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Interaction of NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin Signaling Pathways in Alzheimer's Disease and Potential Active Drug Treatments. Liu Xiao,Wang Kaiyue,Wei Xing,Xie Tian,Lv Bin,Zhou Qian,Wang Xiaoying Neurochemical research The most important neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are extracellular amyloid-β protein (Aβ) deposition, tau protein hyperphosphorylation and activation of neurometabolic reaction in the brain accompanied by neuronal and synaptic damage, and impaired learning and memory function. According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis, increased Aβ deposits in the brain to form the core of the senile plaques that initiate cascade reactions, affecting the synapses and stimulating activation of microglia, resulting in neuroinflammation. A growing number of studies has shown that NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin pathways play important roles in neurodegenerative diseases, especially AD. In this review, we briefly introduce the connection between neuroinflammation-mediated synaptic dysfunction in AD and elaborated on the mechanism of these two signaling pathways in AD-related pathological changes, as well as their interaction. Based on our interest in natural compounds, we also briefly introduce and conduct preliminary screening of potential therapeutics for AD. 10.1007/s11064-021-03227-y
MLKL deficiency alleviates neuroinflammation and motor deficits in the α-synuclein transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Molecular neurodegeneration Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most devastating neurodegenerative brain disorders, is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and deposits of α-synuclein aggregates. Currently, pharmacological interventions for PD remain inadequate. The cell necroptosis executor protein MLKL (Mixed-lineage kinase domain-like) is involved in various diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative diseases; however, its precise role in PD remains unclear. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective role of MLKL inhibition or ablation against primary neuronal cells and human iPSC-derived midbrain organoids induced by toxic α-Synuclein preformed fibrils (PFFs). Using a mouse model (Tg-Mlkl) generated by crossbreeding the SNCA A53T synuclein transgenic mice with MLKL knockout (KO)mice, we assessed the impact of MLKL deficiency on the progression of Parkinsonian traits. Our findings demonstrate that Tg-Mlkl mice exhibited a significant improvement in motor symptoms and reduced phosphorylated α-synuclein expression compared to the classic A53T transgenic mice. Furthermore, MLKL deficiency alleviated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuron loss and attenuated neuroinflammation by inhibiting the activation of microglia and astrocytes. Single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) analysis of the SN of Tg-Mlkl mice revealed a unique cell type-specific transcriptome profile, including downregulated prostaglandin D synthase (PTGDS) expression, indicating reduced microglial cells and dampened neuron death. Thus, MLKL represents a critical therapeutic target for reducing neuroinflammation and preventing motor deficits in PD. 10.1186/s13024-023-00686-5
Novel insights into Parkin-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease. Current opinion in neurobiology Mutations in PRKN cause the second most common genetic form of Parkinson's disease (PD)-a debilitating movement disorder that is on the rise due to population aging in the industrial world. PRKN codes for an E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been well established as a key regulator of mitophagy. Together with PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), Parkin controls the lysosomal degradation of depolarized mitochondria. But Parkin's functions go well beyond mitochondrial clearance: the versatile protein is involved in mitochondria-derived vesicle formation, cellular metabolism, calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial DNA maintenance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and apoptosis induction. Moreover, Parkin can act as a modulator of different inflammatory pathways. In the current review, we summarize the latest literature concerning the diverse roles of Parkin in maintaining a healthy mitochondrial pool. Moreover, we discuss how these recent discoveries may translate into personalized therapeutic approaches not only for PRKN-PD patients but also for a subset of idiopathic cases. 10.1016/j.conb.2023.102720
Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease: From Gene to Clinic: A Systematic Review. International journal of molecular sciences Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease whose progression and clinical characteristics have a close bidirectional and multilevel relationship with the process of neuroinflammation. In this context, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms involved in this neuroinflammation-PD link. This systematic search was, hereby, conducted with a focus on the four levels where alterations associated with neuroinflammation in PD have been described (genetic, cellular, histopathological and clinical-behavioral) by consulting the PubMed, Google Scholar, Scielo and Redalyc search engines, including clinical studies, review articles, book chapters and case studies. Initially, 585,772 articles were included, and, after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 84 articles were obtained that contained information about the multilevel association of neuroinflammation with alterations in gene, molecular, cellular, tissue and neuroanatomical expression as well as clinical-behavioral manifestations in PD. 10.3390/ijms24065792
Role of α-synuclein in microglia: autophagy and phagocytosis balance neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease. Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.] BACKGROUND:Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and is characterized by accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn). Neuroinflammation driven by microglia is an important pathological manifestation of PD. α-Syn is a crucial marker of PD, and its accumulation leads to microglia M1-like phenotype polarization, activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes, and impaired autophagy and phagocytosis in microglia. Autophagy of microglia is related to degradation of α-syn and NLRP3 inflammasome blockage to relieve neuroinflammation. Microglial autophagy and phagocytosis of released α-syn or fragments from apoptotic neurons maintain homeostasis in the brain. A variety of PD-related genes such as LRRK2, GBA and DJ-1 also contribute to this stability process. OBJECTIVES:Further studies are needed to determine how α-syn works in microglia. METHODS:A keyword-based search was performed using the PubMed database for published articles. CONCLUSION:In this review, we discuss the interaction between microglia and α-syn in PD pathogenesis and the possible mechanism of microglial autophagy and phagocytosis in α-syn clearance and inhibition of neuroinflammation. This may provide a novel insight into treatment of PD. 10.1007/s00011-022-01676-x
Neurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease: a Self-Sustained Loop. Current neurology and neuroscience reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Neuroinflammation plays a significant role in Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology along with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired proteostasis. In this context, mechanisms related to immune response can act as modifiers at different steps of the neurodegenerative process and justify the growing interest in anti-inflammatory agents as potential disease-modifying treatments in PD. The discovery of inherited gene mutations in PD has allowed researchers to develop cellular and animal models to study the mechanisms of the underlying biology, but the original cause of neuroinflammation in PD is still debated to date. RECENT FINDINGS:Cell autonomous alterations in neuronal cells, including mitochondrial damage and protein aggregation, could play a role, but recent findings also highlighted the importance of intercellular communication at both local and systemic level. This has given rise to debate about the role of non-neuronal cells in PD and reignited intense research into the gut-brain axis and other non-neuronal interactions in the development of the disease. Whatever the original trigger of neuroinflammation in PD, what appears quite clear is that the aberrant activation of glial cells and other components of the immune system creates a vicious circle in which neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation nourish each other. In this review, we will provide an up-to-date summary of the main cellular alterations underlying neuroinflammation in PD, including those induced by environmental factors (e.g. the gut microbiome) and those related to the genetic background of affected patients. Starting from the lesson provided by familial forms of PD, we will discuss pathophysiological mechanisms linked to inflammation that could also play a role in idiopathic forms. Finally, we will comment on the potential clinical translatability of immunobiomarkers identified in PD patient cohorts and provide an update on current therapeutic strategies aimed at overcoming or preventing inflammation in PD. 10.1007/s11910-022-01207-5
Neurodegeneration and Inflammation-An Interesting Interplay in Parkinson's Disease. International journal of molecular sciences Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, caused by, so far, unknown pathogenetic mechanisms. There is no doubt that pro-inflammatory immune-mediated mechanisms are pivotal to the pathogenicity and progression of the disease. In this review, we highlight the binary role of microglia activation in the pathophysiology of the disorder, both neuroprotective and neuromodulatory. We present how the expression of several cytokines implicated in dopaminergic neurons (DA) degeneration could be used as biomarkers for PD. Viral infections have been studied and correlated to the disease progression, usually operating as trigger factors for the inflammatory process. The gut-brain axis and the possible contribution of the peripheral bowel inflammation to neuronal death, mainly dopaminergic neurons, seems to be a main contributor of brain neuroinflammation. The role of the immune system has also been analyzed implicating a-synuclein in the activation of innate and adaptive immunity. We also discuss therapeutic approaches concerning PD and neuroinflammation, which have been studied in experimental and in vitro models and data stemming from epidemiological studies. 10.3390/ijms21228421
The role of Toll-like receptors and neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease. Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms, significantly affecting patients' life. Pathologically, PD is associated with the extensive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in various regions of the central nervous system (CNS), specifically the substantia nigra. This neuronal loss is accompanied by the aggregation of misfolded protein, named α-synuclein. MAIN TEXT:Recent studies detected several clues of neuroinflammation in PD samples using postmortem human PD brains and various PD animal models. Some evidence of neuroinflammation in PD patients included higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), presence of activated microglia in various brain regions such as substantia nigra, infiltration of peripheral inflammatory cells in affected brain regions, and altered function of cellular immunity like monocytes phagocytosis defects. On the other side, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors primarily located on microglia, as well as other immune and non-immune cells, expressing pivotal roles in recognizing exogenous and endogenous stimuli and triggering inflammatory responses. Most studies indicated an increased expression of TLRs in the brain and peripheral blood cells of PD samples. Besides, this upregulation was associated with excessive neuroinflammation followed by neurodegeneration in affected regions. Therefore, evidence proposed that TLR-mediated neuroinflammation might lead to a dopaminergic neural loss in PD patients. In this regard, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 have the most prominent roles. CONCLUSION:Although the presence of inflammation in acute phases of PD might have protective effects concerning the clearance of α-synuclein and delaying the disease advancement, the chronic activation of TLRs and neuroinflammation might lead to neurodegeneration, resulting in the disease progression. Therefore, this study aimed to review additional evidence of the contribution of TLRs and neuroinflammation to PD pathogenesis, with the hope that TLRs could serve as novel disease-modifying therapeutic targets in PD patients in the future. 10.1186/s12974-022-02496-w
Microglia Mediated Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease. Cells Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder seen, especially in the elderly. Tremor, shaking, movement problems, and difficulty with balance and coordination are among the hallmarks, and dopaminergic neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars compacta of the brain and aggregation of intracellular protein α-synuclein are the pathological characterizations. Neuroinflammation has emerged as an involving mechanism at the initiation and development of PD. It is a complex network of interactions comprising immune and non-immune cells in addition to mediators of the immune response. Microglia, the resident macrophages in the CNS, take on the leading role in regulating neuroinflammation and maintaining homeostasis. Under normal physiological conditions, they exist as "homeostatic" but upon pathological stimuli, they switch to the "reactive state". Pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes are used to classify microglial activity with each phenotype having its own markers and released mediators. When M1 microglia are persistent, they will contribute to various inflammatory diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD. In this review, we focus on the role of microglia mediated neuroinflammation in PD and also signaling pathways, receptors, and mediators involved in the process, presenting the studies that associate microglia-mediated inflammation with PD. A better understanding of this complex network and interactions is important in seeking new therapies for PD and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. 10.3390/cells12071012
Gut Microbiota Regulate Motor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in a Model of Parkinson's Disease. Cell The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology. Antibiotic treatment ameliorates, while microbial re-colonization promotes, pathophysiology in adult animals, suggesting that postnatal signaling between the gut and the brain modulates disease. Indeed, oral administration of specific microbial metabolites to germ-free mice promotes neuroinflammation and motor symptoms. Remarkably, colonization of αSyn-overexpressing mice with microbiota from PD-affected patients enhances physical impairments compared to microbiota transplants from healthy human donors. These findings reveal that gut bacteria regulate movement disorders in mice and suggest that alterations in the human microbiome represent a risk factor for PD. 10.1016/j.cell.2016.11.018
Biomarker of Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease. International journal of molecular sciences Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, which subsequently causes motor symptoms. Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in PD. This neuroinflammatory neurodegeneration involves the activation of microglia, upregulation of proinflammatory factors, and gut microbiota. In this review, we summarized the recent findings on detection of PD by using inflammatory biomarkers, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES) and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP); and radiotracers such as [11C]PK11195 and [18F]-FEPPA, as well as by monitoring disease progression and the treatment response. Many PD-causing mutations in , , , , and are also associated with neuroinflammation. Several anti-inflammatory medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), inhibitors of TNF-α and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), agonists of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and steroids, have demonstrated neuroprotective effects in in vivo or in vitro PD models. Clinical trials applying objective biomarkers are required to investigate the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory medications for PD. 10.3390/ijms23084148
Parkinson's disease: etiopathogenesis and treatment. Jankovic Joseph,Tan Eng King Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry The concept of 'idiopathic' Parkinson's disease (PD) as a single entity has been challenged with the identification of several clinical subtypes, pathogenic genes and putative causative environmental agents. In addition to classic motor symptoms, non-motor manifestations (such as rapid eye movement sleep disorder, anosmia, constipation and depression) appear at prodromic/premotor stage and evolve, along with cognitive impairment and dysautonomia, as the disease progresses, often dominating the advanced stages of the disease. The key molecular pathogenic mechanisms include α-synuclein misfolding and aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of protein clearance (associated with deficient ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems), neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The involvement of dopaminergic as well as noradrenergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic and adenosine pathways provide insights into the rich and variable clinical phenomenology associated with PD and the possibility of alternative therapeutic approaches beyond traditional dopamine replacement therapies.One of the biggest challenges in the development of potential neuroprotective therapies has been the lack of reliable and sensitive biomarkers of progression. Immunotherapies such as the use of vaccination or monoclonal antibodies directed against aggregated, toxic α-synuclein.as well as anti-aggregation or protein clearance strategies are currently investigated in clinical trials. The application of glucagon-like peptide one receptor agonists, specific PD gene target agents (such as GBA or LRRK2 modifiers) and other potential disease modifying drugs provide cautious optimism that more effective therapies are on the horizon. Emerging therapies, such as new symptomatic drugs, innovative drug delivery systems and novel surgical interventions give hope to patients with PD about their future outcomes and prognosis. 10.1136/jnnp-2019-322338