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Association between Systemic Factors and Vitreous Fluid Cytokines in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy. Journal of clinical medicine Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a vision-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Systemic and intraocular factors are intricately related to PDR, and vitreous fluid (VF) cytokines are representative intraocular biomarkers. However, the associations between systemic factors and VF cytokines and their influence on PDR pathology are unclear. This study aimed to examine the correlation between systemic factors and VF cytokines and analyze their contributions to the pathology of PDR using multivariate analyses. We conducted a retrospective observational study on 26 PDR eyes of 25 patients with type 2 DM, and 30 eyes of 30 patients with idiopathic macular hole or epiretinal membrane as controls. Fifteen systemic and laboratory tests including blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI), and 27 cytokines in VF were analyzed. BP and BMI correlated positively with VF levels of IL-6 and IP-10 in PDR patients, while no significant correlation was found between systemic factors and VF cytokines in controls. MCP-1 and VEGF-A in VF separately clustered with different systemic factors in controls, but these cytokines lost the property similarity with systemic factors and acquired property similarity with each other in PDR. Systemic factors contributed to only 10.4%, whereas VF cytokines contributed to 42.3% out of 52.7% variance of the whole PDR dataset. Our results suggest that intraocular factors play a major role in the pathology of PDR, whereas systemic factors may have limited effects, and that BP and BMI control in PDR could be useful interventions to improve intraocular immune condition. 10.3390/jcm12062354
Endothelium-derived semaphorin 3G attenuates ischemic retinopathy by coordinating β-catenin-dependent vascular remodeling. Chen Dan-Yang,Sun Ning-He,Chen Xiang,Gong Jun-Jie,Yuan Song-Tao,Hu Zi-Zhong,Lu Nan-Nan,Körbelin Jakob,Fukunaga Kohji,Liu Qing-Huai,Lu Ying-Mei,Han Feng The Journal of clinical investigation Abnormal angiogenesis and regression of the diseased retinal vasculature are key processes associated with ischemic retinopathies, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate vascular remodeling remain poorly understood. Here, we confirmed the specific expression of semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) in retinal endothelial cells (ECs), which was required for vascular remodeling and the amelioration of ischemic retinopathy. We found that Sema3G was elevated in the vitreous fluid of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and in the neovascularization regression phase of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Endothelial-specific Sema3G knockout mice exhibited decreased vessel density and excessive matrix deposition in the retinal vasculature. Moreover, loss of Sema3G aggravated pathological angiogenesis in mice with OIR. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that HIF-2α directly regulated Sema3G transcription in ECs under hypoxia. Sema3G coordinated the functional interaction between β-catenin and VE-cadherin by increasing β-catenin stability in the endothelium through the neuropilin-2 (Nrp2)/PlexinD1 receptor. Furthermore, Sema3G supplementation enhanced healthy vascular network formation and promoted diseased vasculature regression during blood vessel remodeling. Overall, we deciphered the endothelium-derived Sema3G-dependent events involved in modulating physiological vascular remodeling and regression of pathological blood vessels for reparative vascular regeneration. Our findings shed light on the protective effect of Sema3G in ischemic retinopathies. 10.1172/JCI135296