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Assessment and treatment of mental health conditions in children and adolescents: A systematic scoping review of how virtual reality environments have been used. Clinical child psychology and psychiatry BACKGROUND:There is growing interest in the use of virtual reality environments (VREs) in psychological treatment and assessment. Most research has focused on the application of VREs in adult psychological disorders with fewer studies focusing on its applicability with children and adolescents. A systematic scoping review was undertaken of research assessing how VREs have been used in the treatment and assessment of childhood mental health disorders to provide an overview of the current state of the literature and identify future research directions. METHOD:Systematic searches of online databases were conducted in PsycInfo, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science. RESULTS:Eleven studies met eligibility criteria and were included in this review, with the majority focusing on VRE interventions for anxiety-related disorders. There is also emerging support for VRE deep breathing training for anxiety, VRE assisted treatment of internet gaming disorder and anorexia nervosa, and VRE assessment of body image evaluation in anorexia nervosa. Most studies were pilot and feasibility studies with only three randomised-controlled trials (RCT). CONCLUSIONS:The current literature shows some promise for the use of VRE assessments and interventions of childhood mental health problems, particularly for anxiety-related disorders such as social anxiety and specific phobias. However, high-quality RCTs are now needed to establish effectiveness of VREs in this population, and how it compares to existing evidence-based approaches, given its promise to improve both engagement and outcomes. 10.1177/13591045231204082
Adolescents' Assessment of Two Mental Health-Promoting Mobile Apps: Results of Two User Surveys. JMIR formative research BACKGROUND:The importance of mental health promotion is irrevocable and is especially important at a young age. More mental health-promoting mobile apps have been developed in the last few years. However, their usability and quality have been rarely assessed. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study is to investigate how adolescents assess the usability, quality, and potential goal achievement of Opp and NettOpp. Opp is a universal mental health-promoting mobile app aimed at 13- to 19-year-olds, and NettOpp is a mobile app for children and adolescents between 11 to 16 years of age that have experienced negative incidents online. METHODS:A total of 45 adolescents tested either Opp (n=30) or NettOpp (n=15) for a period of 3 weeks and answered a questionnaire. The System Usability Scale (SUS) was used to measure the usability of the apps. A SUS score above 70 indicates acceptable usability. Items from the Mobile Application Rating Scale were adapted for study purposes and used to measure the quality and perceived goal achievement that Opp and NettOpp might have on adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and intention to change behavior. Furthermore, adolescents could answer an open comment question. RESULTS:Opp had a mean SUS score of 80.37 (SD 9.27), and NettOpp's mean SUS score was 80.33 (SD 10.30). In the overall evaluation, Opp and NettOpp were given a mean score of 3.78 (SD 0.42) and 4.20 (SD 0.56), respectively, on a 5-point scale, where 5 was best. Most adolescents who evaluated Opp rated that the app would increase knowledge about mental health and help young people deal with stress and difficult emotions or situations. Most adolescents who evaluated NettOpp agreed that the app would increase awareness and knowledge about cyberbullying, change attitudes toward cyberbullying, and motivate them to address cyberbullying. Some adolescents stated that Opp was difficult to navigate and consisted of too much text. Some of the adolescents that tested NettOpp stated that the app had crashed and that the design was a bit childish. CONCLUSIONS:All in all, this study indicates that Opp and NettOpp have good usability and that adolescents are satisfied with both apps. It also indicates that the potential goal achievement of the apps, for example, increasing knowledge about mental health (Opp) or cyberbullying (NettOpp) is promising. While there are some comments from the users that are more difficult to solve (eg, Opp is too text-based), some comments helped improve the apps (eg, that the app crashed). Overall, the user evaluation provided valuable knowledge about how adolescents assess Opp and NettOpp. However, more extensive effectiveness studies are necessary to measure their actual goal achievement. 10.2196/40773
Mental Health of Transgender Adolescents Around the Globe-A Call for Comprehensive Assessment of Gender Identity. Thoma Brian C,Choukas-Bradley Sophia JAMA network open 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.23412
Patients' Mental Health Journeys: A Qualitative Case Study with Interactive Computer-Assisted Client Assessment Survey (iCASS). Ferrari Manuela,Shakya Yogendra,Ledwos Cliff,McKenzie Kwame,Ahmad Farah Journal of immigrant and minority health Despite growing concerns about common mental disorders (CMDs), challenges persist in accessing timely and appropriate care, especially for immigrant, refugee, racialized and low-income groups. Partnering with a community health centre serving these populations in Toronto, we examined the Interactive Computer-assisted Client Assessment Survey (iCCAS) that screens for CMDs (depression, generalized anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol overuse) and related social factors. In this case study design with embedded units, we explored the mental health care journeys of patients who screened positive for a CMD. The analysis identified three major pathways of care: (1) early detection of previously unidentified CMDs; (2) detection of comorbid mental health conditions; and (3) prevention of possible relapse and/or management of existing previously recognized mental health condition. These cases indicate iCCAS holds potential to facilitate more open, tailored, and informed collaborations between patients and clinicians regarding mental health care plans. 10.1007/s10903-017-0643-z
Validation of the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) 5.0 for use among youth in mental health services. Child: care, health and development BACKGROUND:Among youth with psychiatric disorders, the transition from child to adult mental health services is a period of vulnerability to discontinuous care and service disengagement. Regular assessment of transition readiness has been identified as a core component of transition planning, contributing to successful care transitions. The Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) 5.0 is a 20-item questionnaire that measures transition readiness in youth preparing to transition to adult care. Although the TRAQ has been validated and used across many health settings, it has not been validated in youth with primarily mental health concerns. The objective of this study was to validate the TRAQ for use among youth accessing mental health services. METHODS:This study used the Longitudinal Youth in Transition Study baseline cohort, which consists of 237 clinically referred youth (aged 16-18 years) receiving outpatient mental health treatment. Psychometric evaluation of the TRAQ 5.0 included confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), assessment of internal consistency, testing convergent validity using the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEAS) and Difficulty in Emotional Regulation (DERS) scales, criterion validity using a question on whether the participant had talked about transition with their clinician and known-group testing based on age. RESULTS:The CFA indicated adequate fit of the five-factor TRAQ structure. The overall scale (=.86) and three of the subscales demonstrated adequate internal consistency. As hypothesized, overall TRAQ scores were higher for youth who had discussed transition and those aged 18. Small correlations were found between the overall TRAQ score and measures of developmental maturity (IDEAS) and emotional awareness (DERS); however, certain subscales did not demonstrate correlation with these constructs. CONCLUSIONS:The TRAQ 5.0 appears to be valid tool to assess the transition readiness of youth in outpatient mental health services. Additional work needs determine whether findings are similar among specific mental health conditions, including substance use disorders and psychotic disorders. 10.1111/cch.13035
Virtual gaming simulation of a mental health assessment: A usability study. Verkuyl Margaret,Romaniuk Daria,Mastrilli Paula Nurse education in practice Providing safe and realistic virtual simulations could be an effective way to facilitate the transition from the classroom to clinical practice. As nursing programs begin to include virtual simulations as a learning strategy; it is critical to first assess the technology for ease of use and usefulness. A virtual gaming simulation was developed, and a usability study was conducted to assess its ease of use and usefulness for students and faculty. The Technology Acceptance Model provided the framework for the study, which included expert review and testing by nursing faculty and nursing students. This study highlighted the importance of assessing ease of use and usefulness in a virtual game simulation and provided feedback for the development of an effective virtual gaming simulation. The study participants said the virtual gaming simulation was engaging, realistic and similar to a clinical experience. Participants found the game easy to use and useful. Testing provided the development team with ideas to improve the user interface. The usability methodology provided is a replicable approach to testing virtual experiences before a research study or before implementing virtual experiences into curriculum. 10.1016/j.nepr.2018.05.007
Virtual Patient Simulations for Brief Assessment of Mental Health Disorders in Integrated Care Settings. Social work in mental health This mixed methods pilot investigation evaluated the use of virtual patient simulations for increasing self-efficacy and diagnostic accuracy for common behavioral health concerns within an integrated care setting. A two by three factorial design was employed to evaluate three different simulated training conditions with a sample of 22 Masters level behavioral health students. Results support engagement in virtual patient simulation training to increase students' self-efficacy in brief clinical assessment, and support the use of virtual patient simulations to improve diagnostic accuracy. Results further indicate that virtual patient simulations have sufficient levels of usability and acceptability as a tool for developing brief clinical interviewing skills, and that participants found this method of instruction to be a valuable adjunct to traditional classroom or field based training. Future directions and next steps for the integration of technology enhanced simulations in clinical social services education are explored. 10.1080/15332985.2017.1336743
Opportunities for the Implementation of a Digital Mental Health Assessment Tool in the United Kingdom: Exploratory Survey Study. JMIR formative research BACKGROUND:Every year, one-fourth of the people in the United Kingdom experience diagnosable mental health concerns, yet only a proportion receive a timely diagnosis and treatment. With novel developments in digital technologies, the potential to increase access to mental health assessments and triage is promising. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate the current state of mental health provision in the United Kingdom and understand the utility of, and interest in, digital mental health technologies. METHODS:A web-based survey was generated using Qualtrics XM. Participants were recruited via social media. Data were explored using descriptive statistics. RESULTS:The majority of the respondents (555/618, 89.8%) had discussed their mental health with a general practitioner. More than three-fourths (503/618, 81.4%) of the respondents had been diagnosed with a mental health disorder, with the most common diagnoses being depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Diagnostic waiting times from first contact with a health care professional varied by diagnosis. Neurodevelopmental disorders (30/56, 54%), bipolar disorder (25/52, 48%), and personality disorders (48/101, 47.5%) had the longest waiting times, with almost half (103/209, 49.3%) of these diagnoses taking >6 months. Participants stated that waiting times resulted in symptoms worsening (262/353, 74.2%), lower quality of life (166/353, 47%), and the necessity to seek emergency care (109/353, 30.9%). Of the 618 participants, 386 (62.5%) stated that they felt that their mental health symptoms were not always taken seriously by their health care provider and 297 (48.1%) were not given any psychoeducational information. The majority of the respondents (416/595, 77.5%) did not have the chance to discuss mental health support and treatment options. Critically, 16.1% (96/595) did not find any treatment or support provided at all helpful, with 63% (48/76) having discontinued treatment with no effective alternatives. Furthermore, 88.3% (545/617) of the respondents) had sought help on the web regarding mental health symptoms, and 44.4% (272/612) had used a web application or smartphone app for their mental health. Psychoeducation (364/596, 61.1%), referral to a health care professional (332/596, 55.7%), and symptom monitoring (314/596, 52.7%) were the most desired app features. Only 6.8% (40/590) of the participants said that they would not be interested in using a mental health assessment app. Respondents were the most interested to receive an overall severity score of their mental health symptoms (441/546, 80.8%) and an indication of whether they should seek mental health support (454/546, 83.2%). CONCLUSIONS:Key gaps in current UK mental health care provision are highlighted. Assessment and treatment waiting times together with a lack of information regarding symptoms and treatment options translated into poor care experiences. The participants' responses provide proof-of-concept support for the development of a digital mental health assessment app and valuable recommendations regarding desirable app features. 10.2196/43271
The Child and Youth Mental Health Assessment (ChYMH): An examination of the psychometric properties of an integrated assessment developed for clinically referred children and youth. Stewart Shannon L,Hamza Chloe A BMC health services research BACKGROUND:The Child and Youth Mental Health (ChYMH) assessment system was developed by interRAI (i.e., an international collective of researchers and clinicians from over thirty countries) in response to the unprecedented need for a coordinated approach to delivery of children's mental health care. Many interRAI instruments are used across Canada and internationally, but the ChYMH represents the first assessment specifically for children and youth. In the present paper, a short overview of the development process of the ChYMH is provided, and then the psychometric properties of several embedded scales on the ChYMH are examined. METHODS:Participants included 1297 children and youth and their families who completed the ChYMH after being referred to mental health agencies within Ontario, Canada. In addition, smaller subsets of participants (N = 48-53) completed additional criterion measures, including the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Brief Child and Family Phone Interview (BCFPI). RESULTS:Results demonstrated that the ChYMH subscales had strong internal-consistency (Cronbach's higher than .70), and correlated well with the criterion measures. CONCLUSIONS:Findings support the clinical utility of the ChYMH for use among clinically referred children and youth. Implications for children's mental health assessment and practice are discussed. 10.1186/s12913-016-1970-9
Experiences with using an idiographic assessment procedure in primary mental health care services for adolescents. Tollefsen Thomas Kristian,Darrow Sabrina Michelle,Lohne Vibeke,Berg-Nielsen Turid Suzanne International journal of qualitative studies on health and well-being : This article aims to explore counsellor experiences using an idiographic assessment procedure implemented in adolescent mental health services. The procedure, Assert, is based on asking the adolescents the question "What matters to you?" to define important topics to address in treatment.: Focus groups and interviews were conducted with counsellors who used Assert (N = 27), and the data were analysed with thematic analysis.: Five themes were identified: (a) "What Matters to You?" (b) "Professional Responsibility," (c) "Empowering the Adolescent," (d) "Practical Utility of Assert in Treatment," and (e) "The Implementation of Assert." Each theme had a number of associated sub-themes.: Assert was perceived by the counsellors as enhancing collaboration and conveying to the adolescents that the counsellors took their concerns seriously. It also provided structure by giving the sessions a concrete focus. However, some counsellors found it difficult to surrender control to the adolescents, and finding a balance between helping and directing the adolescents to define topics could be challenging at times. Assert was generally considered a useful and simple way to assess adolescents' concerns, and it was accepted by the counsellors as a positive contribution to their existing methods. 10.1080/17482631.2020.1763741
Pediatric Primary Care Provider Comfort with Mental Health Practices: A Needs Assessment of Regions with Shortages of Treatment Access. Academic psychiatry : the journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry OBJECTIVES:Nearly 50% of children with a mental health concern do not receive treatment. Child Psychiatry Access Programs like Behavioral Health Integration in Pediatric Primary Care (BHIPP) address regional shortages of mental health treatment access by providing training and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs) in managing mental health concerns. This study assessed PCPs' comfort with mental health practices to inform expansion of BHIPP services. METHODS:Pediatric PCPs in 114 practices in three rural regions of Maryland were recruited to participate in a survey about their comfort with mental health practices and access to mental health providers for referral. Descriptives, Friedman's test, and post hoc pairwise comparisons were used to examine survey responses. RESULTS:Participants were 107 PCPs. Most respondents were physicians (53.3%) or nurse practitioners/physician's assistants (39.3%). Friedman's test, χ(7)= 210.15, p<.001, revealed significant within and between-group differences in PCP comfort with mental health practices. Post hoc pairwise comparisons indicated greater comfort providing mental health screening and referrals compared to prescribing psychiatric medications, providing psychoeducation or in-office mental health interventions. A Wilcoxon-signed rank test showed significantly more respondents agreed they could find a therapist than a psychiatrist in a timely manner, Z= -5.93, p<.001. CONCLUSIONS:Pediatric PCPs were more comfortable with providing mental health assessment and referrals than treatment. However, PCPs reported difficulty finding therapists and psychiatrists for their patients. Findings underscore the need for longitudinal training to increase PCP comfort with mental health treatment. Additionally, strategies such as telepsychiatry are needed to address the disproportionate need for child psychiatrists. 10.1007/s40596-021-01434-x
Ethical Considerations for Assessing Parent Mental Health during Child Assessment Services. Molitor Stephen J,Dvorsky Melissa R Ethics & behavior Parents play an integral role in the mental health service provision of children and adolescents, and they can have significant effects on the outcomes of youth. A growing body of research has linked parents' own mental health status to numerous outcomes for their children, and recent guidelines have emerged recommending the assessment of parent psychopathology when treating child patients. However, these recommendations present a range of ethical considerations. Mental health professionals must determine if the assessment of a parent is empirically supported and that an assessment procedure appropriate for parents can be feasibly implemented. They must also respect the autonomy and confidentiality of parents while ensuring that assessment findings can be translated to meaningful benefits for child patients. This article details and discusses each of these concerns within the context of the relevant principles and standards of the 2016 American Psychological Association's Code of Ethics. Further, it provides guidelines, relevant clinical examples, and an applied model for mental health professionals to consider the ethical implications of assessing parent mental health when serving child patients. 10.1080/10508422.2018.1482746
School-based assessment of mental health risk in children: the preliminary development of the Child RADAR. Burns John R,Rapee Ronald M Child and adolescent mental health BACKGROUND:Screening young people for risk of mental health difficulties in schools is an effective method to facilitate monitoring and early intervention. This study is a preliminary report on the adaptation of the Youth RADAR screening instrument for primary school children. Specifically designed to be used in schools, the Child RADAR assesses a child's balance of risk and protective factors known to be associated with the development of mental health problems. METHOD:Three hundred and thirty-nine children drawn from six primary schools across NSW, Australia, completed the alpha version of the Child RADAR in addition to an assessment of depression and anxiety symptoms and subjective well-being. RESULTS:Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the Child RADAR to have an acceptable factor structure. Reliability for the Total Child RADAR was satisfactory based on both internal consistency (α = .86) and test-retest reliability (r = .85). Convergent validity was demonstrated through significant associations with symptoms of anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS:The Child RADAR shows preliminary promise as a school-based screener of mental health risk. Further evaluation is required to demonstrate the generalizability of the instrument across different populations. 10.1111/camh.12258
An Assessment Framework for e-Mental Health Apps in Canada: Results of a Modified Delphi Process. JMIR mHealth and uHealth BACKGROUND:The number of e-mental health apps is increasing rapidly. Studies have shown that the use of some apps is beneficial, whereas others are ineffective or do not meet users' privacy expectations. Individuals and organizations that curate, recommend, host, use, or pay for apps have an interest in categorizing apps according to the consensus criteria of usability and effectiveness. Others have previously published recommendations for assessing health-related apps; however, the extent to which these recommendations can be generalized across different population groups (eg, culture, gender, and language) remains unclear. This study describes an attempt by Canadian stakeholders to develop an e-mental health assessment framework that responds to the unique needs of people living in Canada in an evidence-based manner. OBJECTIVE:The objective of our study was to achieve consensus from a broad group of Canadian stakeholders on guiding principles and criteria for a framework to assess e-mental health apps in Canada. METHODS:We developed an initial set of guiding principles and criteria from a rapid review and environmental scan of pre-existing app assessment frameworks. The initial list was refined through a two-round modified Delphi process. Participants (N=25) included app developers and users, health care providers, mental health advocates, people with lived experience of a mental health problem or mental illness, policy makers, and researchers. Consensus on each guideline or criterion was defined a priori as at least 70% agreement. The first round of voting was conducted electronically. Prior to Round 2 voting, in-person presentations from experts and a persona empathy mapping process were used to explore the perspectives of diverse stakeholders. RESULTS:Of all respondents, 68% (17/25) in Round 1 and 100% (13/13) in Round 2 agreed that a framework for evaluating health apps is needed to help Canadian consumers identify high-quality apps. Consensus was reached on 9 guiding principles: evidence based, gender responsive, culturally appropriate, user centered, risk based, internationally aligned, enabling innovation, transparent and fair, and based on ethical norms. In addition, 15 informative and evaluative criteria were defined to assess the effectiveness, functionality, clinical applicability, interoperability, usability, transparency regarding security and privacy, security or privacy standards, supported platforms, targeted users, developers' transparency, funding transparency, price, user desirability, user inclusion, and meaningful inclusion of a diverse range of communities. CONCLUSIONS:Canadian mental health stakeholders reached the consensus on a framework of 9 guiding principles and 15 criteria important in assessing e-mental health apps. What differentiates the Canadian framework from other scales is explicit attention to user inclusion at all stages of the development, gender responsiveness, and cultural appropriateness. Furthermore, an empathy mapping process markedly influenced the development of the framework. This framework may be used to inform future mental health policies and programs. 10.2196/10016
Mental Health and Well-being Measures for Mean Comparison and Screening in Adolescents: An Assessment of Unidimensionality and Sex and Age Measurement Invariance. Assessment Adolescence is a period of increased vulnerability for low well-being and mental health problems, particularly for girls and older adolescents. Accurate measurement via brief self-report is therefore vital to understanding prevalence, group trends, screening efforts, and response to intervention. We drew on data from the #BeeWell study ( = 37,149, aged 12-15) to consider whether sum-scoring, mean comparisons, and deployment for screening were likely to show bias for eight such measures. Evidence for unidimensionality, considering dynamic fit confirmatory factor models, exploratory graph analysis, and bifactor modeling, was found for five measures. Of these five, most showed a degree of non-invariance across sex and age likely incompatible with mean comparison. Effects on selection were minimal, except sensitivity was substantially lower in boys for the internalizing symptoms measure. Measure-specific insights are discussed, as are general issues highlighted by our analysis, such as item reversals and measurement invariance. 10.1177/10731911231158623
Outcome assessment of a complex mental health intervention in the workplace. Results from the MENTUPP pilot study. International archives of occupational and environmental health OBJECTIVE:Multicomponent interventions are recommendable to achieve the greatest mental health benefits, but are difficult to evaluate due to their complexity. Defining long-term outcomes, arising from a Theory of Change (ToC) and testing them in a pilot phase, is a useful approach to plan a comprehensive and meaningful evaluation later on. This article reports on the pilot results of an outcome evaluation of a complex mental health intervention and examines whether appropriate evaluation measures and indicators have been selected ahead of a clustered randomised control trial (cRCT). METHODS:The MENTUPP pilot is an evidence-based intervention for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) active in three work sectors and nine countries. Based on our ToC, we selected the MENTUPP long-term outcomes, which are reported in this article, are measured with seven validated scales assessing mental wellbeing, burnout, depression, anxiety, stigma towards depression and anxiety, absenteeism and presenteeism. The pilot MENTUPP intervention assessment took place at baseline and at 6 months follow-up. RESULTS:In total, 25 SMEs were recruited in the MENTUPP pilot and 346 participants completed the validated scales at baseline and 96 at follow-up. Three long-term outcomes significantly improved at follow-up (p < 0.05): mental wellbeing, symptoms of anxiety, and personal stigmatising attitudes towards depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this outcome evaluation suggest that MENTUPP has the potential to strengthen employees' wellbeing and decrease anxiety symptoms and stigmatising attitudes. Additionally, this study demonstrates the utility of conducting pilot workplace interventions to assess whether appropriate measures and indicators have been selected. Based on the results, the intervention and the evaluation strategy have been optimised. 10.1007/s00420-023-01996-3
Validation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) for Multidimensional Assessment of Subjective Well-Being in Spanish Adolescents. Psicothema BACKGROUND:The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) is a multidimensional instrument designed to capture emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It is one of the self-report measures of international use in clinical practice and research, although so far it has no validation in Spanish-Speaking adolescents. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity evidence (structure, convergent and criterion), and the temporal and gender invariance of the MHC-SF in Spanish adolescent population. METHOD:Two assessment moments with a 6-month time interval were used, with an initial sample of 5,479 adolescents and a later sample of 2,129. RESULTS:The CFA showed optimal fit for the bi-factor model, and an adequate fit for correlated three-factor model. The results of the gender and temporal invariance analysis showed optimal fit. Reliability coefficients were all higher than .77. The MHC-SF presented significant positive associations (p < .001) with indicators of well-being (r > .60) and negative associations with indicators of psychological distress (r > -.21). CONCLUSIONS:The MHC-SF shows evidence of reliability and validity in Spanish adolescents, being the bi-factor model invariant through time and across gender groups. 10.7334/psicothema2021.240
Twitter as a Knowledge Translation Tool to Increase Awareness of the OpenHEARTSMAP Psychosocial Assessment and Management Tool in the Field of Pediatric Emergency Mental Health. Cureus Rationale The increasing prevalence of pediatric mental health presentations in pediatric emergency departments (PED) requires improved integration of evidence-based management strategies. Social media, specifically Twitter, has shown potential to aid in closing the knowledge translation (KT) gap between these evidence-based management strategies and pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) providers. Aims and objectives The primary outcome of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Twitter as a KT dissemination tool in PEM. The exploratory outcomes were to assess how to effectively implement Twitter in KT, explore ways in which Twitter can maximize the global reach of OpenHEARTSMAP and whether Twitter can lead to increased adoption of OpenHEARTSMAP. Methods A one-week prospective promotion on Twitter was conducted to disseminate the OpenHEARTSMAP tool using 15 topic-related hashtags (arm 1, 15 Tweets) versus one post wherein 15 different Twitter users were mentioned in 15 different comments (arm 2, 1 Tweet). A one-week control period immediately prior to posting was employed for comparisons. Results During the Twitter week, visits per day to OpenHEARTSMAP increased by 175%; mean time spent on the website increased by 212%; and mean page actions per visit increased by 130%. The greatest increase in visits occurred on the first day of Tweeting. Arm 2 received the greatest engagements. Within arm 1, the category of pediatrics received the most engagements (hashtag #Peds was most popular). Arm 1 received 455 impressions compared to 2071 in arm 2. No new users registered an account on the OpenHEARTSMAP website, which is required to physically use the tool. Conclusion Twitter can be an effective KT tool to increase awareness of research, the first step of KT, in the domain of PEM mental health care. Strategies for success include building a robust Twitter following; posting during peak healthcare-related Twitter traffic times; employing hashtags coinciding with current events; and targeting posts by tagging users who need not necessarily be generally well-known opinion leaders. 10.7759/cureus.27597
User profiles of electronic ecological momentary assessment in outpatient child and adolescent mental health services. Spanish journal of psychiatry and mental health INTRODUCTION:Electronic ecological momentary assessment (EMA) can provide precise information regarding day-to-day functioning of patients overcoming some of the limitations of usual clinical evaluation; however adherence to this methodology might be a major threat. Research and application of EMA concerning clinical settings remains scant. Our goal was to study the user profiles of EMA in a clinical sample of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS:209 adolescents following an outpatient mental health treatment accepted to use EMA. They were evaluated in different sociodemographic and clinical variables as well as the use that they made of EMA. RESULTS:39.7% of patients were considered users and 60.3% non-active users. Certain self-harm behaviours were more common in the group of active users, while hyperkinetic disorders were more common in the group of non-active users. A regression analysis revealed that non-suicidal self-injury (OR=2.99) and hyperkinetic disorders (OR=0.51) were related to the use of EMA. CONCLUSION:This preliminary study adds novel and promising information about EMA use in clinical practice. Adolescents with self-harm behaviours EMA seem more prone to use this tool. Our study provides support for actively monitoring self-harm behaviours with EMA. Future studies might consider a comprehensive analysis of adherence and EMA data collection. 10.1016/j.rpsm.2020.04.001
Epidemiological pattern of bullying using a multi-assessment approach: Results from the Bullying and Youth Mental Health Naples Study (BYMHNS). Catone Gennaro,Signoriello Simona,Pisano Simone,Siciliano Margherita,Russo Katia,Marotta Roberta,Carotenuto Marco,Broome Matthew R,Gritti Antonella,Senese Vincenzo Paolo,Pascotto Antonio Child abuse & neglect BACKGROUND:Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that has captured attention from mental health researchers. Several studies have assessed bullying prevalence with some methodological concerns. OBJECTIVES:Preliminary, we analyzed the psychometric properties of two bullying scales for victimization (the multidimensional peer victimization scale - MPVS) and for perpetration (the bully subscale of the Illinois bully scale - IBS-B); then, we estimated bullying prevalence; finally, we evaluated the effect of gender and classroom on the phenomenon. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING:2959 students from the metropolitan city of Naples constituted the sample. METHODS:Data collection was obtained using a multi-assessment approach that included both single-item questions and intensity scales in order to compare the two methods. RESULTS:The two scales resulted valid and showed good reliability. The MPVS displayed a 1-factor second order model. The IBS-B had a mono-factorial structure. Both showed full invariance for gender and classroom. Prevalence of victimization was 37% whereas that for perpetration was 21%. As expected we obtained several bullying prevalence results depending on the specificity of questions and in particular repetitiveness of episodes. There was a good correspondence between results of single-item questions and multi-item scales. Finally results demonstrated several differences for gender and classroom attended. CONCLUSION:In this epidemiological study the multi-assessment approach identified different but complementary features of bullying phenomena. The use of the two measurement approaches allowed us to obtain more precise and exhaustive information on bullying prevalence and compare it with previous findings. 10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.12.018
Trends in Collegiate Student-Athlete Mental Health in the National College Health Assessment, 2011-2019. Journal of athletic training CONTEXT:Recently, the athletic training community has paid increased attention to collegiate student-athlete mental health, mental health treatment-seeking behavior, and the effects of mental health factors on athletic and academic performance. Ongoing efforts to better educate and equip athletic trainers to help student-athletes in this regard should result in improved mental health-related outcomes. OBJECTIVE:To examine changes in the mental health of student-athletes over the past decade compared with that of nonathlete students. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Colleges and universities in the United States. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:Varsity athletes (athletes; n = 54 479) and nonathlete students (nonathletes; n = 448 301) who completed the National College Health Assessment between 2011 and 2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Surveys included responses (self-reported) to questions in 5 mental health-related categories: recent mental health symptoms, recent mental health diagnosis, mental health treatment-seeking behavior, receiving mental health information from the institution, and the recent effect of mental health factors on academic performance. RESULTS:Athletes consistently described lower symptom and diagnosis rates compared with nonathletes, except for attempted suicide, substance abuse, and eating disorders. Rates of diagnosis increased over time in both groups but remained lower in athletes. Treatment-seeking behavior and openness to future treatment increased over time in both groups but remained lower in athletes. Athletes received more information on stress reduction, substance abuse, eating disorders, and handling distress or violence compared with nonathletes. Both groups received information more frequently over time. Athletes reported fewer academic effects, especially for depression and anxiety, but these effects grew over time in both groups. The effects of injuries and extracurricular activities on academic performance were greater in athletes than in nonathletes. CONCLUSIONS:Athletes described overall lower levels of mental health symptoms, diagnoses, and academic effects compared with nonathletes. Whereas the rates in nonathletes climbed over the past decade, the rates in athletes broadly remained flat or climbed less rapidly. Increasingly positive attitudes toward treatment were encouraging, but the deficit in athletes relative to nonathletes persisted. Ongoing efforts of athletic trainers to educate athletes and guide them to mental health resources are needed to continue, or better yet to accelerate, the observed positive trends in information dissemination and treatment-seeking behavior. 10.4085/1062-6050-0586.21
Trends in College Student-Athlete Mental Health in the National College Health Assessment (NCHA), 2011-2019. Journal of athletic training CONTEXT:Recently the athletic training community has paid increased attention to college student-athlete mental health, treatment-seeking, and impacts on athletic and academic performance. Ongoing efforts to better-educate and equip athletic trainers to help student-athletes in this regard should result in improved mental health-related outcomes. OBJECTIVE:Examine changes in student-athlete mental health over the past decade compared to non-athlete students. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:United States colleges and universities. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:Varsity athletes (n=54,479) and non-athlete students (n=448,301) who completed the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) between 2011 and 2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Survey responses (self-report) to questions in five mental health-related domains: symptoms, diagnoses, treatment-seeking, institutional information distribution, and academic impacts. RESULTS:Student-athletes consistently reported significantly lower symptom and diagnose rates than non-athletes, except for attempted suicide, substance abuse, and eating disorders. Diagnoses increased over time in both groups, but remained lower in athletes. Treatment-seeking and openness to future treatment increased over time in both groups, but remained lower in athletes. Student-athletes received more information on stress reduction, substance abuse, eating disorders, and handling distress/violence than non-athletes. Both groups received information more frequently over time. Athletes reported lower academic impacts, especially for depression and anxiety, but impacts grew over time in both groups. Impacts of injuries and extracurricular activities on academic performance were higher in athletes than in non-athletes. CONCLUSIONS:Athletes reported overall lower levels of symptoms, diagnoses, and academic impacts than non-athletes. While non-athlete rates climbed over the past decade, athletes' rates broadly remained flat or climbed less rapidly. Increasingly positive attitudes toward treatment are encouraging, but the deficit relative to non-athletes remains. Ongoing efforts of athletic trainers to educate athletes and guide them to mental health resources are needed in order to continue (or, better yet, accelerate) the observed positive trends in information dissemination and treatment-seeking. 10.4085/1062-6050-586-21
Visual and Personalized Quality of Life Assessment App for People With Severe Mental Health Problems: Qualitative Evaluation. Buitenweg David,van de Mheen Dike,Grund Jean-Paul,van Oers Hans,van Nieuwenhuizen Chijs JMIR mental health BACKGROUND:QoL-ME is a digital visual personalized quality of life assessment app for people with severe mental health problems. Research reveals that e-mental health apps frequently suffer from low engagement and fall short of expectations regarding their impact on patients' daily lives. Studies often indicate that e-mental health apps ought to respect the needs and preferences of end users to achieve optimal user engagement. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of users regarding the usability and functionality of QoL-ME and whether the app is actionable and beneficial for patients. METHODS:End users (n=8) of QoL-ME contributed to semistructured interviews. An interview guide was used to direct the interviews. All interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcriptions were analyzed and coded thematically. RESULTS:Analysis revealed 3 main themes: (1) benefit, (2) actionability, and (3) characteristics of the QoL-ME. The first theme reveals that the QoL-ME app was beneficial for the majority of respondents, primarily by prompting them to reflect on their quality of life. The current version is not yet actionable; the actionability of the QoL-ME app may be improved by enabling users to view their scores over time and by supplying practical advice for quality of life improvements. Overall, participants had positive experiences with the usability, design, and content of the app. CONCLUSIONS:The QoL-ME app can be beneficial to users as it provides them with insight into their quality of life and elicits reflection. Incorporating more functionalities that facilitate self-management, such as advice and strategies for improving areas that are lacking, will likely make the app actionable. Patients positively regarded the usability, design, and contents of the QoL-ME app. 10.2196/19593
A Narrative Review of Methods for Applying User Experience in the Design and Assessment of Mental Health Smartphone Interventions. Lemon Christopher,Huckvale Kit,Carswell Kenneth,Torous John International journal of technology assessment in health care OBJECTIVES:User experience (UX) plays a key role in uptake and usage of mental health smartphone interventions, yet remains underinvestigated. This review aimed to characterize and compare UX evaluation approaches that have been applied in this specific context, and to identify implications for research and practice. METHODS:A narrative review was conducted of UX-themed studies published in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus up to February 2019. Eligible studies reported on data reflecting users' interactions with a smartphone intervention for any mental health condition. Studies were categorized into "situated" versus "construct-based" methods according to whether or not an established UX construct was used to acquire and analyze data. RESULTS:Situated approaches used bespoke UX metrics, including quantitative measures of usage and performance, as well as grounded interview data. Construct-based approaches such as assessments of usability and acceptability were based on conceptual frameworks, with methodologically stronger versions featuring construct definitions, validated measurement tools, and an ability to compare data across studies. Constructs and measures were sometimes combined to form bespoke construct-based approaches. CONCLUSIONS:Both situated and construct-based UX data may provide benefits during design and implementation of a mental health smartphone intervention by helping to clarify the needs of users and the impact of new features. Notable however was the omission of UX methods, such as split testing. Future research should consider these unaddressed methods, aim to improve the rigor of UX assessment, integrate their use alongside clinical outcomes, and explore UX assessment of more complex, adaptive interventions. 10.1017/S0266462319003507
Relative Technical Efficiency Assessment of Mental Health Services: A Systematic Review. García-Alonso Carlos R,Almeda Nerea,Salinas-Pérez José Alberto,Gutiérrez-Colosía Mencía R,Salvador-Carulla Luis Administration and policy in mental health The current prevalence of mental disorders demands improved ways of the management and planning of mental health (MH) services. Relative technical efficiency (RTE) is an appropriate and robust indicator to support decision-making in health care, but it has not been applied significantly in MH. This article systematically reviews the empirical background of RTE in MH services following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Finally, 13 studies were included, and the findings provide new standard classifications of RTE variables, efficiency determinants and strategies to improve MH management and planning. 10.1007/s10488-019-00921-6
A systematic mental health assessment of first-year students at a historically Black college. Annals of clinical psychiatry : official journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists BACKGROUND:A systematic diagnostic mental health assessment was conducted with first-year students at Paul Quinn College, a small historically Black college/university (HBCU) in Dallas, Texas. METHODS:A sample of 128 students was assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-5 and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. RESULTS:Nearly one-third of students were diagnosed with a current psychiatric disorder, most commonly substance use disorders (17%) and major depressive disorder (9%). Despite these findings, few students had ever received psychiatric treatment, and considering their substantial trauma histories, few developed posttraumatic stress disorder, reflecting protective factors in the HBCU. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in this HBCU study is consistent with findings of studies conducted at predominately White institutions. However, the relatively low access to treatment of these HBCU students suggests relevant mental health care disparities in this population. Further research is needed to develop interventions designed to help connect HBCU students to mental health care. 10.12788/acp.0069
Thematic analysis of youth mental health providers' perceptions of neuropsychological assessment services. Delagneau Garance,Bowden Stephen C,Bryce Shayden,van-der-El Kristi,Hamilton Matthew,Adams Sophie,Burgat Liz,Killackey Eoin,Rickwood Debra,Allott Kelly Early intervention in psychiatry AIM:A growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the utility of neuropsychological assessment in mental health settings. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous study has qualitatively explored youth mental health providers' perceptions of neuropsychological assessment services. A more in-depth understanding of the perceived advantages and barriers associated with neuropsychological assessment in youth mental health settings is critical to better inform policy, practice and service uptake. Thus, the aim of this study was to qualitatively explore clinicians' views about neuropsychological assessments for youth with mental health concerns. METHODS:A single open-ended qualitative question, included as part of an anonymous cross-sectional online survey, was completed by clinicians (N = 206) treating or assessing adolescents and young adults within Australian primary care mental health centres (headspace). Responses were analysed using an inductive approach to thematic analysis. RESULTS:Five main themes were identified. Clinicians (a) identified barriers to accessing neuropsychological assessments (53%), (b) indicated a range of mixed outcomes following neuropsychological assessment (39%), (c) highlighted a need for neuropsychological assessments (22%), (d) reported a lack of awareness about this resource (10%) and (e) described practice issues associated with neuropsychological services (4%). CONCLUSION:This study uncovered perceived factors contributing to reduced access to neuropsychological assessment in Australian youth mental health settings. Given potential adverse outcomes resulting from this clinical service gap, efforts should be made to address factors contributing to poorer access, thereby mitigating the impact of poor access on the management of mental illness in youth. Several strategies, including funding neuropsychological assessments, are discussed. 10.1111/eip.12876
Assessment of mental health problems among adolescents in Sri Lanka: Findings from the cross-sectional Global School-based Health Survey. Health science reports Background and Aims:Mental health condition among adolescents is a leading cause of health-related disability in Sri Lanka. The study aims to estimate the prevalence and evaluate the associated risk factors in three major mental health domains-loneliness, anxiety and suicidal ideation-among Sri Lankan adolescents. Methods:We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data of 3262 adolescents from the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) conducted by the WHO in 2016. We modeled the binary outcome variables using multivariable logistic regression models with exposures representing demography, food habits, personal hygiene, behavior, substance abuse, parental and social engagement of the respondents. Results:We estimated the prevalence of loneliness, anxiety and suicidal ideation as 30.8% (95% CI: 29.3, 32.5), 20.2% (95% CI: 18.8, 21.6) and 3.7% (95% CI: 3.1, 4.4), respectively, and the overall prevalence as 40.3% (95% CI: 38.6, 42.0). Mental health problems were more prevalent among females than males. Engagement with parents and close friends, adequate nutritional intake and physically active lifestyles reduced the risk of common mental health problems. Exposure variables like food insecurity, truancy, second-hand smoking, physical fight, and being bullied increased adolescents' risk of reported psychological problems. Conclusions:We conclude that the prevalence of mental health problems in the Sri Lankan adolescent population was higher than the global average. Results suggest that future policy decisions to mitigate mental health problems among Sri Lankan adolescents should incorporate an integrated approach involving the individual, family and community to promote positive home and school environments combined with an active and healthy lifestyle. 10.1002/hsr2.886
Mental health concerns in children with neurodevelopmental conditions attending a developmental assessment service. Journal of affective disorders Children with neurodevelopmental conditions (NDCs), such as autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), frequently experience co-occurring mental health concerns. Little research has examined mental health symptoms in children attending developmental assessment services. This study profiled mental health symptoms in children with NDCs attending a hospital-based diagnostic service for their first diagnostic and developmental assessment. Participants were 232 children aged 1.96-17.51 years. Mental health concerns were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a caregiver-rated, questionnaire-based assessment of behavioural and emotional difficulties. Subclinical or clinically elevated internalising, externalising and total scores on the CBCL were reported in approximately 48% of preschool and 61% of school-age children. These increased prevalence rates, using the same cutoff scores, remained after excluding items specifically relating to neurodevelopmental concerns (36% preschool; 37% school-age children). More school-aged females reported elevated internalising problems, relative to males (67 % vs 48 %). The number of diagnoses impacted symptoms, with children who received two or more DSM-5 diagnoses showing a greater rate of subclinical or clinically elevated scores, relative to children who received one DSM-5 diagnosis. Our findings demonstrate that children attending developmental assessment services have considerable mental health needs. It is critical that mental health concerns are identified and addressed in children when they first present to developmental assessment services, and that service providers are equipped to provide appropriate resources and pathways to ongoing care. 10.1016/j.jad.2023.04.098
Suicide risk assessment in UK mental health services: a national mixed-methods study. Graney Jane,Hunt Isabelle M,Quinlivan Leah,Rodway Cathryn,Turnbull Pauline,Gianatsi Myrsini,Appleby Louis,Kapur Nav The lancet. Psychiatry BACKGROUND:Risk assessments are a central component of mental health care. Few national studies have been done in the UK on risk assessment tools used in mental health services. We aimed to examine which suicide risk assessment tools are in use in the UK; establish the views of clinicians, carers, and service users on the use of these tools; and identify how risk assessment tools have been used with mental health patients before suicide. METHODS:We did a mixed-methods study involving three components: collection and content analysis of risk assessment tools used by UK mental health services; an online survey of clinicians, service-users, and carers; and qualitative telephone interviews with clinicians on their use of risk assessment tools before a suicide death and their views of these tools. The online survey was advertised through the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Safety in Mental Health's (NCISH) website and social media, and it included both quantitative and open-ended qualitative questions, and respondents were recruited through convenience sampling. For the telephone interviews, we examined the NCISH database to identify clinicians who had been responsible for the care of a patient who died by suicide and who had been viewed as being at low or no immediate risk of suicide. FINDINGS:We obtained 156 risk assessment tools from all 85 National Health Service mental health organisations in the UK, and 85 (one per each organisation) were included in the analysis. We found little consistency in use of these instruments, with 33 (39%) of 85 organisations using locally developed tools. Most tools aimed to predict self-harm or suicidal behaviour (84 [99%] of 85), and scores were used to determine management decisions (80 [94%]). Clinicians described positive aspects of risk tools (facilitating communication and enhancing therapeutic relationships) but also expressed negative views (inadequate training in the use of tools and their time-consuming nature). Both patients and carers reported some positive views, but also emphasised little involvement during risk assessment, and a lack of clarity on what to do in a crisis. INTERPRETATION:Assessment processes need to be consistent across mental health services and include adequate training on how to assess, formulate, and manage suicide risk. An emphasis on patient and carer involvement is needed. In line with national guidance, risk assessment should not be seen as a way to predict future behaviour and should not be used as a means of allocating treatment. Management plans should be personalised and collaboratively developed with patients and their families and carers. FUNDING:The Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership. 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30381-3
Smartphone Health Assessment for Relapse Prevention (SHARP): a digital solution toward global mental health. Rodriguez-Villa Elena,Mehta Urvakhsh Meherwan,Naslund John,Tugnawat Deepak,Gupta Snehil,Thirtalli Jagadisha,Bhan Anant,Patel Vikram,Chand Prabhat Kumar,Rozatkar Abhijit,Keshavan Matcheri,Torous John BJPsych open BACKGROUND:Predicting and preventing relapse presents a crucial opportunity and first step to improve outcomes and reduce the care gap for persons living with schizophrenia. Using commercially available smartphones and smartwatches, technology now affords opportunities to capture real-time and longitudinal profiles of patients' symptoms, cognition, physiology and social patterns. This novel data makes it possible to explore relationships between behaviours, physiology and symptoms, which may yield personalised relapse signals. AIMS:Smartphone Health Assessment for Relapse Prevention (SHARP), an international mental health research study supported by the Wellcome Trust, will inform the development of a scalable and sharable digital health solution to monitor personal risk of relapse. The resulting technology will be studied toward predicting and preventing relapse among individuals diagnosed with serious mental illness. METHOD:SHARP is a two-phase study with research sites in Boston, Massachusetts, and Bangalore and Bhopal, India. During phase 1, focus groups will be conducted at each study site to collect feedback on the design and features available on mindLAMP, a digital health platform. Individuals with serious mental illness will use mindLAMP for the duration of a year during phase 2. RESULTS:The results of the research outlined in this protocol will guide the development of technology and digital tools to help address pervasive challenges in global mental health. CONCLUSIONS:The digital tools developed as a result of this study, and participants' experiences using them, may offer insight into opportunities to expand digital mental health resources and optimize their utilisation around the world. 10.1192/bjo.2020.142
Promoting mental health recovery and improving clinical assessment using video technology. Bradford Daniel W,Cuddeback Gary,Elbogen Eric B Psychiatric rehabilitation journal TOPIC:Although individuals with medical problems (e.g., diabetes, hypertension) can monitor their symptoms using objective measures (e.g., blood glucose, blood pressure), objective measures are not typically used by individuals with psychotic disorders to monitor symptoms of mental illness. PURPOSE:To examine the benefits and limitations of the use of video self-observation for treatment of individuals with psychotic disorders. SOURCES USED:The authors reviewed studies examining video self-observation among individuals with severe mental illnesses. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Individuals with psychotic disorders who viewed videos of themselves while symptomatic reported some benefit to this approach, with 1 study showing sustained improvement in understanding of mental illness. Still, some individuals reported negative feelings about the process, and also attributed symptoms to stress or drug abuse rather than their psychotic disorder. The authors found no studies examining the potential for video self-observation as a strategy to improve clinical decision-making in the context of mental health care. Implications of this approach for mental health recovery and clinical practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record 10.1037/prj0000267
The Social Determinants of Mental Health: Assessment, Intervention, and Wholistic Health Equity: Part 2. Professional case management 10.1097/NCM.0000000000000518
Development of the perceptions of preventable adverse events assessment tool (PPAEAT): measurement properties and patients' mental health status. Keller Franziska Maria,Derksen Christina,Kötting Lukas,Schmiedhofer Martina,Lippke Sonia International journal for quality in health care : journal of the International Society for Quality in Health Care BACKGROUND:Patient-centered care and patient involvement have been increasingly recognized as crucial elements of patient safety. However, patient safety has rarely been evaluated from the patient perspective with a quantitative approach aiming at making patient safety and preventable adverse events measurable. OBJECTIVES:The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire assessing patient safety by perceived triggers of preventable adverse events among patients in primary health-care settings while considering mental health. METHODS:Two hundred and ten participants were recruited through various digital and print channels and asked to complete an online survey between November 2019 and April 2020. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify domains of triggers of preventable adverse events affecting patient safety. Furthermore, a multi-trait scaling analysis was performed to evaluate internal reliability as well as item-scale convergent-discriminant validity. A multivariate analysis of covariance evaluated whether individuals below and above the symptom threshold for depression and generalized anxiety perceive triggers of preventable adverse events differently. RESULTS:The five factors determined were information and communication with patients, time constraints of health-care professionals, diagnosis and treatment, hygiene and communication among health-care professionals, and knowledge and operational procedures. The questionnaire demonstrated a good total and subscale internal consistency (α = 0.90, range = 0.75-0.88), good item-scale convergent validity with significant correlations between 0.57 and 0.78 (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) for all items with their associated subscales, and satisfactory item-scale discriminant validity between 0.14 and 0.55 (P > 0.05) with no significant correlations between the items and their competing subscales. The questionnaire further revealed to be a generic measure irrespective of patients' mental health status. Patients older than 50 years of age perceived a significantly greater threat to their own safety compared to patients below that age. CONCLUSION:The developed Perceptions of Preventable Adverse Events Assessment Tool (PPAEAT) exhibits good psychometric properties, which supports its use in future research and primary health-care practice. Further validation of the PPAEAT in different settings, languages and larger samples is needed. The results of this study need to be considered when assessing patient safety in the context of health-care research. 10.1093/intqhc/mzab063
Standardized diagnostic assessment for child and adolescents mental health services: a leap forward in measurement-based care. CNS spectrums 10.1017/S1092852923000093
Development and validation of the 9-item Concise Mental Health Checklist (CMHC-9) for suicide risk assessment. Wu Chia-Yi,Lee Ming-Been,Lin Yi-Yin,Liao Shih-Cheng Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:Early detection of suicide risk is a challenge in suicide prevention. A comprehensive yet efficient tool providing timely identification of key risk factors allows healthcare providers to initiate interventions. The study aims to validate the 9-item Concise Mental Health Checklist (CMHC-9). METHODS:A series of cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 3982 participants from psychiatric outpatient (n = 931), medical outpatient (n = 931) and community (n = 2120) populations. The factor analysis with internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's α) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed to evaluate the scale's reliability and validity. RESULTS:The internal consistency of the CMHC-9 was satisfactory based on Cronbach's α values for the total sample (α = 0.79) and the three sub-samples (i.e., α = 0.76 for psychiatric subjects; 0.67 for community subjects; and 0.69 for medical outpatient subjects). Hierarchical exploratory factor analysis revealed that the CMHC-9 was a single-dimensional scale with two-factor structure of psychopathology and suicidality. The two-factor solution was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The optimal cut-off of 3/4 obtained from the ROC analysis represented a satisfactory sensitivity (92%) and specificity (82%) in identifying recent suicide ideation. CONCLUSION:This large-scale study confirmed the CMHC-9 as a brief and effective tool for suicide risk detection. It is recommended that CMHC-9 can be used for care engagement and risk identification in both medical and community settings among people at risk for suicide. 10.1016/j.jfma.2019.05.025
Impact of Systematic Tailored Assessment for Responding to Suicidality (STARS) Protocol Training on Mental Health Professionals' Attitudes, Perceived Capabilities, Knowledge, and Reluctance to Intervene. Frontiers in psychiatry BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Systematic Tailored Assessment for Responding to Suicidality (STARS) protocol and associated training were developed with the key objectives of supporting clinicians to conduct a suicide enquiry, obtaining a comprehensive account of psycho-social factors contributing to suicidality, and collaboratively developing a safety plan with clients. STARS training aims to address knowledge, attitudes and capabilities that influence intervention behavior/skills. This study aimed to examine associations between clinician characteristics and pre-training competencies in suicide risk assessment (SRA), as well as the impact of STARS training workshop on clinician competencies; and to determine the predictors of SRA training outcomes. METHOD:Australian mental health professionals working with suicidal persons who undertook the STARS 2-day face-to-face workshop between 2018 and 2020 completed an online survey at pre- and post-training. Of the 222 participants who completed the pre-training questionnaire, 144 (64.9%) also completed the post-training questionnaire. Participants were mostly female (75.7%), had completed a university degree (86.4%), had <10 years of experience in suicide prevention (71.7%), and were allied and mental health professionals (78.1%). We used linear mixed-effects regression for statistical analyses. RESULTS:STARS participants who reported higher perceived capability at baseline had significantly greater formal and informal training, more years of experience in suicide prevention, and were more likely to have experienced client suicide and/or suicide attempt and to report fewer SRA related fears. We found overall significant positive impacts of STARS training on clinician competencies (attitudes, perceived capability, declarative knowledge) from pre- to post-training. The most distinct changes following STARS training were for perceived capability and declarative knowledge. Participants who had more positive attitudes after training were significantly more likely to have had less prior supervision/mentoring. Reluctance to intervene was not found to significantly change after training. CONCLUSIONS:We found evidence that attitudes, perceived capability and declarative knowledge changed positively from pre- to post-STARS training among mental health professionals. Underpinned by the minimum standardized SRA competencies, STARS training may be critical for informing evidence-based knowledge and skills in SRA and safety planning. 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.827060
Psychometric properties of the Mental Health and Social Inadaptation Assessment for Adolescents (MIA) in a population-based sample. Côté Sylvana M,Orri Massimiliano,Brendgen Mara,Vitaro Frank,Boivin Michel,Japel Christa,Séguin Jean R,Geoffroy Marie-Claude,Rouquette Alexandra,Falissard Bruno,Tremblay Richard E International journal of methods in psychiatric research We report on the psychometric properties of the Mental Health and Social Inadaptation Assessment for Adolescents (MIA), a self-report instrument for quantifying the frequency of mental health and psychosocial adaptation problems using a dimensional approach and based on the DSM-5. The instrument includes 113 questions, takes 20-25 minutes to answer, and covers the past 12 months. A population-based cohort of adolescents (n = 1443, age = 15 years; 48% males) rated the frequency at which they experienced symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Depression, Generalized Anxiety, Social Phobia, Eating Disorders (i.e. DSM disorders), Self-harm, Delinquency, Psychopathy as well as social adaptation problems (e.g. aggression). They also rated interference with functioning in four contexts (family, friends, school, daily life). Reliability analyses indicated good to excellent internal consistency for most scales (alpha = 0.70-0.97) except Psychopathy (alpha = 0.46). The hypothesized structure of the instrument showed acceptable fit according to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) [Chi-square (4155) = 9776.2, p = 0.000; Chi-square/DF = 2.35; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.031; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.864], and good convergent and discriminant validity according to multitrait-multimethods analysis. This initial study showed adequate internal validity and reliability of the MIA. Our findings open the way for further studies investigating other validity aspects, which are necessary before recommending the wide use of the MIA in research and clinical settings. 10.1002/mpr.1566
Using Convolutional Neural Networks for the Assessment Research of Mental Health. Computational intelligence and neuroscience Existing mental health assessment methods mainly rely on experts' experience, which has subjective bias, so convolutional neural networks are applied to mental health assessment to achieve the fusion of face, voice, and gait. Among them, the OpenPose algorithm is used to extract facial and posture features; openSMILE is used to extract voice features; and attention mechanism is introduced to reasonably allocate the weight values of different modal features. As can be seen, the effective identification and evaluation of 10 indicators such as mental health somatization, depression, and anxiety are realized. Simulation results show that the proposed method can accurately assess mental health. Here, the overall recognition accuracy can reach 77.20%, and the 1 value can reach 0.77. Compared with the recognition methods based on face single-mode fusion, face + voice dual-mode fusion, and face + voice + gait multimodal fusion, the recognition accuracy and 1 value of proposed method are improved to varying degrees, and the recognition effect is better, which has certain practical application value. 10.1155/2022/1636855
Mental Health Information Reporting Assistant (MHIRA)-an open-source software facilitating evidence-based assessment for clinical services. BMC psychiatry Evidence-based assessment (EBA) in mental health is a critical aspect of improving patient outcomes and addressing the gaps in mental health care. EBA involves the use of psychometric instruments to gather data that can inform clinical decision-making, inform policymakers, and serve as a basis for research and quality management. Despite its potential, EBA is often hindered by barriers such as workload and cost, leading to its underutilization. Regarding low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the implementation of EBA is recognized as a key strategy to address and close the prevalent mental health treatment gap.To simplify the application of EBA including in LMIC, an international team of researchers and practitioners from Tanzania, Kosovo, Chile, and Switzerland developed the Mental Health Information Reporting Assistant (MHIRA). MHIRA is an open-source electronic health record that streamlines EBA by digitising psychometric instruments and organising patient data in a user-friendly manner. It provides immediate and convenient reports to inform clinical decision-making.The current article provides a comprehensive overview of the features and technical details of MHIRA, as well as insights from four implementation scenarios. The experience gained during the implementations as well as the user-feedback suggests that MHIRA has the potential to be successfully implemented in a variety of clinical contexts and simplify the use of EBA. However, further research is necessary to establish its potential to sustainably transform healthcare services and impact patient outcomes.In conclusion, MHIRA represents an important step in promoting the widespread adoption of EBA in mental health. It offers a promising solution to the barriers that have limited the use of EBA in the past and holds the potential to improve patient outcomes and support the ongoing efforts to address gaps in mental health care. 10.1186/s12888-023-05201-0
Framework development for the assessment of interprofessional teamwork in mental health settings. Tomizawa Ryoko,Shigeta Masahiro,Reeves Scott Journal of interprofessional care In mental health settings, interprofessional practice is regarded as a comprehensive approach to prevent relapse and manage chronic conditions with practice of various teamwork interventions. To reinforce the potential of interprofessional teamwork, it is recommended that theories or conceptual frameworks be employed. There continues, however, to be a limited use of such approaches that assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in mental health settings. This article aimed to present a new conceptual framework for the assessment of interprofessional teamwork based on the findings of a scoping review of the literature. This review was undertaken to identify conceptual frameworks utilised in interprofessional teamwork in mental health settings. After reviewing 952 articles, the methodological characteristics extracted from 12 articles were considered. The included studies were synthesised into the Donabedian structure-process-outcome model. The findings revealed that structural issues comprised three elements: professional characteristics, client-care characteristics, and contextual characteristics in organisations. Process issues comprised two elements: team mechanisms and community-oriented services. Finally, outcome issues comprised the following elements: clients' outcomes and professionals' outcomes. The review findings suggested possibilities for further development of how to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork and provided information about what specific approach is required to improve interprofessional teamwork. Future research should utilise various areas and cultures to clarify the adaptation potential. 10.1080/13561820.2016.1233098
Development of a Mobile Application for Detection of Adolescent Mental Health Problems and Feasibility Assessment with Primary Health Care Workers. Issues in mental health nursing There has been a sharp increase in the use of digital health interventions in global health, particularly mobile health applications, in recent years. The extreme shortage of health care providers trained in mental health screening and intervention in low- and middle-income countries raises questions about the applicability of mobile applications to deliver these services due to their accessibility and availability. This exploratory paper describes the development and feasibility assessment of a mobile screening application for the detection of mental disorders among adolescents in Zambia and South Africa. : Eighty-two health care workers (HCW) working in primary care evaluated the acceptability and practicality of the mobile screening application after receiving brief training. The evaluation included questions from the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) as well as open-ended questions. : The acceptability of the screening app was high and study participants were positive about using the app in routine care. Problems with internet connectivity, and time and staff constraints were perceived as the main barriers to regular use. : HCW in primary care were able and willing to use a mobile screening app for the detection of mental health problems among treatment-seeking adolescents. Implementation in clinical practice needs to be further evaluated. 10.1080/01612840.2022.2124003
Assessment of mental health status among adolescents in Puducherry, India - A mixed method study. Journal of family medicine and primary care Context:Adolescence is a crucial period during which biological and psychosocial changes occur in an individual. The prevalence of mental disorders among Indian adolescents was 7.3%. Early recognition and intervention will help to have favorable outcomes. Aims:To determine and compare the prevalence and risk factors associated with mental health illness among urban and rural adolescents in Puducherry. Methods and Material:An explanatory mixed-method design wherein the quantitative phase (an analytical cross-sectional study) was followed by qualitative phase (focus group discussion). Adolescents aged 13-17 years attending Government schools in urban and rural Puducherry were selected by stratified random sampling. Mental health status was screened using a validated Youth Report Measures for Children and Adolescents - SDQ and students with higher score were considered to be at risk of mental health illness. Results:Among 329 adolescent, 25.5% are found to be at risk of mental health illness. The mean total score and sub-domain scores of hyperactivity and emotional symptoms were found to be significantly higher in urban when compared to rural. Among those at risk of mental health illness, significant difference between urban and rural area was seen with respect to variables like family monthly income and parent's occupation. Behaviour change and deterioration in academic performance were the most common presentation as perceived by the teachers. Conclusions:One fourth of the adolescents were found to be at risk of mental health illness, so periodic screening could be done at schools, for early identification and proper treatment of mental disorders. 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_2420_21
Adolescents' mental health concerns, reported with an idiographic assessment tool. Tollefsen Thomas Kristian,Darrow Sabrina Michelle,Neumer Simon-Peter,Berg-Nielsen Turid Suzanne BMC psychology BACKGROUND:Adolescents' self-defined concerns about their mental health are understudied. Yet gaining insight into the individual concerns of this group could be helpful in providing better services to the adolescent population. In this study, an idiographic procedure called Assert was used to increase our knowledge of which concerns are reported by adolescents as the most salient, in a primary mental health care situation. METHOD:231 unique concerns were reported by 70 adolescents in a primary mental health context in Norway. These concerns were analysed qualitatively by a group of experts, to define categories. The distribution of these categories, and differences in gender and age, were analysed quantitatively. The alleviation experienced on the subjective concerns over the course of counselling was measured. Two linear multilevel models were analysed, to examine whether alleviation on self-defined concerns, as measured with Assert, differed-based on the main category of the concern or the number of times Assert was used. RESULTS:Three main categories of concerns emerged, related to (1) Self, (2) Relationships and (3) Life domains; as well as nine sub-categories: (1a) Autonomy, (1b) Mental health, (1c) Somatic health, (2a) Improving of relationships, (2b) Feeling safe from people around them, (2c) Taking responsibility for others, (3a) School, (3b) Work and (3c) Spare time. Girls reported fewer Life domain concerns than boys. Younger adolescents (12-16) more frequently reported no Self concerns, and older adolescents (17-23) more frequently reported no Relationship concerns. The adolescents felt less bothered by their subjective concerns after counselling, and there were some differences in alleviation depending on the category of concern. CONCLUSIONS:The adolescents defined their own concerns at the start of counselling and were less troubled by these concerns after counselling. The content of the concerns might suggest that these adolescents experienced a need to improve across several arenas: personal, relational and academic. Research to extend the current study, to understand individual adolescent concerns, should include contextual and social factors and personal characteristics-and explore how counselling interventions can best help alleviate these personal concerns. 10.1186/s40359-020-00483-5
Promoting the Mental Health of University Students in China: Protocol for Contextual Assessment to Inform Intervention Design and Adaptation. Wong Josephine Pui-Hing,Jia Cun-Xian,Vahabi Mandana,Liu Jenny Jing Wen,Li Alan Tai-Wai,Cong Xiaofeng,Poon Maurice Kwong-Lai,Yamada Janet,Ning Xuan,Gao Jianguo,Cheng Shengli,Sun Guoxiao,Wang Xinting,Fung Kenneth Po-Lun JMIR research protocols BACKGROUND:Chinese students are extremely vulnerable to developing mental illness. The stigma associated with mental illness presents a barrier to seeking help for their mental health. OBJECTIVE:The Linking Hearts-Linking Youth and 'Xin' (hearts) project is an implementation science project that seeks to reduce mental illness stigma and promote the mental health of university students in Jinan, China. The Linking Hearts project consists of 3 components. In this paper, we outline the protocol for the first component, that is, the contextual assessment and analysis of the mental health needs of university students as the first step to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention to be implemented in Jinan, China. METHODS:Six local universities will participate in the Linking Hearts project. A total of 100 students from each university (n=600) will engage in the contextual assessment through self-report surveys on depression, anxiety, stress, mental health knowledge, and mental health stigma. Quantitative data will be analyzed using several descriptive and inferential analyses via SPSS. A small number of participants (144 students and 144 service providers) will also be engaged in focus groups to assess the socio-environmental contexts of university students' health and availability of mental health resources. Qualitative data will be transcribed verbatim and NVivo will be used for data management. Social network analysis will also be performed using EgoNet. RESULTS:Linking Hearts was funded in January 2018 for 5 years. The protocol of Linking Hearts and its 3 components was approved by the research ethics boards of all participating institutions in China in November 2018. Canadian institutions that gave approval were Ryerson University (REB2018-455) in January 2019, University of Alberta (Pro00089364), York University (e2019-162) in May 2019, and University of Toronto (RIS37724) in August 2019. Data collection took place upon ethics approval and was completed in January 2020. A total of 600 students were surveyed. An additional 147 students and 138 service providers took part in focus groups. Data analysis is ongoing. Results will be published in 2021. CONCLUSIONS:Findings from this contextual assessment and analysis will generate new knowledge on university students' mental health status, mental health knowledge, and resources available for them. These findings will be used to adapt and refine the Acceptance and Commitment to Empowerment-Linking Youth N' Xin intervention model. The results of this contextual assessment will be used to inform the adaptation and refinement of the mental health intervention to promote the mental health of Chinese university students in Jinan. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID):RR1-10.2196/25009. 10.2196/25009
The collaborative assessment and management of suicide (CAMS): an important model for mental health services to consider. Galavan E Irish journal of psychological medicine The collaborative assessment and management of suicide (CAMS) model has been developed over 25 years providing mental health clinicians with a flexible, evidenced-based, collaborative and ethically informed way of addressing suicidality with service users. This paper briefly overviews the CAMS model and its advantages and advocates for its use in mental health services both nationally and internationally. 10.1017/ipm.2017.1
Data-Driven Assessment of Adolescents' Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry OBJECTIVE:Adolescents' mental health was severely compromised during the COVID-19 pandemic. Longitudinal real-world studies on changes in the mental health of adolescents during the later phase of the pandemic are limited. We aimed to quantify the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' mental health outcomes based on electronic health records. METHOD:This was a retrospective cohort study using the computerized database of a 2.5 million members, state-mandated health organization in Israel. Rates of mental health diagnoses and psychiatric drug dispensations were measured among adolescents 12 to 17 years of age with and without pre-existing mental history, for the years 2017 to 2021. Relative risks were computed between the years, and interrupted time series (ITS) analyses evaluated changes in monthly incidence rates of psychiatric outcomes. RESULTS:The average population size was 218,146 in 2021. During the COVID-19 period, a 36% increase was observed in the incidence of depression (95% CI = 25-47), 31% in anxiety (95% CI = 23-39), 20% in stress (95% CI = 13-27), 50% in eating disorders (95% CI = 35-67), 25% in antidepressant use (95% CI = 25-33), and 28% in antipsychotic use (95% CI = 18-40). A decreased rate of 26% (95% CI = 0.80-0.88) was observed in ADHD diagnoses. The increase of the examined outcomes was most prominent among youth without psychiatric history, female youth, general secular Jewish population, youth with medium-high socioeconomic status, and those 14 to 15 years of age. ITS analysis confirmed a significantly higher growth in the incidence of psychiatric outcomes during the COVID-19 period, compared to those in previous years. CONCLUSION:This real-world study highlights the deterioration of adolescents' mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and suggests that youth mental health should be considered during health policy decision making. DIVERSITY & INCLUSION STATEMENT:We worked to ensure sex and gender balance in the recruitment of human participants. We worked to ensure race, ethnic, and/or other types of diversity in the recruitment of human participants. We actively worked to promote sex and gender balance in our author group. The author list of this paper includes contributors from the location and/or community where the research was conducted who participated in the data collection, design, analysis, and/or interpretation of the work. 10.1016/j.jaac.2022.12.026
Comprehensive Assessment of Quality of Life, Functioning, and Mental Health in Children With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and Noninfectious Uveitis. Arthritis care & research OBJECTIVE:Pediatric uveitis can lead to sight-threatening complications and can impact quality of life (QoL) and functioning. We aimed to examine health-related QoL, mental health, physical disability, vision-related functioning (VRF), and vision-related QoL in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), JIA-associated uveitis (JIA-U), and other noninfectious uveitis. We hypothesized that there will be differences based on the presence of eye disease. METHODS:A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted at four sites. Patients with JIA, JIA-U, or noninfectious uveitis were enrolled. Patients and parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL; health-related QoL), the Revised Childhood Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS; anxiety/depression), the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (C-HAQ; physical disability), and the Effects of Youngsters' Eyesight on Quality of Life (EYE-Q) (VRF/vision-related QoL). Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcome measures were compared by diagnosis. RESULTS:Of 549 patients, 332 had JIA, 124 had JIA-U, and 93 had other uveitis diagnoses. Children with JIA-U had worse EYE-Q scores compared to those with JIA only. In children with uveitis, those with anterior uveitis (JIA-U and uveitis only) had less ocular complications, better EYE-Q scores, and worse C-HAQ and PedsQL physical summary scores compared to those with nonanterior disease. In children with anterior uveitis, those with JIA-U had worse PedsQL physical summary and C-HAQ scores than anterior uveitis only. Further, EYE-Q scores were worse in children with bilateral uveitis and more visual impairment. There were no differences in RCADS scores among groups. CONCLUSION:We provide a comprehensive outcome assessment of children with JIA, JIA-U, and other uveitis diagnoses. Differences in QoL and function were noted based on underlying disease. Our results support the addition of a vision-specific measure to better understand the impact of uveitis. 10.1002/acr.24551
A new consultation, Assessment and reflection model (CARM) used in child and adolescence mental health services (CAMHS). Mansell Louise,Hughes Kirsty,Heyes Jane-Ward,Brownlee Adrian,Charm Clare,Blake Daniel,Collinge Sarah,Smith Jason Clinical child psychology and psychiatry UK National Guidelines stress the importance of reducing waiting times for mental health assessments and interventions for children. They stress the importance of early help, multidisciplinary working, and collaboration with families regarding treatment plans. We piloted a new assessment model (CARM) within a CAMHS service to: reduce non-attendance rates and subsequently waiting times; increase staff and patient satisfaction; and improve the quality of assessment. All waiting list patients and new referrals over a three-month period were contacted to self-book an hour session to meet two clinicians who utilised collaborative reflection and formulation to produce a care plan (CARM). Results revealed that non-attendance rates dropped from 33% over the month prior to CARM to 7% during CARM. Satisfaction levels were high. Qualitative feedback regarding satisfaction revealed the most common themes was feeling listened to and having the opportunity to listen to staff reflections. The themes of staff satisfaction included 'feeling more supported' and 'feeling safer in their decision making'. All assessments were completed in the one appointment. A formulation-driven care plan was developed and discussed with the family. This approach has the potential to make services more effective, efficient and satisfying for both staff and families. 10.1177/13591045211016512
Assessing mental health literacy among Danish adolescents - development and validation of a multifaceted assessment tool (the Danish MeHLA questionnaire). Zenas Ditte,Nielsen Marie G,Fonager Kirsten,Petersen Kirsten S,Szulevicz Thomas,Overgaard Charlotte Psychiatry research It is recognized that mental health literacy is vital in both the prevention of mental health problems and in mental health promotion and empowerment of adolescents. In spite of this, only a limited number of tools assessing mental health literacy among adolescents have been developed and most of these have not been adequately tested. In this study, a questionnaire assessing mental health literacy was developed and tested using a three-step approach: 1) item generation in which the principles of public patient involvement were essential, 2) item testing and 3) exploration of psychometric properties. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was determined through Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in order to determine the construct validity of the questionnaire. The results demonstrated partly skewed data, good internal consistency, good Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and acceptable results in the goodness of fit index. The initial results suggest that the questionnaire developed and validated in this study is valuable in assessing mental health literacy and could provide useful, essential information on the topic. It thus appears to be a promising tool in the promotion and improvement of mental health and early intervention of mental health problems among adolescents. 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113373
Assessment of mental health issues in pregnant women with fetal complications: Relation to attachment and anxiety. Perspectives in psychiatric care PURPOSE:Pregnancy period is important for all women. The aim of this study was to evaluate mental status, antenatal depression, attachment, and anxiety in pregnant women with fetal complications. DESIGN AND METHODS:Mothers who had been diagnosed with fetal complications during pregnancy were interviewed after the delivery of their babies. FINDINGS:The results showed that anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher in the mothers who had received psychiatric support treatment. Maternal attachment scores were found low, depression scores were found high in mothers of children with congenital anomalies. CONCLUSION:According to the results of the study, a maternal attachment was low and depression was high in mothers with congenital anomalies. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:Possible psychological problems after birth can be prevented by psychotherapeutic nursing interventions during pregnancy to pregnant women who have babies with fetal anomalies. 10.1111/ppc.12890
Validation of a general mental health self-efficacy assessment tool. Military psychology : the official journal of the Division of Military Psychology, American Psychological Association The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a 14-item mental health self-efficacy scale developed to assess the effectiveness of the Road to Mental Readiness (R2MR) - a program aimed at improving the well-being and mental health of Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel. The validity of the scale was assessed through an analysis of data collected as part of a pilot study and a larger group randomized control trial (GRCT) on the effectiveness of R2MR administered to CAF noncommissioned member recruits during basic training. Using data collected for the pilot study ( 276), an initial review of items indicated a need to eliminate two redundant items and two items that were weakly correlated with other scale items. A parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) conducted on the resulting 10-item scale pointed to a one-factor model with all items loading satisfactorily. Using data from the GRCT ( = 1962), a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to further assess the revised scale. This CFA suggested good model fit (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation of .07 and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual of .06). The revised scale had an alpha of .88, was very strongly correlated with the full scale ( = .97, < .001), and significantly predicted perceived control and self-efficacy regarding accessing mental health care and intention to access care. 10.1080/08995605.2021.1897449
The Use of Photoplethysmography in the Assessment of Mental Health: Scoping Review. JMIR mental health BACKGROUND:With the rise in mental health problems globally, mobile health provides opportunities for timely medical care and accessibility. One emerging area of mobile health involves the use of photoplethysmography (PPG) to assess and monitor mental health. OBJECTIVE:In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of PPG-based technology for mental health. Therefore, we conducted a review to understand how PPG has been evaluated to assess a range of mental health and psychological problems, including stress, depression, and anxiety. METHODS:A scoping review was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. RESULTS:A total of 24 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. We identified studies that assessed mental health via PPG using finger- and face-based methods as well as smartphone-based methods. There was variation in study quality. PPG holds promise as a potential complementary technology for detecting changes in mental health, including depression and anxiety. However, rigorous validation is needed in diverse clinical populations to advance PPG technology in tackling mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS:PPG holds promise for assessing mental health problems; however, more research is required before it can be widely recommended for clinical use. 10.2196/40163
Identifying people with deteriorating mental health using a mental state assessment. Rees Helen Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987) Research indicates that approximately one in six people will experience a common mental health condition such as depression or anxiety, while people with severe mental illness commonly experience significant health inequalities. Nurses will come into frequent contact with people experiencing mental health issues in hospitals and in the community. Mental state assessment is a tool that enables nurses to develop an understanding of an individual's mental health that will be universally recognised across healthcare services. This article provides an outline of the various elements involved in a mental state assessment, so that clinicians such as non-mental health nurses can identify people experiencing deteriorating mental health. 10.7748/ns.2021.e11612
Mental Health Assessment of the Frequent Visitors in the School Setting-Part 1: An Overview. Perron Tracy,Jakubowski Tami,Razzi Cathy,Kartoz Connie NASN school nurse (Print) School nurses manage children with mental health problems on a routine basis. However, many school nurses report having had limited to no training in assessment, recognizing signs and symptoms, or therapeutic interventions for mental health problems in children in their educational programs. This article is Part 1 of a two-part series. Part 1 will provide a background of common mental health conditions, common symptoms, underlying complaints, along with helpful resources for multiple audiences. Part 2 will continue with a focus on mental health assessment in the school setting, including the use of screening tools with a review of the most common medications prescribed for youth with anxiety and depression. 10.1177/1942602X21996442
Personality assessment usage and mental health among Chinese adolescents: A sequential mediation model of the Barnum effect and ego identity. Frontiers in psychology Introduction:Adolescence is a crucial period for establishing ego identity and becoming a social individual. However, numerous adolescents suffer from mental health problems, especially after the conditions surrounding the COVID-19 outbreak. Personality assessments are often used when adolescents look for psychological self-help services. However, the meaning and mechanism of these personality assessments remain unknown. Taking the increasingly popular MBTI personality assessment as an entry point, the current study examined the potential sequential mediation relationship of Barnum effect - ego identity on the link between personality assessment usage and mental health. Methods:The current study surveyed 308 Chinese high school students, including 109 males and 199 females. MBTI use, Barnum effect, ego-identity, and mental health (subjective well-being, depression, and anxiety) were measured by seven questionnaires, respectively. Sequential mediation models were constructed to analyze the relationship. Results:The results indicate that the Barnum effect and ego identity together function as a sequential mediation path between personality assessment use and teenagers' mental health, including subjective well-being, depression, and anxiety. Specifically, a higher level of MBTI use triggers a stronger Barnum effect. The Barnum effect then promotes adolescents' ego identity, ultimately increasing subjective well-being levels and reducing anxiety and depression. Discussion:Our findings suggest that by properly using personality assessment and stimulating the Barnum effect, we can enhance adolescents' mental health. The theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed. 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1097068
Fairness in Mobile Phone-Based Mental Health Assessment Algorithms: Exploratory Study. JMIR formative research BACKGROUND:Approximately 1 in 5 American adults experience mental illness every year. Thus, mobile phone-based mental health prediction apps that use phone data and artificial intelligence techniques for mental health assessment have become increasingly important and are being rapidly developed. At the same time, multiple artificial intelligence-related technologies (eg, face recognition and search results) have recently been reported to be biased regarding age, gender, and race. This study moves this discussion to a new domain: phone-based mental health assessment algorithms. It is important to ensure that such algorithms do not contribute to gender disparities through biased predictions across gender groups. OBJECTIVE:This research aimed to analyze the susceptibility of multiple commonly used machine learning approaches for gender bias in mobile mental health assessment and explore the use of an algorithmic disparate impact remover (DIR) approach to reduce bias levels while maintaining high accuracy. METHODS:First, we performed preprocessing and model training using the data set (N=55) obtained from a previous study. Accuracy levels and differences in accuracy across genders were computed using 5 different machine learning models. We selected the random forest model, which yielded the highest accuracy, for a more detailed audit and computed multiple metrics that are commonly used for fairness in the machine learning literature. Finally, we applied the DIR approach to reduce bias in the mental health assessment algorithm. RESULTS:The highest observed accuracy for the mental health assessment was 78.57%. Although this accuracy level raises optimism, the audit based on gender revealed that the performance of the algorithm was statistically significantly different between the male and female groups (eg, difference in accuracy across genders was 15.85%; P<.001). Similar trends were obtained for other fairness metrics. This disparity in performance was found to reduce significantly after the application of the DIR approach by adapting the data used for modeling (eg, the difference in accuracy across genders was 1.66%, and the reduction is statistically significant with P<.001). CONCLUSIONS:This study grounds the need for algorithmic auditing in phone-based mental health assessment algorithms and the use of gender as a protected attribute to study fairness in such settings. Such audits and remedial steps are the building blocks for the widespread adoption of fair and accurate mental health assessment algorithms in the future. 10.2196/34366
Health assessment of French university students and risk factors associated with mental health disorders. Tran Antoine,Tran Laurie,Geghre Nicolas,Darmon David,Rampal Marion,Brandone Diane,Gozzo Jean-Michel,Haas Hervé,Rebouillat-Savy Karine,Caci Hervé,Avillach Paul PloS one OBJECTIVE:The first year of university is a particularly stressful period and can impact academic performance and students' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health and lifestyle of undergraduates and assess risk factors associated with psychiatric symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Between September 2012 and June 2013, we included all undergraduate students who underwent compulsory a medical visit at the university medical service in Nice (France) during which they were screened for potential diseases during a diagnostic interview. Data were collected prospectively in the CALCIUM database (Consultations Assistés par Logiciel pour les Centres Inter-Universitaire de Médecine) and included information about the students' lifestyle (living conditions, dietary behavior, physical activity, use of recreational drugs). The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms related to depression, anxiety and panic attacks was assessed and risk factors for these symptoms were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS:A total of 4,184 undergraduates were included. Prevalence for depression, anxiety and panic attacks were 12.6%, 7.6% and 1.0%, respectively. During the 30 days preceding the evaluation, 0.6% of the students regularly drank alcohol, 6.3% were frequent-to-heavy tobacco smokers, and 10.0% smoked marijuana. Dealing with financial difficulties and having learning disabilities were associated with psychiatric symptoms. Students who were dissatisfied with their living conditions and those with poor dietary behavior were at risk of depression. Being a woman and living alone were associated with anxiety. Students who screened positively for any psychiatric disorder assessed were at a higher risk of having another psychiatric disorder concomitantly. CONCLUSION:The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in undergraduate students is low but the rate of students at risk of developing chronic disease is far from being negligible. Understanding predictors for these symptoms may improve students' health by implementing targeted prevention campaigns. Further research in other French universities is necessary to confirm our results. 10.1371/journal.pone.0188187
Minding many minds: An assessment of mental health and resilience among undergraduate and graduate students; a mixed methods exploratory study. Journal of American college health : J of ACH The American College Health Association (ACHA) found that 65.4% of Ontario (Canada) students feel overwhelming anxiety and 89.5% of students feel overwhelmed by all of their obligations. Thus, this study assessed the current state of full-time undergraduate (UGS) and graduate students' (GS) mental health and resilience.A total of 598-796 UGS and GS completed three questionnaires (BRS, MHI, and SF-36) and a demographic questionnaire, which were distributed campus-wide. Focus groups/individual interviews ( = 30) explored students' mental health- and resilience-related experiences.Quantitatively, participants produced normal levels of resilience on the BRS, below-the-norm levels of anxiety on the MHI, and above-the-norm levels of physical functioning, but below-the-norm levels of six mental-health-related constructs on the SF-36. Qualitatively, GS and UGS felt physical activity (PA) benefited their mental health and resilience, and voiced the need for more counselors. Overall, participants' mental health and resilience were similar to the population. 10.1080/07448481.2020.1781134
[Application and Progress of Intelligent Assistant Diagnosis in Mental Health Assessment System]. Zhongguo yi liao qi xie za zhi = Chinese journal of medical instrumentation The establishment of mental health assessment system provides a new way for the early diagnosis of mental health problems, in view of the growing population of mental diseases and problems and the uneven distribution of mental health resources. In the mental health assessment system, intelligent assistant diagnosis can assist or help psychiatrists improve their work efficiency. Intelligent assistant diagnosis provides technical support for predictive screening and auxiliary diagnosis of mental health problems. It is an intelligent diagnosis research based on big data analysis and machine learning in mental health assessment system. This article mainly reviews the application methods, the application progress in the field of mental health, as well as related technical issues and safety issues, and prospects the future research development. 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2023.05.002
Evidence-Based Assessment in Routine Mental Health Services for Youths. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) OBJECTIVE:Evidence-based assessment (EBA) plays a critical role in the delivery of effective treatments. However, little is known about the assessment practices of mental health clinicians who treat youths and the factors that support EBA. The authors examined when, how, and under what conditions clinicians conduct EBA. METHODS:In two multidisciplinary surveys (combined N=2,575), clinicians reported how frequently they conducted pretreatment, ongoing, and posttreatment assessments and how frequently they used standardized measures in usual care of youths. RESULTS:Although clinicians reported frequent pretreatment, ongoing, and posttreatment assessments, use of standardized measures was rare. Clinician and practice setting characteristics predicted standardized measure use, and a lack of practical assessment tools appears to be a barrier to use of standardized measures in EBA of youths. CONCLUSIONS:Many clinicians conduct assessments during treatment, but more practical measures and clinician training may improve the integration of standardized measures into routine practice. 10.1176/appi.ps.201900537
Measuring Mental Health Provider-Based Stigma: Development and Initial Psychometric Testing of a Self-Assessment Instrument. Charles Jennifer L K,Bentley Kia J Community mental health journal This article describes the development and initial psychometric testing of the Mental Health Provider Self-Assessment of Stigma Scale (MHPSASS), a 20-item instrument crafted in reflection of Charles' (Social Work in Mental Health 11:360-375, 2013) empirically derived, experience-based, five-themed model of provider stigmatization. Following model and item review by construct experts, 220 mental health service providers in Virginia's public mental health centers and in-patient facilities completed the survey package. Results indicate the refined MHPSASS is a reliable measure of provider-based stigma with promising face and content validity. However, rather than they hypothesized five-factors, analysis indicates a four-factor solution, a key finding signaling a discrepancy between what providers endorse and what clients' experience. Notably absent from the MHPSASS' were items related to blame and shame, in contrast to the experience of clients and families. Further refinement is indicated, particularly reconsideration of blame and shame items due to their practical and theoretical significance. 10.1007/s10597-017-0137-4
The interRAI Child and Youth Suite of Mental Health Assessment Instruments: An Integrated Approach to Mental Health Service Delivery. Frontiers in psychiatry Various biological, social, psychological, and environmental factors impact children and youth living with mental health problems across their lifespan. To meet the wide-ranging challenges of mental illness, service system integration is needed to improve efficiencies and reduce fragmentation. Unfortunately, the mental health system has been plagued by the lack of coordination across services. There is a general consensus that mental health service delivery must ensure a child or youth's needs are addressed in a collaborative, coordinated, and seamless manner. A key element to successful integration is the development of a comprehensive standardized screening and assessment system. Numerous assessments have been developed to assess child mental health and functioning, but they typically have a very narrow focus with limited use and utility. Not only does this reduce the ability to take a life course perspective to mental health, but this uncoordinated approach also results in redundancies in information collected, additional resources, and increased assessor burden for children, youth, and their families. The interRAI child and youth mental health assessment suite was developed in response to the need for an integrated mental health system for young persons. This suite includes screening and assessment instruments for in-patient and community settings, emergency departments, educational settings, and youth justice custodial facilities. The instruments form a mental health information system intentionally designed to work in an integrated fashion beginning in infancy, and incorporate key applications such as care planning, outcome measurement, resource allocation, and quality improvement. The design of these assessment tools and their psychometric properties are reviewed. Data is then presented using examples related to interpersonal trauma, illustrating the use and utility of the integrated suite, along with the various applications of these assessment systems. 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.710569
Digital phenotyping for assessment and prediction of mental health outcomes: a scoping review protocol. Spinazze Pier,Rykov Yuri,Bottle Alex,Car Josip BMJ open INTRODUCTION:Rapid advancements in technology and the ubiquity of personal mobile digital devices have brought forth innovative methods of acquiring healthcare data. Smartphones can capture vast amounts of data both passively through inbuilt sensors or connected devices and actively via user engagement. This scoping review aims to evaluate evidence to date on the use of passive digital sensing/phenotyping in assessment and prediction of mental health. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The methodological framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley will be used to conduct the review following the five-step process. A three-step search strategy will be used: (1) Initial limited search of online databases namely, MEDLINE for literature on digital phenotyping or sensing for key terms; (2) Comprehensive literature search using all identified keywords, across all relevant electronic databases: IEEE Xplore, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, the ACM Digital Library and Web of Science Core Collection (Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index), Scopus and (3) Snowballing approach using the reference and citing lists of all identified key conceptual papers and primary studies. Data will be charted and sorted using a thematic analysis approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The findings from this systematic scoping review will be reported at scientific meetings and published in a peer-reviewed journal. 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032255
Validity of Chatbot Use for Mental Health Assessment: Experimental Study. JMIR mHealth and uHealth BACKGROUND:Mental disorders in adolescence and young adulthood are major public health concerns. Digital tools such as text-based conversational agents (ie, chatbots) are a promising technology for facilitating mental health assessment. However, the human-like interaction style of chatbots may induce potential biases, such as socially desirable responding (SDR), and may require further effort to complete assessments. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate the convergent and discriminant validity of chatbots for mental health assessments, the effect of assessment mode on SDR, and the effort required by participants for assessments using chatbots compared with established modes. METHODS:In a counterbalanced within-subject design, we assessed 2 different constructs-psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory-18) and problematic alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-3)-in 3 modes (chatbot, paper-and-pencil, and web-based), and examined convergent and discriminant validity. In addition, we investigated the effect of mode on SDR, controlling for perceived sensitivity of items and individuals' tendency to respond in a socially desirable way, and we also assessed the perceived social presence of modes. Including a between-subject condition, we further investigated whether SDR is increased in chatbot assessments when applied in a self-report setting versus when human interaction may be expected. Finally, the effort (ie, complexity, difficulty, burden, and time) required to complete the assessments was investigated. RESULTS:A total of 146 young adults (mean age 24, SD 6.42 years; n=67, 45.9% female) were recruited from a research panel for laboratory experiments. The results revealed high positive correlations (all P<.001) of measures of the same construct across different modes, indicating the convergent validity of chatbot assessments. Furthermore, there were no correlations between the distinct constructs, indicating discriminant validity. Moreover, there were no differences in SDR between modes and whether human interaction was expected, although the perceived social presence of the chatbot mode was higher than that of the established modes (P<.001). Finally, greater effort (all P<.05) and more time were needed to complete chatbot assessments than for completing the established modes (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that chatbots may yield valid results. Furthermore, an understanding of chatbot design trade-offs in terms of potential strengths (ie, increased social presence) and limitations (ie, increased effort) when assessing mental health were established. 10.2196/28082
Promoting emotional wellness in children with CF, part II: Mental health assessment and intervention. Georgiopoulos Anna M,Christon Lillian M,Filigno Stephanie S,Mueller Amy,Prieur Mary G,Boat Thomas F,Smith Beth A Pediatric pulmonology This is the second of two companion papers that examine the emotional wellness of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) during the early years of life, defined here as the period between birth and age 12. Both papers promote optimal mental health and well-being, with an emphasis on early identification and intervention. The first paper explores child and family resilience. Here, we discuss strategies for pediatric CF teams to provide routine, systematic mental health assessment, anticipatory guidance, brief intervention, and triage to evidence-based treatment when needed, while addressing barriers to accessing care. Many mental health conditions emerge before the age of 12, with the potential for lifelong effects on individuals, their families, and society. Living with a chronic illness such as CF can further increase the risk of mental health concerns and, in a bidirectional manner, their consequences for the quality of life, sustaining daily care, and health outcomes. There has been a significant focus in recent years on the mental health and wellness of adolescents and adults with CF, but less attention to specifics of depression and anxiety in younger children, or to other common pediatric comorbidities including trauma, developmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or autism spectrum disorder, and oppositional behavior. Given the availability of psychometrically sound screening instruments and effective interventions, routinely addressing the mental health of children with CF and their families is feasible to integrate within multidisciplinary CF care, allowing for a personalized approach respecting individual needs, values, and goals. 10.1002/ppul.24977
An Assessment of Austrian School Students' Mental Health and Their Wish for Support: A Mixed Methods Approach. International journal of environmental research and public health The mental health of school students has been severely impacted by the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study used a mixed methods approach to assess students' mental health and examine their wishes for support to improve their psychological well-being. We further investigated gender and age group differences in the amount of clinically relevant mental health problems and the roles that mental health and gender had on desired support. Between April and May 2022, a total of 616 Austrian students aged between 14 and 20 participated in a cross-sectional online survey (77.4% female; 19.8% male; 2.8% non-binary) assessing wishes for support regarding mental well-being and mental health indicators (depression: PHQ-9; anxiety: GAD-7; insomnia: ISI; stress: PSS-10; eating disorders: SCOFF; alcohol abuse: CAGE). A wish for support was expressed by 46.6% of the students. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the two most important categories of desired support types were "professional help" and "someone to talk to". The group of students with a wish for support in general significantly more often showed clinically relevant depression, anxiety, insomnia, eating disorders, or high stress symptoms. Students that wished for professional help significantly more often exceeded the cut-off for clinically relevant depression, anxiety, and high stress. Those who wished for someone to talk to significantly more often exceeded the cut-off for clinically relevant eating disorders. The results indicate a great need for support for young people's mental health problems and that this need is even more urgent for students. 10.3390/ijerph20064749
Outdoor walking and talking assessment of mental health. Müller-Sedgwick Ulrich BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 10.1136/bmj.m3700
Risk Assessment in Mental Health Practice: An Integrative Review. Janse van Rensburg Elsie,van der Wath Annatjie Issues in mental health nursing Although risk assessment in mental health practice can influence and measure treatment outcomes and level of care provision, risk assessment practices are not standardised and different screening tools are used. The aim of this integrative review was to review the literature on risk assessment in mental health practice to promote evidence-based care. Electronic databases were searched for articles available in English and published from 2013 to 2019. The findings from 12 articles evaluated the evidence for risk assessment tools utilised and discussed the justification, barriers and enabling factors for risk assessment. Lastly, recommendations were made to improve risk assessment. 10.1080/01612840.2020.1756011
Tele-Yoga Therapy for Common Mental Health Disorders: Need for Assessment Tool and Guidelines. Jagannathan Aarti,Bhide Shree Raksha,Varambally Shivarama,Chandra Prabha S,Gangadhar B N International journal of yoga Introduction:Tele-yoga is a cost-effective method of teaching yoga using cloud technology to relay from one source (trainer's venue) to multi-point video conferencing centers (participants' homes). However, there is a need to assess the tele-yoga trainer and the training itself to ensure safety and effectiveness. Materials and Methods:The Tele-Yoga Trainers Assessment (TYTA) tool was developed through (a) review of existing tools, (b) key informant interviews, and (c) validation by experts. It was tested for its feasibility in six persons with common mental disorders. A trained yoga therapist conducted tele-yoga therapy sessions which was webcast from NIMHANS Integrated Center for Yoga to NIMHANS Center for Well-Being for the first 15 days and to the respective homes of the participants using "Skype" in the remaining 15 days. Participants were assessed on (a) mental well-being, (b) satisfaction with overall health and were administered the (c) TYTA tool on the 1, 15, and 30 day. Results:The TYTA was easy to administer for assessing the performance of the yoga trainer. The qualitative case reports of individual participants depicted that over 30 days, mental well-being and satisfaction with overall health improved trainer's performance. Conclusion:Tele-yoga therapy is feasible with minimum technology and availability of good internet access at the relay and reception site. The trainer must be assessed for his/her suitability and be provided guidelines for achieving desired outcomes. 10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_99_20
Linking music streaming platform advertisements with a digital mental health assessment and interventions. Frontiers in digital health Accessibility issues and low rates of help-seeking hinder engagement with mental health resources and treatment. Pragmatic, (cost-)effective solutions are required to increase engagement with efficacious digital mental health interventions (DMHIs) including for hard-to-reach individuals. As an example, music-based interventions have been positively used in health care to reduce stress, anxiety and depression through music medicine, music therapy and recreational use. Although, enhanced mental health awareness from music listening has yet to be converted into engagement with a DMH assessment (DMHA) and DMHIs. Therefore, a new study is proposed to place linked advertisements on Spotify, the most used music streaming platform. MindSpot's vetted DMHA is suitable to use as an example for linking unto because it measures depression, anxiety, general mental well-being problems and psychological distress in Australian adults and provides access to DMHIs. The primary aim is to provide a convenient, robust and scalable consumer pathway to reduce engagement barriers and maximize facilitation to a vetted DMHA and DMHIs. The proposed study is important because it addresses notorious help-seeking difficulties in the adult population (e.g., young people and men). It also expands outreach to the underserved and the unserved and streamlines the integration of digital solutions with mental health services. 10.3389/fdgth.2022.964251
Intelligent Assessment of Mental Health Based on Multisource Information Fusion. Journal of healthcare engineering Mental health problems will seriously damage social harmony and family happiness. This paper proposes a study on mental health intelligence assessment based on multisource information fusion. Combining the data description of UPI and SCL-90 and the corresponding task requirement analysis, the multisource information fusion visualization based on the Circos diagram is designed and realized, and the parallel coordinate visualization is established. The MDS algorithm is used to project multidimensional survey objects into low-dimensional visualization space, and the actual UPI and SCL-90 questionnaire data for 278 students of a certain major at a university provided by the cooperative unit are used. The results show that the mental health problems of student A are serious, and the symptoms of depression and schizophrenia are prominent, so it is necessary to seek psychological experts for corresponding treatment in time. By contrast, student B's mental health problems are also serious, and the user judges that student B still needs further diagnosis and treatment. The correlation analysis results of multisource information fusion are roughly the same as the actual situation, which is convincing. Therefore, the multisource mental health information fusion of college students has a certain correlation and complementarity. 10.1155/2022/7149817
Assessment of Mental Health Services Available Through Smartphone Apps. JAMA network open Importance:As more patients and clinicians are turning to mental health smartphone apps to expand access to services, little is known about the current state of the app marketplaces and what these apps are actually offering in terms of features, privacy, price, and services. Objective:To assess the current state of mental health apps, explore the association between app privacy scores and popularity as measured by star ratings and downloads, and to understand opportunities and challenges facing the commercial app landscape. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cross-sectional study had trained raters using the public-facing M-Health Index and Navigation Database (MIND) to assess and review 578 mental health apps. The sample of apps used in this analysis were pulled from MIND and include apps across various conditions including schizophrenia, eating disorders, sleep, and more. Analysis of these apps was conducted in June 2022. Exposures:There were 578 mental health apps rated across 105 dimensions derived from the American Psychiatric Association's app evaluation framework. Main Outcomes and Measures:App raters assessed each app across 6 categories: (1) app origin and accessibility, (2) privacy and security, (3) clinical foundation, (4) features and engagement, (5) inputs and outputs, and (6) interoperability. Privacy scores were determined by 5 MIND criteria, including (1) having a privacy policy, (2) reporting security measures in place, (3) declaring data use and purpose, (4) allowing for the deletion of data, and (5) allowing users to opt out of data collection. Correlations between privacy scores and popularity metrics (star ratings and number of downloads) were measured. Results:This study included 578 mental health apps that were identified, assessed, and analyzed across 105 MIND dimensions. Psychoeducation, goal setting, and mindfulness were among the top app features. Of the 578 apps analyzed, 443 (77%) had a privacy policy. This analysis of apps with a privacy policy revealed that there was no statistically significant correlation between privacy scores and Apple App Store (r = 0.058, P = .29) or Google Play Store star ratings (r = 0.041; P = .48). The number of app downloads on the Google Play Store, however, was weakly correlated with privacy scores (χ25 = 22.1; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance:In this cross-sectional study of mental health apps, findings indicate that the current app marketplaces primarily offered basic features such as psychoeducation, goal tracking, and mindfulness but fewer innovative features such as biofeedback or specialized therapies. Privacy challenges remained common, and app popularity metrics provided little help in identifying apps with more privacy. 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.48784
Mental Health Burden among Black Adolescents: The Need for Better Assessment, Diagnosis and Treatment Engagement. Social work in mental health This study examines mental health symptoms among Black adolescents who were currently in mental health treatment and those who were not in treatment. The study uses a sample of Black adolescents (=154) and logistic regression was performed to determine which psychological factors were associated with exhibiting mental health symptoms. Both groups experienced high amounts of trauma exposure history, recent suicidality, substance use, and depressive symptoms. Nearly one in four adolescents in the out of treatment group met diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders. Implications include better screening for mental health symptoms to ensure Black adolescent have access to mental health treatment. 10.1080/15332985.2021.1879345
Chronic Pain and Mental Health Co-Morbidity in Adolescents: An Urgent Call for Assessment and Evidence-Based Intervention. Wrona Sharon K,Melnyk Bernadette Mazurek,Hoying Jacqueline Pain management nursing : official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses BACKGROUND:Nearly 30% of children are affected by chronic pain which puts a significant burden on the child's family and society with estimated cost of over $19.5 billion each year. Children and adolescent's quality of life is often impacted leading to physical disability, low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, school stress or decreased performance, insomnia, and fatigue. The purposes of this paper are to: 1) provide an overview of chronic pain in children and adolescents; 2) describe findings from a quality improvement project that assessed the prevalence of negative mood, quality of life, functional disability, and coping with pain in teens with chronic pain, and 3) discuss screening, assessment and evidence-based management of co-morbid chronic pain and mental health problems in children and teens. FINDINGS:Findings for a quality improvement project indicated that 16.8% of the adolescents scored high risk for depression, which was higher than the national average. Approximately 57% of adolescents were screened as high risk on the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (PedsQL™). One in four adolescents showed poor functioning on the Functional Disability Inventory and nearly one-third of the adolescents reported poor coping with pain on the Pain Coping Questionnaire. This project indicates that adolescents with chronic pain are at high risk for mental health problems. The outcomes suggest the mental health needs of adolescents with chronic pain need to be identified and addressed to help improve outcomes. DISCUSSION:Children and youth with chronic pain need to be routinely screened and assessed for mental health problems, especially anxiety and depression. The use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or CBT-skills building for children and youth with anxiety and depressive disorders has been widely studied and are helpful for children with chronic pain include psychoeducation, which helps the child to learn age and developmental specific information on chronic pain. Evidence-based manualized and internet-based CBT programs should be scaled rapidly to decrease depression and anxiety in children and youth with chronic pain. 10.1016/j.pmn.2020.12.004
Early Childhood Mental Health: Empirical Assessment and Intervention from Conception Through Preschool. Tandon Mini Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 10.1016/j.chc.2017.04.001
Multimodal mental health assessment with remote interviews using facial, vocal, linguistic, and cardiovascular patterns. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences Objective:The current clinical practice of psychiatric evaluation suffers from subjectivity and bias, and requires highly skilled professionals that are often unavailable or unaffordable. Objective digital biomarkers have shown the potential to address these issues. In this work, we investigated whether behavioral and physiological signals, extracted from remote interviews, provided complimentary information for assessing psychiatric disorders. Methods:Time series of multimodal features were derived from four conceptual modes: facial expression, vocal expression, linguistic expression, and cardiovascular modulation. The features were extracted from simultaneously recorded audio and video of remote interviews using task-specific and foundation models. Averages, standard deviations, and hidden Markov model-derived statistics of these features were computed from 73 subjects. Four binary classification tasks were defined: detecting 1) any clinically-diagnosed psychiatric disorder, 2) major depressive disorder, 3) self-rated depression, and 4) self-rated anxiety. Each modality was evaluated individually and in combination. Results:Statistically significant feature differences were found between controls and subjects with mental health conditions. Correlations were found between features and self-rated depression and anxiety scores. Visual heart rate dynamics achieved the best unimodal performance with areas under the receiver-operator curve (AUROCs) of 0.68-0.75 (depending on the classification task). Combining multiple modalities achieved AUROCs of 0.72-0.82. Features from task-specific models outperformed features from foundation models. Conclusion:Multimodal features extracted from remote interviews revealed informative characteristics of clinically diagnosed and self-rated mental health status. Significance:The proposed multimodal approach has the potential to facilitate objective, remote, and low-cost assessment for low-burden automated mental health services. 10.1101/2023.09.11.23295212
Remote Digital Psychiatry for Mobile Mental Health Assessment and Therapy: MindLogger Platform Development Study. Klein Arno,Clucas Jon,Krishnakumar Anirudh,Ghosh Satrajit S,Van Auken Wilhelm,Thonet Benjamin,Sabram Ihor,Acuna Nino,Keshavan Anisha,Rossiter Henry,Xiao Yao,Semenuta Sergey,Badioli Alessandra,Konishcheva Kseniia,Abraham Sanu Ann,Alexander Lindsay M,Merikangas Kathleen R,Swendsen Joel,Lindner Ariel B,Milham Michael P Journal of medical Internet research BACKGROUND:Universal access to assessment and treatment of mental health and learning disorders remains a significant and unmet need. There are many people without access to care because of economic, geographic, and cultural barriers, as well as the limited availability of clinical experts who could help advance our understanding and treatment of mental health. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to create an open, configurable software platform to build clinical measures, mobile assessments, tasks, and interventions without programming expertise. Specifically, our primary requirements include an administrator interface for creating and scheduling recurring and customized questionnaires where end users receive and respond to scheduled notifications via an iOS or Android app on a mobile device. Such a platform would help relieve overwhelmed health systems and empower remote and disadvantaged subgroups in need of accurate and effective information, assessment, and care. This platform has the potential to advance scientific research by supporting the collection of data with instruments tailored to specific scientific questions from large, distributed, and diverse populations. METHODS:We searched for products that satisfy these requirements. We designed and developed a new software platform called MindLogger, which exceeds the requirements. To demonstrate the platform's configurability, we built multiple applets (collections of activities) within the MindLogger mobile app and deployed several of them, including a comprehensive set of assessments underway in a large-scale, longitudinal mental health study. RESULTS:Of the hundreds of products we researched, we found 10 that met our primary requirements with 4 that support end-to-end encryption, 2 that enable restricted access to individual users' data, 1 that provides open-source software, and none that satisfy all three. We compared features related to information presentation and data capture capabilities; privacy and security; and access to the product, code, and data. We successfully built MindLogger mobile and web applications, as well as web browser-based tools for building and editing new applets and for administering them to end users. MindLogger has end-to-end encryption, enables restricted access, is open source, and supports a variety of data collection features. One applet is currently collecting data from children and adolescents in our mental health study, and other applets are in different stages of testing and deployment for use in clinical and research settings. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated the flexibility and applicability of the MindLogger platform through its deployment in a large-scale, longitudinal, mobile mental health study and by building a variety of other mental health-related applets. With this release, we encourage a broad range of users to apply the MindLogger platform to create and test applets to advance health care and scientific research. We hope that increasing the availability of applets designed to assess and administer interventions will facilitate access to health care in the general population. 10.2196/22369
Mental Health Mobile Apps in the French App Store: Assessment Study of Functionality and Quality. JMIR mHealth and uHealth BACKGROUND:Approximately 800 million people, representing 11% of the world's population, are affected by mental health problems. The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated problems and triggered a decline in well-being, with drastic increase in the incidence of conditions such as anxiety, depression, and stress. Approximately 20,000 mental health apps are listed in mobile app stores. However, no significant evaluation of mental health apps in French, spoken by approximately 300 million people, has been identified in the literature yet. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to review the mental health mobile apps currently available on the French Apple App Store and Google Play Store and to evaluate their quality using Mobile App Rating Scale-French (MARS-F). METHODS:Screening of mental health apps was conducted from June 10, 2022, to June 17, 2022, on the French Apple App Store and Google Play Store. A shortlist of 12 apps was identified using the criteria of selection and assessed using MARS-F by 9 mental health professionals. Intraclass correlation was used to evaluate interrater agreement. Mean (SD) scores and their distributions for each section and item were calculated. RESULTS:The highest scores for MARS-F quality were obtained by Soutien psy avec Mon Sherpa (mean 3.85, SD 0.48), Evoluno (mean 3.54, SD 0.72), and Teale (mean 3.53, SD 0.87). Mean engagement scores (section A) ranged from 2.33 (SD 0.69) for Reflexe reussite to 3.80 (SD 0.61) for Soutien psy avec Mon Sherpa. Mean aesthetics scores (section C) ranged from 2.52 (SD 0.62) for Mental Booster to 3.89 (SD 0.69) for Soutien psy avec Mon Sherpa. Mean information scores (section D) ranged from 2.00 (SD 0.75) for Mental Booster to 3.46 (SD 0.77) for Soutien psy avec Mon Sherpa. Mean Mobile App Rating Scale subjective quality (section E) score varied from 1.22 (SD 0.26) for VOS - journal de l'humeur to 2.69 (SD 0.84) for Soutien psy avec Mon Sherpa. Mean app specificity (section F) score varied from 1.56 (SD 0.97) for Mental Booster to 3.31 (SD 1.22) for Evoluno. For all the mental health apps studied, except Soutien psy avec Mon Sherpa (11/12, 92%), the subjective quality score was always lower than the app specificity score, which was always lower than the MARS-F quality score, and that was lower than the rating score from the iPhone Operating System or Android app stores. CONCLUSIONS:Mental health professionals assessed that, despite the lack of scientific evidence, the mental health mobile apps available on the French Apple App Store and Google Play Store were of good quality. However, they are reluctant to use them in their professional practice. Additional investigations are needed to assess their compliance with recommendations and their long-term impact on users. 10.2196/41282
Enriching Mental Health Mobile Assessment and Intervention with Situation Awareness. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Current mobile devices allow the execution of sophisticated applications with the capacity for identifying the user situation, which can be helpful in treatments of mental disorders. In this paper, we present , a solution that provides situation awareness to , an ecological momentary assessment and intervention mobile application used to request self-assessments from patients in depression treatments. has a fuzzy inference engine to identify patient situations using context data gathered from the sensors embedded in mobile devices. Situations are specified jointly by the patient and mental health professional, and they can represent the patient's daily routine (e.g., "studying", "at work", "working out"). requests mental status self-assessments from patients at adequate moments using situation awareness. In addition, saves and displays patient situations in a summary, delivering them for consultation by mental health professionals. A first experimental evaluation was performed to assess the user satisfaction with the approaches to define and identify situations. This experiment showed that was well evaluated in both criteria. A second experiment was performed to assess the accuracy of the fuzzy engine to infer situations. Results from the second experiment showed that the fuzzy inference engine has a good accuracy to identify situations. 10.3390/s17010127
A qualitative assessment of mental health literacy and help-seeking behaviors among male college students. Discover mental health Although the number of students receiving care from college counseling centers has increased, engaging male college students to seek help presents a unique challenge. This qualitative study explored mental health literacy and help-seeking behaviors among undergraduate college men. Semi-structured interviews (n = 26) based on three vignettes (anxiety, depression, stress) were employed to assess mental health literacy. Analysis revealed three general themes and associated sub-themes: (a) knowledge of signs and symptoms (physiological, behavioral, and emotional); (b) recommended help-seeking behaviors (do nothing, self-care, seek help); and (c) barriers to help-seeking (social stigma, self-stigma, masculinity). Findings present a triadic interplay between the person, help-seeking behavior, and environment. Future research should explore this dynamic relationship to inform interventions aimed at improving college male mental health help-seeking behavior. 10.1007/s44192-022-00028-9
Mental Health Apps in China: Analysis and Quality Assessment. JMIR mHealth and uHealth BACKGROUND:Mental disorders have been a great burden on health care systems, affecting the quality of life of millions of people worldwide. Developing countries, including China, suffer from the double burden of both the increasing mental health issues in population and the deficiency in mental health care resources. The use of mobile health technologies, especially for mobile phone apps, can be a possible solution. OBJECTIVE:This review aimed to describe the features and assess the quality of mental health apps in major mobile phone app markets in China and further discuss the priorities for mental health app development. METHODS:Keywords including psychology, psychological health, psychological hygiene, psychological health service(s), mental, mental health, mental hygiene, mental health service(s), depression, and anxiety were searched in Chinese in 3 Android app markets (Baidu Mobile Assistant, Tencent MyApp, and 360 Mobile Assistant) and iOS App Store independently. Mental health apps were then selected according to established criteria for in-depth analysis and quality assessment by the Mobile App Rating Scale. RESULTS:In total, 63 of 997 mental health apps were analyzed in depth, of which 78% (49/63) were developed by commercial entities for general population, 17% (11/63) were for patients or clients of specialized psychiatric hospitals or counseling agencies, 3% (2/63) were by government or local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for general information, and 2% (1/63) for students of a university. Major built-in features of the apps included counseling services, mental health education, and self-assessment of mental health status by validated self-rating scales. The overall quality score of the MH apps was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS:Mental health apps are emerging in the area of mobile health in China. Popular mental health apps usually provide a synthetic platform organizing resources of information, knowledge, counseling services, self-tests, and management for the general population with mental health-related inquiries. The quality of the apps was rated as acceptable on average, suggesting some space for improvement. Official guidelines and regulations are urgently required for the field in the future. 10.2196/13236
Language Analytics for Assessment of Mental Health Status and Functional Competency. Schizophrenia bulletin BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS:Automated language analysis is becoming an increasingly popular tool in clinical research involving individuals with mental health disorders. Previous work has largely focused on using high-dimensional language features to develop diagnostic and prognostic models, but less work has been done to use linguistic output to assess downstream functional outcomes, which is critically important for clinical care. In this work, we study the relationship between automated language composites and clinical variables that characterize mental health status and functional competency using predictive modeling. STUDY DESIGN:Conversational transcripts were collected from a social skills assessment of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 141), bipolar disorder (n = 140), and healthy controls (n = 22). A set of composite language features based on a theoretical framework of speech production were extracted from each transcript and predictive models were trained. The prediction targets included clinical variables for assessment of mental health status and social and functional competency. All models were validated on a held-out test sample not accessible to the model designer. STUDY RESULTS:Our models predicted the neurocognitive composite with Pearson correlation PCC = 0.674; PANSS-positive with PCC = 0.509; PANSS-negative with PCC = 0.767; social skills composite with PCC = 0.785; functional competency composite with PCC = 0.616. Language features related to volition, affect, semantic coherence, appropriateness of response, and lexical diversity were useful for prediction of clinical variables. CONCLUSIONS:Language samples provide useful information for the prediction of a variety of clinical variables that characterize mental health status and functional competency. 10.1093/schbul/sbac176
Eco-emotions and Psychoterratic Syndromes: Reshaping Mental Health Assessment Under Climate Change. The Yale journal of biology and medicine Human activities like greenhouse gas emissions, pollution, and deforestation are largely responsible for climate change and biodiversity loss. The climate is a complex system and scientists are striving to predict, prevent, and address the aforementioned issues in order to avoid reaching tipping points. The threat to humankind is not only physical (ie, heat waves, floods, droughts) but also psychological, especially for some groups. Insecurity, danger, chaos, and an unstable system due to climate change have both short- and long-term psychological effects. In this scenario, the need for new psychological categories is emerging, namely, eco-emotions and psychoterratic syndromes which include eco-anxiety, ecological grief, climate worry, and climate trauma. This paper focuses on these new categories, presenting a summary of each one, including definitions, hypotheses, questions, and testological evaluations, as a useful tool to be consulted by researchers and clinicians and to help them in the therapeutic work. Also, this paper endeavors to distinguish between a psychological stress resulting in a positive outcome, such as pro-environmental behavior, compared to a stress that leads to a psychopathology. Prevention and intervention strategies including social and community support are fundamental to help cope with and mitigate the effect of climate change on mental health. In conclusion, the climate crisis has led to an enormous increase in research on climate change and its consequences on mental health. Researchers and clinicians must be prepared to assess this complex phenomenon and provide help to those who cannot cope with anxiety and climatic mourning. 10.59249/EARX2427
Mental Health First Aid training and assessment among university students: A systematic review. El-Den Sarira,Moles Rebekah,Choong Huai-Jin,O'Reilly Claire Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA OBJECTIVE:To explore the literature describing the delivery and assessment of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training among university students. DATA SOURCES:The databases MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, and PsycINFO were searched to identify publications describing MHFA training and assessment among university students since 2000. STUDY SELECTION:All studies, regardless of design, that described the delivery and assessment of MHFA training among university students, at any level, were included in this systematic review. DATA EXTRACTION:The discipline and level of students; the version, length, and integration of MHFA training; and the constructs used to assess students post-MHFA training were extracted from each study. RESULTS:Of the initial 1662 records, 12 were included. Eight studies were conducted in Australia, 3 in the United States, and 1 in the United Kingdom. Most students were enrolled in health care or social work degree programs across all years of their program with 4 studies involving pharmacy students. Three studies described integrating compulsory MHFA training for university students. Most studies reported on the delivery of the Standard or Adult version of MHFA training; no study reported on MHFA for Tertiary Students. Post-MHFA training, students were assessed on mental health knowledge, literacy, intentions, confidence, stigma, and skills application. Only 2 studies described assessment methods involving direct observation of behaviors, whereas the rest relied on self-reported measurements. CONCLUSION:Despite the spread of MHFA to over 25 countries and the availability of tertiary student-specific training, the studies included in this systematic review were conducted in only 3 countries and mainly involved Standard and Adult MHFA training. Most assessments relied on self-reported measures. Future studies involving different versions of MHFA training, and the exploration of novel competency-based assessment methods among a diverse range of students from different countries are warranted. 10.1016/j.japh.2019.12.017
Individualized Assessment and Therapeutic Intervention for Mental Health of American Postmodern Novelists. Occupational therapy international Objective:Therapeutic intervention can improve the overall level of mental health of American postmodern fiction writers by improving their social communication skills and overall well-being. This paper discusses the application of art therapy in the mental health education of American postmodern novel creators and proves that expressive art therapy intervention is effective in improving the mental health level of American postmodern novel creators. Method:This article attempts to help American postmodernist novel creators understand their own mental health status by means of individualized assessment and therapeutic intervention and to analyze and discover their own potential mental health problems. The writers of postmodernist novels in the USA were measured and screened by means of scales and questionnaires, and the members who met the experimental intervention were divided into experimental group and control group, and the experimental group received a 30-day reception music therapy intervention. After the intervention, the data will be counted, and the quantitative and qualitative aspects will be analyzed to comprehensively evaluate the effect of the intervention. . Receptive music therapy intervention has a significant effect in relieving the anxiety of American postmodernist novel creators and plays a positive role in helping American postmodernist novel creators better adapt to study life and build good emotional psychology and interpersonal relationships. Psychological counseling relies more on external forces to correct cognition and adjust psychology, while music therapy intervention, as a nonsemantic art, can arouse inner functions and mobilize the self-healing potential of American postmodern novel creators. Practice has proven that when the language intervention of traditional psychotherapy encounters resistance and silence, music as a special language plays a vital role. The nonlinguistic nature of music, through a mode of reproduction of sounds in nature, makes the beautiful and soothing melody stimulate a pleasant and peaceful psychological experience through human hearing. 10.1155/2022/1277121
Editorial: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Mental Health Assessment Should Include Objective Assessments of Neurocognition. Coghill David Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry There has been much discussion over the past few years about the potential benefits of supplementing traditional approaches to the assessment of mental health problems, which are based largely on reports of symptoms and observed behaviors, with more objective measures. Task-based neurocognitive measures are one of the more obvious approaches that can be considered. Potential tasks include those indexing executive functioning, through its key components: working memory, inhibitory control, set-shifting and planning, and those assessing more basic cognitive functions such as non-executive aspects of memory, processing speed, and response variability. Importantly, it is now becoming clear that the relationships between psychopathology and neurocognitive functioning are more complex than once thought. Neurocognitive deficits in executive and more basic cognitive functioning are seen across a broad range of psychiatric disorders, and although there may be subtle differences in cognitive profile across different disorders, most data support a more transdiagnostic approach. There is also considerable within-disorder heterogeneity, meaning that 2 individuals with the same disorder may have very different cognitive profiles. Also, although traditional, biologically based, causal models of mental disorders suggest a linear relationship between genetic and environmental causal factors leading to differences in brain structure and functioning that result in cognitive deficits with these manifested as psychiatric symptoms, recent data have questioned these linear relationships and suggested a greater degree of independence between neurocognitive deficits and psychopathology. Manfro et al. throws light on both aspects of this important issue, the potential for objective assessment and the relationship between neurocognition, psychopathology, and functional impairment. 10.1016/j.jaac.2021.01.003
Mental health screening and assessment tools for forcibly displaced children: a systematic review. European journal of psychotraumatology An unprecedentedly large number of people worldwide are forcibly displaced, of which more than 40 percent are under 18 years of age. Forcibly displaced children and youth have often been exposed to stressful life events and are therefore at increased risk of developing mental health issues. Hence, early screening and assessment for mental health problems is of great importance, as is research addressing this topic. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the reliability and validity of mental health assessment tools for this population. The aim of the present study was to synthesise the existing evidence on psychometric properties of patient reported outcome measures [PROMs] for assessing the mental health of asylum-seeking, refugee and internally displaced children and youth. Systematic searches of the literature were conducted in four electronic databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science. The methodological quality of the studies was examined using the COSMIN Risk of Bias checklist. Furthermore, the COSMIN criteria for good measurement properties were used to evaluate the quality of the outcome measures. The search yielded 4842 articles, of which 27 met eligibility criteria. The reliability, internal consistency, structural validity, hypotheses testing and criterion validity of 28 PROMs were evaluated. Based on the results with regard to validity and reliability, as well as feasibility, we recommend the use of several instruments to measure emotional and behavioural problems, PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression in forcibly displaced children and youth. However, despite a call for more research on the psychometric properties of mental health assessment tools for forcibly displaced children and youth, there is still a lack of studies conducted on this topic. More research is needed in order to establish cross-cultural validity of mental health assessment tools and to provide optimal cut-off scores for this population. HIGHLIGHTS Research on the psychometric properties of mental health screening and assessment tools for forcibly displaced children and youth is slowly increasing.However, based on the current evidence on the validity and reliability of screening and assessment tools for forcibly displaced children, we are not able to recommend a core set of instruments. Instead, we provide suggestions for best practice.More research of sufficient quality is important in order to establish crsoss-cultural validity and to provide optimal cut-off scores in mental health screening and assessment tools for different populations of forcibly displaced children and youth. 10.1080/20008066.2022.2126468
Mental Health of Refugees and Asylum Seekers: Assessment and Intervention. Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie With unprecedented numbers of displaced persons worldwide, mental health clinicians in high-income countries will increasingly encounter refugee and asylum-seeking patients, many of whom have experienced significant adversity before and after their migration. This paper presents a summary of the recent evidence on the assessment and treatment of refugees across the lifespan to inform clinicians' approaches to care of refugee patients in mental health care settings. Assessment and interventions for refugees are grounded in an ecosystemic approach which considers not only pre-migratory trauma, but social, familial, and cultural determinants of mental health in the host country. Evidence for psychotherapy and pharmacological treatments are reviewed, highlighting promising interventions while acknowledging that further research is needed. Ultimately, serving refugees necessitates a biopsychosocial approach that engages clinicians as medical experts, therapists, and advocates. 10.1177/0706743717746665
Mental health, moral injury - and mandatory psychological assessment? White S M Anaesthesia 10.1111/anae.15447
Editorial: Digital mental health: Interventions and assessment. Frontiers in psychology 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1014527
Assessment of suicide risk in mental health practice: shifting from prediction to therapeutic assessment, formulation, and risk management. The lancet. Psychiatry Suicide prevention in psychiatric practice has been dominated by efforts to predict risk of suicide in individual patients. However, traditional risk prediction measures have been shown repeatedly in studies from high income countries to be ineffective. Several factors might contribute to clinicians' preoccupation with risk prediction, which can have negative effects on patient care and also on clinicians where prediction is seen as failing. The model of therapeutic risk assessment, formulation, and management we outline in this article regards all patients with mental health problems as potentially at increased risk of suicide. It is aimed at reducing risk through use of a person-centred approach. We describe how a move towards therapeutic risk assessment, formulation, and risk management, including collaborative safety planning, could help clinicians develop a more tailored approach to managing risk for all patients, incorporating potentially therapeutic effects as well as helping to identify other risk reduction interventions. Such an approach could lead to enhanced patient safety and quality of care, which is more acceptable to patients. 10.1016/S2215-0366(22)00232-2
Virtual Reality in the Assessment, Understanding and Treatment of Mental Health Disorders. Riva Giuseppe,Serino Silvia Journal of clinical medicine Computer scientists usually describe virtual reality (VR) as a set of fancy hardware and software technologies. However, psychology and neuroscience are starting to consider VR as the most advanced form of human-computer interaction allowing individuals to act, communicate and become present in a computer-generated environment. In this view, the feeling of "being there" experienced during a VR experience can become a powerful tool for personal change: it offers a dynamic and social world where individuals can live and share a specific experience. For this reason, the use of VR in mental health shows promise: different researches support its clinical efficacy for conditions including anxiety disorders, stress-related disorders, obesity and eating disorders, pain management, addiction and schizophrenia. However, more research is needed to transform the promises of VR in a real clinical tool for mental health. This Special Issue aims to present the most recent advances in the mental health applications of VR, as well as their implications for future patient care. 10.3390/jcm9113434
Mental Health Assessment of the Frequent Visitor-Part 2: Assessment and Interventions. Perron Tracy,Jakubowski Tami,Razzi Cathy,Kartoz Connie NASN school nurse (Print) This article is the second part of a two-part series on mental health in school-age children. The focus of this article is on mental health assessment in the school setting, including the use of screening tools, with a review of common medications prescribed for youth with anxiety and depression. Students with mental health conditions frequently seek refuge in the school health office, many times for psychosomatic complaints such as stomach ache, headache, nausea, and fatigue. School nurses need to be adept to assess mental health and intervene as necessary. 10.1177/1942602X211011662
Technology and Mental Health: State of the Art for Assessment and Treatment. The American journal of psychiatry Technology is ubiquitous in society and is now being extensively used in mental health applications. Both assessment and treatment strategies are being developed and deployed at a rapid pace. The authors review the current domains of technology utilization, describe standards for quality evaluation, and forecast future developments. This review examines technology-based assessments of cognition, emotion, functional capacity and everyday functioning, virtual reality approaches to assessment and treatment, ecological momentary assessment, passive measurement strategies including geolocation, movement, and physiological parameters, and technology-based cognitive and functional skills training. There are many technology-based approaches that are evidence based and are supported through the results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Other strategies are less well supported by high-quality evidence at present, but there are evaluation standards that are well articulated at this time. There are some clear challenges in selection of applications for specific conditions, but in several areas, including cognitive training, randomized clinical trials are available to support these interventions. Some of these technology-based interventions have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug administration, which has clear standards for which types of applications, and which claims about them, need to be reviewed by the agency and which are exempt. 10.1176/appi.ajp.21121254
Virtual reality in the assessment, understanding, and treatment of mental health disorders. Freeman D,Reeve S,Robinson A,Ehlers A,Clark D,Spanlang B,Slater M Psychological medicine Mental health problems are inseparable from the environment. With virtual reality (VR), computer-generated interactive environments, individuals can repeatedly experience their problematic situations and be taught, via evidence-based psychological treatments, how to overcome difficulties. VR is moving out of specialist laboratories. Our central aim was to describe the potential of VR in mental health, including a consideration of the first 20 years of applications. A systematic review of empirical studies was conducted. In all, 285 studies were identified, with 86 concerning assessment, 45 theory development, and 154 treatment. The main disorders researched were anxiety (n = 192), schizophrenia (n = 44), substance-related disorders (n = 22) and eating disorders (n = 18). There are pioneering early studies, but the methodological quality of studies was generally low. The gaps in meaningful applications to mental health are extensive. The most established finding is that VR exposure-based treatments can reduce anxiety disorders, but there are numerous research and treatment avenues of promise. VR was found to be a much-misused term, often applied to non-interactive and non-immersive technologies. We conclude that VR has the potential to transform the assessment, understanding and treatment of mental health problems. The treatment possibilities will only be realized if - with the user experience at the heart of design - the best immersive VR technology is combined with targeted translational interventions. The capability of VR to simulate reality could greatly increase access to psychological therapies, while treatment outcomes could be enhanced by the technology's ability to create new realities. VR may merit the level of attention given to neuroimaging. 10.1017/S003329171700040X
Mental Health and Mental Wellbeing Impact Assessment Frameworks-A Systematic Review. International journal of environmental research and public health Mental health is largely shaped by the daily environments in which people live their lives, with positive components of mental health emphasising the importance of feeling good and functioning effectively. Promoting mental health relies on broad-based actions over multiple sectors, which can be difficult to measure. Different types of Impact Assessment (IA) frameworks allow for a structured approach to evaluating policy actions on different levels. A systematic review was performed exploring existing IA frameworks relating to mental health and mental wellbeing and how they have been used. A total of 145 records were identified from the databases, from which 9 articles were included in the review, with a further 6 studies included via reference list and citation chaining. Five different mental-health-related IA frameworks were found to be implemented in a variety of settings, mostly in relation to evaluating community actions. A Narrative Synthesis summarised key themes from the 15 included articles. Findings highlight the need for participatory approaches in IA, which have the dual purpose of informing the IA evaluation and advocating for the need to include mental health in policy development. However, it is important to ensure that IA frameworks are user-friendly, designed to be used by laypeople in a variety of sectors and that IA frameworks are operational in terms of time and monetary resources. 10.3390/ijerph192113985