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P2Y receptor in trigeminal ganglion contributes to neuropathic pain in mice. European journal of pharmacology Trigeminal nerve injury is a common complication of various dental and oral procedures, which could induce trigeminal neuropathic pain but lack effective treatments. P2 purinergic receptors have emerged as novel therapeutic targets for such pain. Recent reports implied that the P2Y receptor (P2YR) was activated and promoted orofacial inflammatory pain and migraine. However, the role and mechanism of P2YR in trigeminal neuropathic pain remain unknown. We induced an orofacial neuropathic pain model by chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (CCI-ION). Von-Frey tests showed that CCI-ION induced orofacial mechanical hypersensitivity. The increased activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) expression in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) measured by immunofluorescence confirmed trigeminal nerve injury. Immunofluorescence showed that P2YR was expressed in trigeminal ganglion neurons (TGNs) and satellite glial cells (SGCs). RT-qPCR and Western blot identified increased expression of P2YR in TG after CCI-ION. CCI-ION also upregulated interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in TG. Notably, CCI-ION-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and pro-inflammatory cytokines production were decreased by a P2YR antagonist (PPTN). Trigeminal administration of P2YR agonist (UDP-glucose) evoked orofacial mechanical hypersensitivity and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines above in TG. Furthermore, CCI-ION induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 in TG, which also were reduced by PPTN. The inhibitors of ERK1/2 (U0126) and p38 (SB203580) decreased these upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines after CCI-ION. Collectively, this study revealed that P2YR in TG contributed to trigeminal neuropathic pain via ERK- and p38-dependent neuroinflammation. Thus, P2YR may be a potential drug target against trigeminal neuropathic pain. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2022.175211
N58A Exerts Analgesic Effect on Trigeminal Neuralgia by Regulating the MAPK Pathway and Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Sodium Channel. Li Chun-Li,Yang Ran,Sun Yang,Feng Yuan,Song Yong-Bo Toxins The primary studies have shown that scorpion analgesic peptide N58A has a significant effect on voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and plays an important role in neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of N58A on trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and its possible mechanism. The results showed that N58A could significantly increase the threshold of mechanical pain and thermal pain and inhibit the spontaneous asymmetric scratching behavior of rats. Western blotting results showed that N58A could significantly reduce the protein phosphorylation level of ERK1/2, P38, JNK, and ERK5/CREB pathways and the expression of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 proteins in a dose-dependent manner. The changes in current and kinetic characteristics of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 channels in TG neurons were detected by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results showed that N58A significantly decreased the current density of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 in model rats, and shifted the activation curve to hyperpolarization and the inactivation curve to depolarization. In conclusion, the analgesic effect of N58A on the chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital (IoN-CCI) model rats may be closely related to the regulation of the MAPK pathway and Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 sodium channels. 10.3390/toxins13050357
SHED-derived exosomes attenuate trigeminal neuralgia after CCI of the infraorbital nerve in mice via the miR-24-3p/IL-1R1/p-p38 MAPK pathway. Journal of nanobiotechnology BACKGROUND:Microglial activation in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role in the development of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The involvement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1, NR1) in TN has been established. Initial evidence suggests that stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have a potential therapeutic effect in attenuating TN. In this study, we propose that SHED-derived exosomes (SHED-Exos) may alleviate TN by inhibiting microglial activation. This study sought to assess the curative effect of SHED-Exos administrated through the tail vein on a unilateral infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI-ION) model in mice to reveal the role of SHED-Exos in TN and further clarify the potential mechanism. RESULTS:Animals subjected to CCI-ION were administered SHED-Exos extracted by differential ultracentrifugation. SHED-Exos significantly alleviated TN in CCI mice (increasing the mechanical threshold and reducing p-NR1) and suppressed microglial activation (indicated by the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IBA-1, as well as p-AMPK) in vivo and in vitro. Notably, SHED-Exos worked in a concentration dependent manner. Mechanistically, miR-24-3p-upregulated SHED-Exos exerted a more significant effect, while miR-24-3p-inhibited SHED-Exos had a weakened effect. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assays were utilized for target gene prediction and verification between miR-24-3p and IL1R1. Moreover, miR-24-3p targeted the IL1R1/p-p38 MAPK pathway in microglia was increased in CCI mice, and participated in microglial activation in the STN. CONCLUSIONS:miR-24-3p-encapsulated SHED-Exos attenuated TN by suppressing microglial activation in the STN of CCI mice. Mechanistically, miR-24-3p blocked p-p38 MAPK signaling by targeting IL1R1. Theoretically, targeted delivery of miR-24-3p may offer a potential strategy for TN. 10.1186/s12951-023-02221-6
Involvement of Histone Lysine Crotonylation in the Regulation of Nerve-Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain. Frontiers in immunology Histone lysine crotonylation (KCR), a novel epigenetic modification, is important in regulating a broad spectrum of biological processes and various diseases. However, whether KCR is involved in neuropathic pain remains to be elucidated. We found KCR occurs in macrophages, sensory neurons, and satellite glial cells of trigeminal ganglia (TG), neurons, astrocytes, and microglia of the medulla oblongata. KCR in TG was detected mainly in small and medium sensory neurons, to a lesser extent in large neurons. Peripheral nerve injury elevated KCR levels in macrophages in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia and microglia in the medulla oblongata but reduced KCR levels in sensory neurons. Inhibition of histone crotonyltransferases (p300) by intra-TG or intrathecal administration of C646 significantly alleviated partial infraorbital nerve transection (pIONT)- or spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Intra-TG or intrathecal administration of Crotonyl coenzyme A trilithium salt to upregulate KCR dose-dependently induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. Mechanismly, inhibition of p300 alleviated pIONT-induced macrophage activation and reduced the expression of pain-related inflammatory cytokines , and chemokines and . Correspondingly, exogenous crotonyl-CoA induced macrophage activation and the expression of , , , and in TG, which C646 can repress. These findings suggest that might be functionally involved in neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation regulation. 10.3389/fimmu.2022.885685
Microglia activation and temporal changes in rat model of trigeminal neuralgia. Hua xi kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Huaxi kouqiang yixue zazhi = West China journal of stomatology OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to investigate whether the microglia in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal part (Sp5C) were activated in a rat model of trigeminal neuralgia and to explore whether the activation level of microglia is consistent with maxillofacial pain level. METHODS:Chronic constriction injury of trigeminal nerve (CCI) was induced by partial ligation of infraorbital nerve (IoN) in rats. The behavioral change of rats observed at D1, D5, D10, D15, and D30 days post-surgery and the change of pain threshold were detected with electronic Von Frey filaments served as an evaluation index of maxillofacial pain. Weight change was measured by weighing. Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1) expression level of Sp5C at each time point was detected, and three microglia morphological categories were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS:The changes of behavioral and pain threshold suggested the maxillofacial pain level first increased and then decreased post-surgery in the IoN-CCI group. Both the expressions of Iba-1 and proportion of ameboid morphology in ipsilateral Sp5C increased from D1 and reached their peaks in D10 and D5, respectively. Then, they recovered nearly to the same level with contralateral Sp5C on D30. This trend was consistent with the maxillofacial change. CONCLUSIONS:The model of trigeminal neuralgia in rats constructed by partial ligation of infraorbital nerve can induce the activation of microglia in Sp5C, and the activation level is consistent with maxillofacial pain, which reached its peak at around D10 post-surgery. 10.7518/hxkq.2022.06.003
Asymmetric activation of microglia in the hippocampus drives anxiodepressive consequences of trigeminal neuralgia in rodents. British journal of pharmacology BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Patients suffering from trigeminal neuralgia are often accompanied by anxiety and depression. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is involved in the development of neuropathic pain and anxiodepression pathogenesis. Whether and how microglia are involved in trigeminal neuralgia-induced anxiodepression remains unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Unilateral constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CION) was performed to establish trigeminal neuralgia in rat and mouse models. Mechanical allodynia and anxiodepressive-like behaviours were measured. Optogenetic and pharmacological manipulations were employed to investigate the role of hippocampal microglia in anxiety and depression caused by trigeminal neuralgia. KEY RESULTS:Trigeminal neuralgia activated ipsilateral but not contralateral hippocampal microglia, up-regulated ipsilateral hippocampal ATP and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, impaired ipsilateral hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and induced anxiodepressive-like behaviours in a time-dependent manner in rodents. Pharmacological or optogenetic inhibition of ipsilateral hippocampal microglia completely blocked trigeminal neuralgia-induced anxiodepressive-like behaviours. Activation of unilateral hippocampal microglia directly elicited an anxiodepressive state and impaired hippocampal LTP. Knockdown of ipsilateral hippocampal P2X7 receptors prevented trigeminal neuralgia-induced microglial activation and anxiodepressive-like behaviours. Furthermore, we demonstrated that microglia-derived IL-1β mediated microglial activation-induced anxiodepressive-like behaviours and LTP impairment. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:These findings suggest that priming of microglia with ATP/P2X7 receptors in the ipsilateral hippocampus drives pain-related anxiodepressive-like behaviours via IL-1β. An asymmetric role of the bilateral hippocampus in trigeminal neuralgia-induced anxiety and depression was uncovered. The approaches targeting microglia and P2X7 signalling might offer novel therapies for trigeminal neuralgia-related anxiety and depressive disorder. 10.1111/bph.15994
The Molecular Basis and Pathophysiology of Trigeminal Neuralgia. International journal of molecular sciences Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a complex orofacial pain syndrome characterized by the paroxysmal onset of pain attacks in the trigeminal distribution. The underlying mechanism for this debilitating condition is still not clearly understood. Decades of basic and clinical evidence support the demyelination hypothesis, where demyelination along the trigeminal afferent pathway is a major driver for TN pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Such pathological demyelination can be triggered by physical compression of the trigeminal ganglion or another primary demyelinating disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Further examination of TN patients and animal models has revealed significant molecular changes, channelopathies, and electrophysiological abnormalities in the affected trigeminal nerve. Interestingly, recent electrophysiological recordings and advanced functional neuroimaging data have shed new light on the global structural changes and the altered connectivity in the central pain-related circuits in TN patients. The current article aims to review the latest findings on the pathophysiology of TN and cross-examining them with the current surgical and pharmacologic management for TN patients. Understanding the underlying biology of TN could help scientists and clinicians to identify novel targets and improve treatments for this complex, debilitating disease. 10.3390/ijms23073604