the past year. The percentages of older adults reporting a fall increased between 2012 and 2016 and decreased slightly between 2016 and 2018. Falls are preventable, and health care providers can help their older patients reduce their risk for falls. Screening older patients for fall risk, assessing modifiable risk factors (e.g., use of psychoactive medications or poor gait and balance), and recommending interventions to reduce this risk (e.g., medication management or referral to physical therapy) can prevent older adult falls (https://www.cdc.gov/steadi). 10.15585/mmwr.mm6927a5