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Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System in Hepatocellular Carcinoma ≤5 cm: Biological Characteristics and Patient Outcomes. Liver cancer Introduction:The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of biological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) v2017 category of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in patients with high risk and compare the outcomes among different categories after radical resection. Methods:Between June 2017 and December 2020, standardized CEUS data of liver nodules were prospectively collected from multiple centers across China. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the prospectively collected data on HCCs measuring no more than 5 cm, as diagnosed by pathology. LI-RADS categories were assigned after thorough evaluation of CEUS features. Then, CEUS LI-RADS categories and major features were compared in different differentiation, Ki-67, and microvascular invasion (MVI) statuses. Differences in recurrence-free survival (RFS) among different LI-RADS categories were further analyzed. Results:A total of 293 HCC nodules in 293 patients were included. This study revealed significant differences in the CEUS LI-RADS category of HCCs among differentiation ( < 0.001) and levels of Ki-67 ( = 0.01) and that poor differentiation (32.7% in LR-M, 12% in LR-5, and 6.2% in LR-4) ( < 0.001) and high level of Ki-67 (median value 30%) were more frequently classified into the LR-M category, whereas well differentiation (37.5% in LR-4, 15.1% in LR-5, and 11.5% in LR-M) and low levels of Ki-67 (median value 11%) were more frequently classified into the LR-4 category. No significant differences were found between MVI and CEUS LI-RADS categories ( > 0.05). With a median follow-up of 23 months, HCCs assigned to different CEUS LI-RADS classes showed no significant differences in RFS after resection. Conclusions:Biological characteristics of HCC, including differentiation and level of Ki-67 expression, could influence major features of CEUS and impact the CEUS LI-RADS category. HCCs in different CEUS LI-RADS categories showed no significant differences in RFS after resection. 10.1159/000527498
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category M: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Shin Jaeseung,Lee Sunyoung,Kim Yeun-Yoon,Chung Yong Eun,Choi Jin-Young,Park Mi-Suk Ultrasonography (Seoul, Korea) PURPOSE:A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the proportion of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category M (LR-M) in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and non-HCC malignancies and to investigate the frequency of individual CEUS LR-M imaging features. METHODS:The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched from January 1, 2016 to July 23, 2020 for studies reporting the proportion of CEUS LR-M in HCC and non-HCC malignancies. The meta-analytic pooled proportions of HCC and non-HCC malignancies in the CEUS LR-M category were calculated. The meta-analytic frequencies of CEUS LR-M imaging features in nonHCC malignancies were also determined. Risk of bias and applicability were evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. RESULTS:Twelve studies reporting the diagnostic performance of the CEUS LR-M category were identified, as well as seven studies reporting the frequencies of individual CEUS LR-M imaging features. The pooled proportions of HCC and non-HCC malignancies in the CEUS LR-M category were 54% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44% to 65%) and 40% (95% CI, 28% to 53%), respectively. The pooled frequencies of individual CEUS LR-M imaging features in non-HCC malignancies were 30% (95% CI, 17% to 45%) for rim arterial phase hyperenhancement, 79% (95% CI, 66% to 90%) for early (<60 s) washout, and 42% (95% CI, 21% to 64%) for marked washout. CONCLUSION:In total, 94% of CEUS LR-M lesions were malignancies, with HCCs representing 54% and non-HCC malignancies representing 40%. The frequencies of individual CEUS LR-M imaging features varied; early washout showed the highest frequency for non-HCC malignancies. 10.14366/usg.21011