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The MS4A family: counting past 1, 2 and 3. Eon Kuek Li,Leffler Melanie,Mackay Graham A,Hulett Mark D Immunology and cell biology The MS4A (membrane-spanning 4-domain family, subfamily A) family of proteins contains some well-known members including MS4A1 (CD20), MS4A2 (FcɛRIβ) and MS4A3 (HTm4). These three MS4A family members are expressed on the cell surface of specific leukocyte subsets and have been well characterized as having key roles in regulating cell activation, growth and development. However, beyond MS4A1-3 there are a large number of related molecules (18 to date in humans) where our understanding of their biological roles is at a relatively nascent stage. This review examines the larger MS4A family focusing on their structure, expression, regulation and characterized and/or emerging biological roles. Our own work on one family member MS4A8B, and its possible role in epithelial cell regulation, is also highlighted. 10.1038/icb.2015.48