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Stroke: Molecular mechanisms and therapies: Update on recent developments. Neurochemistry international Stroke, a neurological disease, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, resulting in long-term disability in most survivors. Annual stroke costs in the United States alone were estimated at $46 billion recently. Stroke pathophysiology is complex, involving multiple causal factors, among which atherosclerosis, thrombus, and embolus are prevalent. The molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology are essential to understanding targeted drug development. Some common mechanisms are excitotoxicity and calcium overload, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. In addition, various modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors increase the chances of stroke manifolds. Once a patient encounters a stroke, complete restoration of motor ability and cognitive skills is often rare. Therefore, shaping therapeutic strategies is paramount for finding a viable therapeutic agent. Apart from tPA, an FDA-approved therapy that is applied in most stroke cases, many other therapeutic strategies have been met with limited success. Stroke therapies often involve a combination of multiple strategies to restore the patient's normal function. Certain drugs like Gamma-aminobutyric receptor agonists (GABA), Glutamate Receptor inhibitors, Sodium, and Calcium channel blockers, and fibrinogen-depleting agents have shown promise in stroke treatment. Recently, a drug, DM199, a recombinant (synthetic) form of a naturally occurring protein called human tissue kallikrein-1 (KLK1), has shown great potential in treating stroke with fewer side effects. Furthermore, DM199 has been found to overcome the limitations presented when using tPA and/or mechanical thrombectomy. Cell-based therapies like Neural Stem Cells, Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUCB-MSCs) are also being explored as a treatment of choice for stroke. These therapeutic agents come with merits and demerits, but continuous research and efforts are being made to develop the best therapeutic strategies to minimize the damage post-stroke and restore complete neurological function in stroke patients. 10.1016/j.neuint.2022.105458