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Apelin signalling: a promising pathway from cloning to pharmacology. Masri B,Knibiehler B,Audigier Y Cellular signalling The discovery of new signalling pathways is always followed by the development of pharmacological agents as drugs that can be used in the treatment of diseases resulting from a dysfunction of the signalling pathway in question. Apelin signalling plays a role in the central and peripheral regulation of the cardiovascular system, in water and food intake, and possibly in immune function. Up-regulation of ligand and receptor is also associated with pathophysiological states such as cardiac dysfunction and neovascularisation. Finally, the apelin receptor is a coreceptor for the entry of several HIV-1 and SIV strains. In view of these features, the apelin receptor constitutes a very interesting target for the design of new drugs for treating the prime causes of human mortality. 10.1016/j.cellsig.2004.09.018
Endothelial cell-derived Apelin inhibits tumor growth by altering immune cell localization. Hu Liuying,Hayashi Yumiko,Kidoya Hiroyasu,Takakura Nobuyuki Scientific reports The Apelin/APJ signalling pathway, involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes, has been attracting increasing interest recently. In our previous study, Apelin overexpression in colon26 tumor cells suppressed tumor growth by inducing vascular maturation. Here, we found that MC38 and LLC tumor growth were greater in the absence of Apelin than in wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that Apelin acts as a tumor suppressor. Consistent with this, treating WT mice with [Pyr]Apelin-13 inhibited tumor growth. In MC38 tumors, only endothelial cells (ECs) strongly express APJ, a cognate receptor for Apelin, indicating that EC-derived Apelin might regulate tumor formation in an autocrine manner. Comparing with WT mice, larger numbers of vessels with narrower diameters were observed in tumors of Apelin knockout mice and lack of Apelin enhanced tumor hypoxia. Investigating immune cells in the tumor revealed that [Pyr]Apelin-13 infusion induced the accumulation of CD8 and CD4 T cells in central areas. Moreover, RNA-sequencing analysis showed that Apelin induces chemokine CCL8 expression in ECs. Thus, enhancing anti-tumor immunity might be one of the mechanisms by which Apelin is involved in tumor growth. Our result indicated that increased CCL8 expression might induce CD8  T cells infiltration into tumor and tumor inhibition. 10.1038/s41598-021-93619-5