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The risk factors for insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing in military communities: A meta-analysis. PloS one BACKGROUND:Many reviews and meta-analyses had been conducted to investigate risk factors for sleep disorders in the general population. However, no similar research has been performed in the military population though insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing are quite prevalent in that population. OBJECTIVES:To investigate risk factors for insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing in military personnel. METHODS:A systematic literature search was performed from inception to March 2021 and 6496 records were produced. Two authors independently screened records for eligibility. Results were presented as odds ratios, and a random-effect model was used to pool results. Data analysis was performed respectively according to military personnel type (i.e., veteran, active-duty personnel). Risk factors were sorted into three categories: sociodemographic, army-specific, and comorbidity. This meta-analysis was registered in PROSPERO before data analysis (registration No: CRD42020221696). RESULTS:Twenty-seven articles were finally included in the quantitative analysis. For sleep-disordered breathing in active-duty personnel, four sociodemographic (i.e., overweight/obesity, higher body mass index, male gender, >35 years old) and one comorbidity (i.e., depression) risk factors were identified. For insomnia in active-duty personnel, four sociodemographic (i.e., aging, alcohol dependence, white race, and female gender), two army-specific (i.e., deployment experience, combat experience), and four comorbidity (i.e., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and anxiety) risk factors were identified. For insomnia in veterans, one army-specific (i.e., combat experience) and one comorbidity (i.e., post-traumatic stress disorder) risk factor was identified. CONCLUSIONS:Several risk factors were identified for insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing in the current meta-analysis. Risk factors for veterans and active-duty personnel were partially different. Research on sleep breathing disorders remains limited, and more convincing evidence would be obtained with more relevant studies in the future. 10.1371/journal.pone.0250779
The effects of caffeinated products on sleep and functioning in the military population: A focused review. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior Military personnel rely on caffeinated products such as coffee or energy drinks (ED) to maintain a maximal level of vigilance and performance under sleep-deprived and combat situations. While chronic caffeine intake is associated with decreased sleep duration and non-restful sleep in the general population, these relationships are relatively unclear in the military personnel. We conducted a focused review of the effects of caffeinated products on sleep and the functioning of military personnel. We used a pre-specified search algorithm and identified 28 peer-reviewed articles published between January 1967 and July 2019 involving military personnel. We classified the findings from these studies into three categories. These categories included descriptive studies of caffeine use, studies evaluating the association between caffeinated products and sleep or functioning measures, and clinical trials assessing the effects of caffeinated products on functioning in sleep-deprived conditions. Most of the studies showed that military personnel used at least one caffeine-containing product per day during active duty and coffee was their primary source of caffeine. Their mean caffeine consumption varied from 212 to 285 mg/day, depending on the type of personnel and their deployment status. Those who were younger than 30 years of age preferred ED use. Caffeine use in increasing amounts was associated with decreased sleep duration and increased psychiatric symptoms. The consumption of caffeinated products during sleep deprivation improved their cognitive and behavioral outcomes and physical performance. Caffeine and energy drink consumption may maintain some aspects of performance stemming from insufficient sleep in deployed personnel, but excessive use may have adverse consequences. 10.1016/j.pbb.2021.173206
Investigation of the relationship between sleep disorders and xerostomia. Apessos Ioulianos,Andreadis Dimitrios,Steiropoulos Paschalis,Tortopidis Dimitrios,Angelis Lefteris Clinical oral investigations OBJECTIVES:To investigate the relationship between sleep disorders, morning hyposalivation, and subjective feeling of dry mouth. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A cross-sectional, observational, clinical study was carried out in a homogenous population sample which consists of Greek male soldiers without any medical history. After the application of oral modified Schirmer test, the sample was divided into a study group (n = 63) (MST < 25 mm/3 min) and a control group (n = 110) (MST ≥ 25 mm/3 min). In order to assess daytime sleepiness, risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), sleep quality, sleep bruxism (SB), and subjective feeling of dry mouth, all the participants filled in the following scales in Greek version: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), a SB questionnaire, and Xerostomia Inventory (XI) respectively. In every subgroup that came of ESS, PSQI, BQ, and SB questionnaire scoring, subjective feeling of dry mouth was evaluated, based on XI values. RESULTS:Statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) through PSQI scores was found between the study and control group. In contrast, a statistically significant difference was not obtained for the scores of ESS (p = 0.293), BQ (p = 0.089), and SB questionnaire (p = 0.730). XI scores introduced statistically significant difference between the subgroups of PSQI (p < 0.001), BQ (p = 0.001), SB questionnaire (p = 0.004)  and statistically weak between the subgroups of ESS (p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS:This is the first research study so far suggesting that patients with morning hyposalivation exhibit poor sleep quality using an objective method. The present results have, also, shown that subjective feeling of dry mouth is related to excessive daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, high risk of obstructive sleep apnea, and sleep bruxism, but larger-scale studies are still needed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:These findings should keep dentists aware of a possible association between xerostomia and sleep disorders and support larger-scale studies. 10.1007/s00784-019-03029-1
Optimizing Sleep in the Military: Challenges and Opportunities. Capaldi Vincent F,Balkin Thomas J,Mysliwiec Vincent Chest Historically, scientific knowledge gaps-including a lack of information regarding the minimum amount of sleep needed to sustain nominally adequate, militarily relevant performance, and nescience of the potential impact of chronic sleep restriction on health and psychological well-being-have hindered decision-making vis-à-vis sleep/alertness management in operational environments. However, against a backdrop of increasing awareness of the importance of sleep for sustaining both performance and health, military researchers are currently doing the following: (1) developing a comprehensive, individualized sleep/alertness management system to optimize the general effectiveness of military personnel (ie, without regard to the potential relationship between sleep and specific aspects of military performance, thus sidestepping what has historically been an impediment to development of such a system); and (2) investigating the prevalence, potentially unique etiology (eg, resulting from the interaction of long-term exposure to combat-related stressors and sleep restriction), and treatment of sleep disorders and comorbidities in the military population. 10.1016/j.chest.2018.08.1061