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Hyperoside suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome in Parkinson's disease via Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide. Neurochemistry international NLR Family Pyrin Domain Containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-induced neuroinflammation is the main pathogenic mechanism of dopaminergic (DA) neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside), an active compound obtained from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Abelmoschus manihot, is a potential inflammasome inhibitor. Besides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activated peptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide with neuroprotective effects in various neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD. This study aimed to explore the effects of hyperoside on inflammasome-induced neuroinflammation, and its relationship with PACAP in PD. N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was used to induce PD-like lesions in mice. Behavioral methods, including the pole test and rotarod test, were used to evaluate the hyperoside effects on MPTP-induced motor dysfunction. Immunohistochemistry was done to detect the loss of DA neurons and activation of glia in the substantia nigra compacta (SNpc). Besides, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect pro-inflammatory cytokines and Western blotting to detect the inflammasome components. PACAP 6-38, a non-irritating competitive antagonist of PACAP, was used to explore the anti-inflammation mechanism of hyperoside. The results showed that hyperoside inhibited the activation of glia and reduced the secretion of inflammatory factors, protecting DA neurons and reversing the motor dysfunction caused by MPTP. Hyperoside also inhibited the inflammasome activation by reducing the expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspases recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1 and increased PACAP content and CREB phosphorylation in the SNpc of the mice. PACAP 6-38 reversed the inhibitory effect of hyperoside on the microglia proliferation and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These results indicate that hyperoside can inhibit the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by up-regulating PACAP, thus effectively inhibiting MPTP-induced neuroinflammation and protecting DA neurons. Therefore, hyperoside can be used to treat PD. 10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105254