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The Efficacy and Safety of Transcatheter Arterial Embolization to Treat Renal Hemorrhage after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy. BioMed research international PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in patients with renal hemorrhage after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and evaluate the risk factors that may result in severe bleeding requiring TAE. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 121 patients with post-PCNL renal hemorrhage. Thirty-two patients receiving endovascular embolization were compared with 89 patients only receiving conservative treatment. The demographic and clinical data were recorded and compared between the two groups. The values of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and serum creatinine (SCr) were recorded preoperatively, postoperatively, and at last follow-up and analyzed to evaluate the safety and efficiency of TAE. RESULTS:The successful hemostasis rate of conservative therapy was 73.6% (89/121) and that of TAE was 100% (32/32). SCr and eGFR were not significantly different before PCNL and after the last follow-up of TAE (SCr: 0.95 vs. 0.95 mg/dl, =0.857; eGFR: 86.77 vs. 86.18 ml/min/1.73m, =0.715). The univariate analysis demonstrated that advanced age, urinary tract infection, and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with severe bleeding during PCNL. Multivariate analysis further identified that diabetes mellitus was an independent risk factor for severe bleeding needing TAE [odds ratio (OR): 3.778, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.276-11.190, and =0.016]. CONCLUSION:TAE is a safe and effective procedure to treat renal hemorrhage that cannot be resisted by conservative treatment after PCNL. Diabetes mellitus was associated with high risks of severe bleeding needing TAE after PCNL. 10.1155/2019/6265183