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Plasma kallikrein supports FXII-independent thrombin generation in mouse whole blood. Blood advances ABSTRACT:Plasma kallikrein (PKa) is an important activator of factor XII (FXII) of the contact pathway of coagulation. Several studies have shown that PKa also possesses procoagulant activity independent of FXII, likely through its ability to directly activate FIX. We evaluated the procoagulant activity of PKa using a mouse whole blood (WB) thrombin-generation (TG) assay. TG was measured in WB from PKa-deficient mice using contact pathway or extrinsic pathway triggers. PKa-deficient WB had significantly reduced contact pathway-initiated TG compared with that of wild-type controls and was comparable with that observed in FXII-deficient WB. PKa-deficient WB supported equivalent extrinsic pathway-initiated TG compared with wild-type controls. Consistent with the presence of FXII-independent functions of PKa, targeted blockade of PKa with either small molecule or antibody-based inhibitors significantly reduced contact pathway-initiated TG in FXII-deficient WB. Inhibition of activated FXII (FXIIa) using an antibody-based inhibitor significantly reduced TG in PKa-deficient WB, consistent with a PKa-independent function of FXIIa. Experiments using mice expressing low levels of tissue factor demonstrated that persistent TG present in PKa- and FXIIa-inhibited WB was driven primarily by endogenous tissue factor. Our work demonstrates that PKa contributes significantly to contact pathway-initiated TG in the complex milieu of mouse WB, and a component of this contribution occurs in an FXII-independent manner. 10.1182/bloodadvances.2024012613
Reduced plasma factor X is associated with a lack of response to recombinant activated factor VII in patients with hemophilia A and inhibitor, but does not impair emicizumab-driven hemostasis in vitro. Thrombosis research BACKGROUND:The hemostatic effect of recombinant (r) factor (F)VIIa after repetitive intermittent administration may be attenuated in patients with hemophilia A (PwHA) with inhibitors (PwHAwI) creating a clinically unresponsive status, although mechanism(s) remain to be clarified. In patients receiving prophylaxis treatment with emicizumab, concomitant rFVIIa is sometimes utilized in multiple doses for surgical procedures or breakthrough bleeding. AIM AND METHODS:We identified 'unresponsiveness' to rFVIIa, based on global coagulation function monitored using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in 11 PwHAwI and 5 patients with acquired HA, and investigated possible mechanisms focusing on the association between plasma FX levels and rFVIIa-mediated interactions. RESULTS:Our data demonstrated that FX antigen levels were lower in the rFVIIa-unresponsive group than in the rFVIIa-responsive group (0.46 ± 0.14 IU/mL vs. 0.87 ± 0.15 IU/mL, p < 0.01). This relationship was further examined by thrombin generation assays using a FX-deficient PwHAwI plasma model. The addition of FX with rFVIIa was associated with increased peak thrombin (PeakTh) generation. At low levels of FX (<0.5 IU/mL), rFVIIa failed to increase PeakTh to the normal range, consistent with clinical rFVIIa-unresponsiveness. In the presence of emicizumab (50 μg/mL), PeakTh was increased maximally to 80 % of normal, even at low levels of FX (0.28 IU/mL). CONCLUSIONS:Unresponsiveness to rFVIIa was associated with reduced levels of FX in PwHAwI. Emicizumab exhibited in vitro coagulation potential in the presence of FX at concentrations that appeared to limit the clinical response to rFVIIa therapy. 10.1016/j.thromres.2024.03.023