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IMAGINE Network's ind nd ut nteractions ohort (MAGIC) Study: a protocol for a prospective observational multicentre cohort study in inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Moayyedi Paul,MacQueen Glenda,Bernstein Charles N,Vanner Stephen,Bercik Premysl,Madsen Karen L,Surette Michael,Rioux John D,Dieleman Levinus A,Verdú Elena,de Souza Russell J,Otley Anthony,Targownik Laura,Lavis John,Cunningham Jennifer,Marshall Deborah A,Zelinsky Sandra,Fernandes Aida BMJ open INTRODUCTION:Gut microbiome and diet may be important in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and comorbid psychiatric conditions, but the mechanisms are unclear. We will create a large cohort of patients with IBS, IBD and healthy controls, and follow them over time, collecting dietary and mental health information and biological samples, to assess their gastrointestinal (GI) and psychological symptoms in association with their diet, gut microbiome and metabolome. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This 5-year observational prospective cohort study is recruiting 8000 participants from 15 Canadian centres. Persons with IBS who are 13 years of age and older or IBD ≥5 years will be recruited. Healthy controls will be recruited from the general public and from friends or relatives of those with IBD or IBS who do not have GI symptoms. Participants answer surveys and provide blood, urine and stool samples annually. Surveys assess disease activity, quality of life, physical pain, lifestyle factors, psychological status and diet. The main outcomes evaluated will be the association between the diet, inflammatory, genetic, microbiome and metabolomic profiles in those with IBD and IBS compared with healthy controls using multivariate logistic regression. We will also compare these profiles in those with active versus quiescent disease and those with and without psychological comorbidity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Approval has been obtained from the institutional review boards of all centres taking part in the study. We will develop evidence-based knowledge translation initiatives for patients, clinicians and policymakers to disseminate results to relevant stakeholders. NCT03131414. 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041733
Cognitive dysfunction in ulcerative colitis patients in remission and its comparison with patients with irritable bowel syndrome and healthy controls. Sharma Neetu,Dhiman Sanjay,Bodh Vishal,Sharma Deepak,Sharma Rajesh,Sharma Sudhir,Sharma Brij Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology BACKGROUND:There is a paucity of research concerning cognitive impairments in Inflammatory bowel disease - ulcerative colitis (IBD-UC) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Studies on cognitive dysfunction in patients with IBD-UC have either been small or have shown conflicting results. This study is conducted to examine the evidence of cognitive dysfunction in IBD-UC patients in remission and compare the evident cognitive deficit with IBS patients and healthy controls. METHODS:This single-centre cross-sectional observational study enrolled a total of 90 participants, 29 in ulcerative colitis (UC) in remission group, 31 in IBS group and 30 in healthy control group. Assessment of cognition with the help of cognitive function tests mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test and p300 was performed in all participants. RESULTS:A statistically significant number of the participants in IBD-UC in remission group had MMSE and MoCA score below the lower limit of normal, in comparison to the healthy control and IBS groups. The mean peak latency of the p300 wave was statistically significantly increased in people in the IBD-UC group, in comparison to the healthy control and IBS groups. CONCLUSION:Patients with IBD-UC in remission show impairments in cognitive functioning compared to the IBS and healthy control groups as assessed on cognitive function testing on MMSE, MoCA and mean peak latency of the p300 wave. This impairment in cognitive function is unlikely to be due to premorbid levels of intellectual functioning and is likely to have impact on health-related quality of life. 10.1007/s12664-020-01122-y
"If I could survive without eating, it would be a huge relief": Development and initial validation of the Fear of Food Questionnaire. Zickgraf Hana F,Loftus Patrick,Gibbons Benjamin,Cohen Lauren C,Hunt Melissa G Appetite BACKGROUND:Fear of food and behavioral avoidance of specific foods, food groups, and food related social situations can substantially reduce health related quality of life in individuals with a wide range of conditions that affect appetite, eating behavior, and digestion, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), vomit and choking phobias, and food allergies/sensitivities. When this avoidance leads to weight/nutritional and/or psychosocial impairment, the diagnostic criteria for Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) are met. Fear of food is an important target for interventions designed to improve psychosocial functioning and quality of life in such individuals. The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a novel measure of fear of food. METHODS:Participants (n = 1138) were recruited from ongoing clinical trials for both IBD and IBS, from Amazon's Mechanical Turk, from Reddit support forums for IBS, IBD, and vomit phobia, and from an undergraduate subject pool. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson's correlations, one-way ANOVA, and intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess the validity and reliability of the Fear of Food Questionnaire. RESULTS:The final 18 item questionnaire showed excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, discriminative (known groups) validity, as well as good factor structure. Fear of food was highly correlated with visceral hypersensitivity, catastrophizing, GI symptom severity and health related quality of life, as well as with self-reported Fear-ARFID symptoms. Individuals meeting study criteria for Fear-ARFID reported the highest scores relative to control and other analogue clinical groups. CONCLUSION:The Fear of Food Questionnaire appears to be reliable and valid across populations and may be a valuable tool in the assessment and treatment of Fear-ARFID. 10.1016/j.appet.2021.105808
Epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome in hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Nationwide Inpatient Sample analysis from 2007-2016. Annals of gastroenterology Background:Despite effective treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), patients in remission may still suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms attributable to overlying irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this population-based cohort study, we investigated the epidemiology of IBS in hospitalized IBD patients and explored the differences between hospitalized IBD-IBS vs. IBD patients to distinguish this patient population. Methods:Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2007-2016, we identified patients with a primary or secondary discharge diagnosis of IBD, with or without IBS, using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. We extracted information on demographics, psychological comorbidities, IBD complications, cost and duration of stay of each group, from either discharge records or diagnosis codes. These were analyzed using SAS version 4.0. Results:There was a rise in the prevalence of IBS among inpatients with ulcerative colitis (P=0.025) and Crohn's disease (P=0.0014) over the study period. This study revealed that IBD patients with IBS tend to be female, younger, are less likely to be morbidly obese and have higher rates of psychological disorders (P<0.001) compared to IBD patients with no IBS co-diagnosis. They also have fewer IBD-specific complications, such as strictures, obstruction, fistula and abdominal abscess (P<0.001). Shorter hospital stays (P<0.001) and lower hospital charges (P<0.001) were also noted in these patients. Conclusions:IBD patients with IBS are significantly different from other IBD patients, and are associated with less severe disease, a shorter hospital stay and lower hospital expenses. Early and accurate classification of this patient population may prevent unnecessary treatment and hospitalization in the future. 10.20524/aog.2022.0754
Prevalence and impact of Rome IV versus Rome III irritable bowel syndrome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society BACKGROUND:Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but few studies have examined the prevalence and impact of IBS-type symptoms in IBD according to Rome IV criteria. METHODS:We collected demographic, symptom (Rome III, Rome IV, and clinical disease activity indices), psychological (anxiety, depression, and somatization), and quality of life data from 973 IBD patients. Medical records were reviewed to document disease type, extent/location, behavior, medical therapy, and antidepressant or opioid use. We compared characteristics of individuals with no IBS-type symptoms, Rome III IBS-type symptoms, and Rome IV IBS-type symptoms. KEY RESULTS:In total, 302 (31.0%) patients met the Rome III criteria for IBS, and 172 (17.7%) met Rome IV criteria. Those with IBS-type symptoms were younger, more likely to be female, and had higher rates of antidepressant (p = 0.006) or opioid use (p = 0.001). Rome IV IBS-type symptoms were associated with symptoms of mood disorders, flare of disease activity, and lower quality of life scores (p < 0.001 for all analyses). Compared with Rome III criteria, those with Rome IV IBS-type symptoms had significantly higher rates of anxiety (p < 0.001), depression (p = 0.002), and somatization (p < 0.001), lower quality of life scores (p < 0.001) and were more likely to have CD (p = 0.011), with ileal distribution (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES:Rome IV IBS-type symptoms are associated with increased psychological co-morbidity, lower quality of life scores, and higher rates of antidepressant or opioid use. This is a cohort potentially at risk of adverse clinical outcomes and should be a focus for future research. 10.1111/nmo.14256
The visceral sensitivity index: A novel tool for measuring GI-symptom-specific anxiety in inflammatory bowel disease. Neurogastroenterology and motility BACKGROUND:Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. GI symptom-specific anxiety (GSA) is the cognitive, affective, and behavioral response stemming from fear of GI symptoms. The Visceral Sensitivity Index (VSI) measures GSA and is validated in IBS and may be useful in IBD. METHODS:We compared VSI scores in IBD participants to IBS participants and healthy controls (HCs). Using validated questionnaires, we assessed the VSI's correlation with anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and IBD activity. KEY RESULTS:We recruited 222 age- and sex-matched participants (74 IBD [23 Crohn's disease; 51 ulcerative colitis], 74 IBS, and 74 HCs). IBD and IBS participants had higher VSI scores compared with HCs (IBD = 26.62 ± 16.64, IBS = 38.83 ± 15.06; HCs = 3.42±5.06; all p's < 0.001). VSI scores were lower in IBD vs IBS (p < 0.001). In IBD, VSI modestly correlated with current anxiety (R = 0.35, p = 0.002) and the physical component of HRQOL (R = -0.45, p = 0.0001) but less with the mental component of HRQOL (R = -0.23, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES:Our findings suggest the VSI is a useful measure in IBD. The VSI in IBD is related to general anxiety but is measuring a different construct and is not affected by the presence of trait anxiety. IBD patients have GSA that is associated with decreased HRQOL, which can negatively affect treatment compliance and other long-term disease outcomes. Future studies are needed to further validate the VSI in IBD and to assess its correlation with disease activity. 10.1111/nmo.14384
Evaluation of Subcortical Structure Volumes in Patients with Non-Specific Digestive Diseases. Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland) (1) Background: To evaluate volume of subcortical structures such as hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate in patients with non-specific digestive diseases (functional dyspepsia-FD, irritable bowel syndrome-IBS) and non-specific inflammatory bowel diseases-IBD (colitis ulcerosa and Crohn's disease) in comparison to healthy control group (CON). (2) Material: The analysis included data obtained from 57 patients (FD-18, IBS-20, IBD-19) and 19 persons in control group. Both groups underwent examination in a 3T scanner (Achieva TX Philips Healthcare). (3) Results: Significant differences between the IBD group and Control group in volume of left thalamus and IBD group vs Control group in volume of right thalamus. (4) Conclusions: The brain-gut axis hypothesis explains connection between biological behavior, emotions and cognitive functions in patients with gastrointestinal disease. We found that there is a difference between volume of thalamus in IBD patients in comparison to both IBS and control group and it occurred to be smaller. Excess inflammation can be linked with psychological disorders like depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties and/or fatigue. Therefore, there is a need for using treatment both for depressive symptoms and IBD to reduce the causes and effects of inflammation. 10.3390/diagnostics12092199
Intestinal proteases. Current opinion in gastroenterology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Proteases constitute a group of enzymes that hydrolyze peptide bonds. Intestinal proteases are an integral part of gut homeostasis and digestion. This review discusses the broader classification of proteases, regulation of proteolytic activity (PA) in the intestinal tract, and how dysregulation of intestinal proteases contributes to the pathophysiology of conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and celiac disease. We also discuss recent advancements in therapeutic modulation that directly or indirectly target intestinal proteases and can be utilized to treat these illnesses. RECENT FINDINGS:Host and microbiota derived proteases have been associated with symptoms in subsets of patients with IBS, IBD and celiac disease. Elevated PA mediates barrier dysfunction, visceral hypersensitivity as well as immune activation and inflammation. Recent mechanistic studies have revealed the nature of disease-associated proteases and mechanisms regulating their activity, particularly those driven by the microbiota. Advancements in activity-based probes have allowed novel ways of in vivo imaging of PA. Newer strategies targeting proteases include monoclonal antibodies, engineered microbiota as well as specific protease inhibitors. SUMMARY:Significant progresses made in the detection as well as regulation of PA is likely to provide therapeutic advancements for gastrointestinal diseases. 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000972
Inflammatory and Microbiota-Related Regulation of the Intestinal Epithelial Barrier. Barbara Giovanni,Barbaro Maria Raffaella,Fuschi Daniele,Palombo Marta,Falangone Francesca,Cremon Cesare,Marasco Giovanni,Stanghellini Vincenzo Frontiers in nutrition The intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) is one of the largest interfaces between the environment and the internal milieu of the body. It is essential to limit the passage of harmful antigens and microorganisms and, on the other side, to assure the absorption of nutrients and water. The maintenance of this delicate equilibrium is tightly regulated as it is essential for human homeostasis. Luminal solutes and ions can pass across the IEB two main routes: the transcellular pathway or the paracellular pathway. Tight junctions (TJs) are a multi-protein complex responsible for the regulation of paracellular permeability. TJs control the passage of antigens through the IEB and have a key role in maintaining barrier integrity. Several factors, including cytokines, gut microbiota, and dietary components are known to regulate intestinal TJs. Gut microbiota participates in several human functions including the modulation of epithelial cells and immune system through the release of several metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Mediators released by immune cells can induce epithelial cell damage and TJs dysfunction. The subsequent disruption of the IEB allows the passage of antigens into the mucosa leading to further inflammation. Growing evidence indicates that dysbiosis, immune activation, and IEB dysfunction have a role in several diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and gluten-related conditions. Here we summarize the interplay between the IEB and gut microbiota and mucosal immune system and their involvement in IBS, IBD, and gluten-related disorders. 10.3389/fnut.2021.718356
Clinical value of fecal calprotectin. Ricciuto Amanda,Griffiths Anne M Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) denotes a group of chronic incurable disorders characterized by relapsing-remitting inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. IBD represents a growing global burden with a prevalence exceeding 0.3% in the Western world and an accelerating incidence in newly industrialized countries. The target for treating IBD has shifted in recent years from symptom control to mucosal healing (MH), which has been shown to be associated with favorable long-term outcomes. The gold standard for ascertaining MH is endoscopic assessment, but endoscopy is limited by its invasive nature, high cost, and finite availability. Surrogate biomarkers are therefore of great utility. Calprotectin, a cytosolic protein derived predominantly from neutrophils, is now widely used in this capacity. Calprotectin is found in various bodily fluids at concentrations proportional to the degree of inflammation, including in feces at levels roughly six times higher than in the blood. Fecal calprotectin (FCP) therefore reflects intestinal inflammation. Various assays, including point-of-care and home-based tests, are now available for measuring FCP. FCP is used for screening purposes, to aid in distinguishing inflammatory from non-inflammatory gastrointestinal conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), as well as in the monitoring of known IBD. The aims of this review are to provide an overview of the methods used to measure FCP and to review the evidence supporting the use of FCP in IBD, particularly as it pertains to screening, monitoring and predicting disease relapse. 10.1080/10408363.2019.1619159
The influence of the brain-gut axis in inflammatory bowel disease and possible implications for treatment. Gracie David J,Hamlin P John,Ford Alexander C The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology Brain-gut interactions affect psychological wellbeing and symptom reporting in functional gastrointestinal disorders; the presence of anxiety or depression is associated with the development of new-onset gastrointestinal symptoms, and the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms is associated with the development of psychological disorders de novo. In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the reporting of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms by patients with quiescent disease is common, and is associated with psychological disorders, impaired quality of life, and increased health-care use. In IBD, data from observational studies suggest that psychological disorders might be associated with relapse of disease activity, and that inflammatory activity is associated with the development of new psychological disorders, as has been described for functional gastrointestinal disorders such as IBS and functional dyspepsia. The brain-gut axis provides the physiological link between the CNS and gastrointestinal tract that might facilitate these relationships. In IBS, treatments targeting disordered brain-gut axis activity, including psychological therapies and antidepressants, might lead to improved symptoms and quality of life. However, in IBD, the benefit of these treatments is less certain because of a scarcity of interventional studies. Despite the scarcity of trials, observational data suggest that the effect of disordered brain-gut axis activity in IBD is substantial, and scope remains for further well designed trials of psychological therapies and antidepressants, particularly in the subset of patients who have coexistent psychological disorders, or in those who report IBS-type symptoms. Integrating these treatments into a biopsychosocial model of care has the potential to improve both psychological wellbeing and quality of life in some patients with IBD, reducing health-care use and altering the natural history of disease. 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30089-5
GWAS of peptic ulcer disease implicates Helicobacter pylori infection, other gastrointestinal disorders and depression. Nature communications Genetic factors are recognized to contribute to peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and other gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses based on 456,327 UK Biobank (UKB) individuals identify 8 independent and significant loci for PUD at, or near, genes MUC1, MUC6, FUT2, PSCA, ABO, CDX2, GAST and CCKBR. There are previously established roles in susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection, response to counteract infection-related damage, gastric acid secretion or gastrointestinal motility for these genes. Only two associations have been previously reported for duodenal ulcer, here replicated trans-ancestrally. The results highlight the role of host genetic susceptibility to infection. Post-GWAS analyses for PUD, GORD, IBS and IBD add insights into relationships between these gastrointestinal diseases and their relationships with depression, a commonly comorbid disorder. 10.1038/s41467-021-21280-7
The gut-brain connection: Inflammatory bowel disease increases risk of acute ischemic stroke. Interventional neuroradiology : journal of peritherapeutic neuroradiology, surgical procedures and related neurosciences OBJECTIVES:Chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This increased inflammation is thought to induce a hypercoagulable state that increases the risk for stroke. However, few studies have examined the association between IBD and acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Thus, this study aims to investigate the incidence, treatments, complications, and outcomes of AIS in patients with IBD. MATERIALS & METHODS:ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes were used to query the National Inpatient Sample for AIS and IBD diagnosis. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, complications, treatments, and outcomes were assessed through descriptive statistics, multivariate regression, and propensity score matching (PSM) analysis. Acute stroke severity was assessed using the National Institute of Heath's Stroke Severity Score (SSS) as a template. RESULTS:1,609,817 patients were diagnosed with AIS between 2010 through 2019. 7468 (0.46%) had concomitant diagnoses of IBD. AIS patients with IBS were younger, more likely to be white and female, but less likely to be obese. Although IBD patients had comparable stroke severities (p  =  0.64) to their non-IBS counterparts, they received stroke intervention at statistically different rates than their non-IBD counterparts. Additionally, IBD patients had higher rates of in-hospital complications (p < 0.01) and longer lengths of stay (LOS) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:IBD patients develop AIS at a younger age with similar rates of stroke severity to their non-IBD counterparts, but receive higher rates of tissue plasminogen activator administration and decreased rates of mechanical thrombectomy. Our research shows that patients with IBD are at risk for AIS at an earlier age and are more likely to have complications. This underlies a connection between IBD and a hypercoagulable state that could predispose patients to AIS. 10.1177/15910199231170679
Gastrointestinal syndromes preceding a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease: testing Braak's hypothesis using a nationwide database for comparison with Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular diseases. Gut OBJECTIVE:Braak's hypothesis states that Parkinson's disease (PD) originates in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and similar associations have been established for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). We aimed to determine the incidence of GI syndromes and interventions preceding PD compared with negative controls (NCs), AD and CVD. DESIGN:We performed a combined case-control and cohort study using TriNetX, a US based nationwide medical record network. Firstly, we compared subjects with new onset idiopathic PD with matched NCs and patients with contemporary diagnoses of AD and CVD, to investigate preceding GI syndromes, appendectomy and vagotomy. Secondly, we compared cohorts with these exposures to matched NCs for the development of PD, AD and CVD within 5 years. RESULTS:We identified 24 624 PD patients in the case-control analysis and matched 18 cohorts with each exposure to their NCs. Gastroparesis, dysphagia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) without diarrhoea and constipation showed specific associations with PD (vs NCs, AD and CVD) in both the case-control (odds ratios (ORs) vs NCs 4.64, 3.58, 3.53 and 3.32, respectively, all p<0.0001) and cohort analyses (relative risks (RRs) vs NCs 2.43, 2.27, 1.17 and 2.38, respectively, all p<0.05). While functional dyspepsia, IBS with diarrhoea, diarrhoea and faecal incontinence were not PD specific, IBS with constipation and intestinal pseudo-obstruction showed PD specificity in the case-control (OR 4.11) and cohort analysis (RR 1.84), respectively. Appendectomy decreased the risk of PD in the cohort analysis (RR 0.48). Neither inflammatory bowel disease nor vagotomy were associated with PD. CONCLUSION:Dysphagia, gastroparesis, IBS without diarrhoea and constipation might specifically predict Parkinson's disease. 10.1136/gutjnl-2023-329685
Association of Intestinal Disorders with Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Fu Pengfei,Gao Meng,Yung Ken Kin Lam ACS chemical neuroscience Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the most common neurodegenerative disorders, with an overall global incidence of 40 million. Many studies have revealed the association of intestinal disorders and bacterial infections with PD, but few studies have found such a relationship with AD. In this meta-analysis, related articles published up to September 2018 were searched in PubMed. Of the 2121 related articles screened initially, 56 were found to be eligible. Data on the risks of PD and AD due to five intestinal disorders and infection with , as a representative intestinal microbe, were obtained, and a fixed- or random-effects model was used to pool the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) from individual studies. The combined OR for all types of intestinal disorders with an increased risk of PD was 3.36 (95% CI: 2.70-4.17). The ORs for each category were as follows: constipation, 4.05 (95% CI, 3.24-5.06); inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 1.16 (95% CI, 0.89-1.52); irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 1.75 (95% CI, 0.55-5.56); small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, 5.15 (95% CI, 3.33-7.96); and diarrhea, 1.27 (95% CI, 0.28-5.75). The combined OR of all types of intestinal disorders with an increased risk of AD was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.09-2.13). The ORs for IBS and IBD were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.02-1.99) and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.00-5.76), respectively. The risk estimates of infection in PD and AD patients were as follows: OR, 1.65 (95% CI, 1.43-1.91) and OR, 1.40 (95% CI, 1.12-1.76), respectively. These findings suggest that PD and AD are significantly associated with intestinal disorders. The negative roles of in the development of PD or AD should be evaluated to shed new light on the diagnosis and treatment of PD and AD. National governments should periodically inspect the intestinal condition of residents and extend health plans to improve intestinal health to prevent potential neurological disorders. 10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00607
The Prevalence and Incidence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Depression and Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Psychosomatic medicine OBJECTIVE:The increased prevalence and incidence of affective disorders among patients with gastrointestinal disease have been well established. However, few studies have investigated the inverse relationship. We aimed to identify all pieces of evidence of the prevalence and incidence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in people with depression and bipolar disorder. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the association between affective disorders (exposure) and IBS or IBD (outcome) in adults. Evidence was evaluated for quality using Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools. Where suitable data were available, meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS:We identified 18 studies that met the selection criteria, of which 11 provided data on IBS, 5 on IBD, and 2 on both. Overall, people with depression were significantly more likely to have comorbid IBS (risk ratio = 2.42, 95% confidence interval = 1.98-2.96) and to develop new-onset IBS (risk ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.41-2.56) compared with people without depression. They were also more likely to have and develop IBD, and among patients with IBD, significantly increased rates of depression were observed as early as 5 years before diagnosis. Bipolar disorder was not consistently associated with risk of either condition. CONCLUSIONS:People with depression are at an increased risk of both having and developing lower gastrointestinal disorders. These findings have important implications for how we understand, manage, and prevent this comorbidity in clinical practice. Further studies are needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between bipolar disorder and bowel disease as well as the role of psychotropic medication, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. 10.1097/PSY.0000000000001046