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Transcriptional regulation of EMT transcription factors in cancer. Seminars in cancer biology The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the processes by which epithelial cells transdifferentiate into mesenchymal cells in the developmental stage, known as "complete EMT." In epithelial cancer, EMT, also termed "partial EMT," is associated with invasion, metastasis, and resistance to therapy, and is elicited by several transcription factors, frequently referred to as EMT transcription factors. Among these transcription factors that regulate EMT, ZEB1/2 (ZEB1 and ZEB2), SNAIL, and TWIST play a prominent role in driving the EMT process (hereafter referred to as "EMT-TFs"). Among these, ZEB1/2 show positive correlation with both expression of mesenchymal marker proteins and the aggressiveness of various carcinomas. On the other hand, TWIST and SNAIL are also correlated with the aggressiveness of carcinomas, but are not highly correlated with mesenchymal marker protein expression. Interestingly, these EMT-TFs are not detected simultaneously in any studied cases of aggressive cancers, except for sarcoma. Thus, only one or some of the EMT-TFs are expressed at high levels in cells of aggressive carcinomas. Expression of EMT-TFs is regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a well-established inducer of EMT, in cooperation with other signaling molecules, such as active RAS signals. The focus of this review is the molecular mechanisms by which EMT-TFs are transcriptionally sustained at sufficiently high levels in cells of aggressive carcinomas and upregulated by TGF-β during cancer progression. 10.1016/j.semcancer.2023.10.001
TGF-beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Xu Jian,Lamouille Samy,Derynck Rik Cell research During development and in the context of different morphogenetic events, epithelial cells undergo a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition or transdifferentiation (EMT). In this process, the cells lose their epithelial characteristics, including their polarity and specialized cell-cell contacts, and acquire a migratory behavior, allowing them to move away from their epithelial cell community and to integrate into surrounding tissue, even at remote locations. EMT illustrates the differentiation plasticity during development and is complemented by another process, called mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). While being an integral process during development, EMT is also recapitulated under pathological conditions, prominently in fibrosis and in invasion and metastasis of carcinomas. Accordingly, EMT is considered as an important step in tumor progression. TGF-beta signaling has been shown to play an important role in EMT. In fact, adding TGF-beta to epithelial cells in culture is a convenient way to induce EMT in various epithelial cells. Although much less characterized, epithelial plasticity can also be regulated by TGF-beta-related bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and BMPs have been shown to induce EMT or MET depending on the developmental context. In this review, we will discuss the induction of EMT in response to TGF-beta, and focus on the underlying signaling and transcription mechanisms. 10.1038/cr.2009.5
MicroRNA-29b regulates TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition of retinal pigment epithelial cells by targeting AKT2. Li Min,Li Hui,Liu Xiaoqiang,Xu Ding,Wang Fang Experimental cell research The role of microRNA (miRNA) in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) progression has not been studied extensively, especially in retinal pigment epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is the main reason for formation of PVR. In this study, we first investigated the miRNA expression profile in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) mediated EMT of ARPE-19 cells. Among the five changed miRNAs, miR-29b showed the most significant downregulation. Enhanced expression of miR-29b could reverse TGF-β1 induced EMT through targeting Akt2. Akt2 downregulation could inhibit TGF-β1-induced EMT. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-29b in ARPE-19 cells directly triggered EMT process, which characterized by the phenotypic transition and the upregulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and downregulation of E-cadherin and zona occludin-1 (ZO-1) with increased cell migration. Akt2-shRNA also inhibited miR-29 inhibitor-induced EMT process. These data indicate that miR-29b plays an important role in TGF-β1-mediated EMT in ARPE-19 cells by targeting Akt2. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2014.09.026
Polysaccharide isolated from persimmon leaves (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells. Lim Won-Chul,Choi Jae Woong,Song Nho-Eul,Cho Chang-Won,Rhee Young Kyoung,Hong Hee-Do International journal of biological macromolecules In the present study, to verify the effect of polysaccharides derived from persimmon leaves (PLE) at epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), A549 cells were treated with TGF-β1 alone or co-treated with TGF-β1 and PLE (50 and 75 μg/mL). PLE-treated cells showed higher expression of E-cadherin and lower expression of N-cadherin and vimentin compared to TGF-β1-treated cells by inhibiting the levels of transcription factors, including Snail, Slug, and ZEB1, all associated with EMT. PLE also significantly decreased migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance through TGF-β1 mediated EMT suppression, whereby PLE inhibited the levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 while cleaving PARP. These inhibitory effects of PLE against EMT, migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance were determined by activating the canonical SMAD2/3 and non-canonical ERK/p38 signaling pathways. Therefore, these results suggest that PLE could be used as a potential chemical therapeutic agent for early metastasis of lung cancer in vitro. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.155
Daidzin targets epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process by attenuating manganese superoxide dismutase expression and PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation in tumor cells. Yang Min Hee,Jung Sang Hoon,Um Jae-Young,Kumar Alan Prem,Sethi Gautam,Ahn Kwang Seok Life sciences AIMS:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process during which epithelial cells lose their polarity and gain invasive properties to transform into mesenchymal cells. A few recent studies have reported that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) can effectively modulate EMT phenotype by influencing cellular redox environment via altering the intracellular ratio between O and HO. Daidzin (DDZ), a naturally occurring isoflavone isolated from Pueraria lobate (Fabaceae), has numerous pharmacologic effects including anti-cholesterol, anti-angiocardiopathy, anti-cancer. However, the potential inhibitory impact of DDZ on cancer metastasis and specifically on the EMT process has not been evaluated. We aimed to evaluate the possible relationship between MnSOD and EMT as well as influence of DDZ on these two processes in colon and prostate carcinoma cells. MAIN METHODS:Cell viability was measured by MTT and real time cell analysis (RTCA) assay. Protein expression level of EMT markers and Akt/mTOR/PI3K signaling pathway were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Expression of EMT markers in cells was observed by immunocytochemistry. Cell invasion and migrations were evaluated by wound healing assay and Boyden chamber assay. KEY FINDINGS:DDZ can block EMT accompanied with down-regulation of MnSOD, fibronectin, vimentin, MMP-9, MMP-2, N-cadherin, twist, and Snail, and up-regulation of occludin and E-cadherin in both unstimulated and TGFβ-induced cells. In addition, DDZ exposure also attenuated cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis by reversing the EMT process in SNU-C2A, DU145, and PC-3 cells. DDZ treatment also modulated activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascades in DU145 cells. Moreover, an overexpression of MnSOD or silencing of MnSOD expression modulated EMT-related proteins, PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation and invasive activity. SIGNIFICANCE:This is first finding on the DDZ in regulating MnSOD and EMT process by targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in both colorectal and prostate cancer cell lines. Our data indicated that DDZ might act as a potent suppressor of EMT by affecting MnSOD expression in tumor cells. 10.1016/j.lfs.2022.120395