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Anti-oxidative responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) gill, liver and brain tissues upon acute cold shock. Wu Su Mei,Liu Jia-Hao,Shu Li-Hsin,Chen Ching Hsein Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology The present study seeks to detect oxidative damage and to compare anti-oxidative responses among liver, gills and brain of adult zebrafish that were cooled from 28 °C (control) to 12 °C (treatment) for 0-24 h. The lipid peroxidation of liver, gill and brain tissues significantly increased at 1h after transfer, but reactive oxygen species in the treatment group increased significantly after 24 h as compared to the control. The fish were found to develop a cascading anti-oxidative mechanism beginning with an increase in Cu/Zn-SOD levels, followed by increased CAT and GPx mRNA expressions in the three tissue types. Both smtB and mt2 mRNAs increased in the hepatic and brain tissues following 1h of cold stress, but only smtB exhibited a significant increase in the gills at 1 h and 6 h after transfer to 12 °C. Furthermore, cellular apoptosis in the brain was not evident after cold shock, but liver and gills showed cellular apoptosis at 1-3 h, with another peak in the liver at 6 h after cold shock. The results suggest that the cold shock induced oxidative stress, and the enzymatic (SOD, GPx and CAT) and non-enzymatic (mt-2 and smt-B) mRNA expressions all play a role in the resulting anti-oxidation within 1-6 h of cold shock. A functional comparison showed that the brain had the most powerful antioxidant defense system of the three tissue types since it had the highest smtB mRNA expression and a lower level of cell apoptosis than the liver and gills after exposure to cold stress. 10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.05.016
Chronic cold exposure modulates genes related to feeding and immune system in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish & shellfish immunology Nile tilapia is the fourth most produced species in the global aquiculture panorama. This species requires water temperatures higher than 16 °C to grow and survive, and so, little is known about the effects of low temperatures on genes related to food intake and inflammatory responses. This study brought insights about the modulation of genes in different tissues of Nile tilapia chronically exposed to low temperatures. Thus, sixty animals were divided in two experimental groups: a control group in which the animals remained at the optimum temperature of 24 °C; and an exposed to cold group, in which a decrease in the water temperature was applied until reaching 15 °C. These conditions were maintained for 28 days. Blood samples were collected for flow cytometry analysis, while brain, spleen, liver, and kidney tissues were collected for total RNA extraction, followed by quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). For genes related to feeding process pathway, it was observed an upregulation in pyy and a downregulation of npy and cart gene expression. Also, pro-inflammatory cytokine genes were modulated in the spleen, kidney and liver with a higher expression of il-1b and tnfα and a reduction in the il-8 and nf-κβ gene expressions in the group exposed to 15 °C. The fish exposed to cold presented higher serum cortisol levels than the ones from control group. The blood cell analysis showed a lower level of membrane fluidity and a higher DNA fragmentation and cell disruption in the group exposed to cold. These findings suggest an important effect of a stressful situation in the tilapia organism due to cold exposure. This study brings insights on tilapia wellbeing under low temperature stress. It can be a first step to understanding the appropriate way to cope with cold impacts on aquaculture. 10.1016/j.fsi.2022.07.075
An acute increase in water temperature can increase free amino acid concentrations in the blood, brain, liver, and muscle in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Wang Yunhao,Han Guofeng,Pham Cuong V,Koyanagi Kiyohiko,Song Yandejia,Sudo Ryunosuke,Lauwereyns Johan,Cockrem John F,Furuse Mitsuhiro,Chowdhury Vishwajit S Fish physiology and biochemistry Water temperature directly affects the body temperature in fish, so increasing water temperatures in oceans and rivers will lead to increases in fish body temperatures. Whilst a range of responses of fish to increases in water temperature have been measured, amino acid metabolism in a fish under high water temperature (HT) conditions has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an acute increase in water temperature on oxygen consumption, plasma cortisol concentrations, and free amino acid concentrations in plasma and several tissues in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Oxygen consumption and plasma cortisol concentrations were increased in goldfish exposed to HT (30 ± 1 °C) for 200 min compared with goldfish at a control water temperature (CT 17 ± 1 °C). Oxygen consumption and plasma cortisol concentrations in both groups of fish combined were positively correlated. When goldfish were exposed to HT for 300 min oxygen consumption and plasma concentrations of 15 free amino acids were increased compared with goldish at CT. Concentrations of several free amino acids were increased to varying extents in the brain, liver, and muscle tissues. In conclusion, an acute increase in water temperature affected amino acid metabolism differently in the brain, liver, and muscle tissues. Goldfish will be a useful species for further studies of the possible roles of various amino acids in the brain, muscle, and liver during acute increases in water temperature in fish. 10.1007/s10695-019-00642-5
The effect of alterations in salinity and temperature on neuroendocrine responses of the Antarctic fish Harpagifer antarcticus. Vargas-Chacoff L,Muñoz J L P,Ocampo D,Paschke Kurt,Navarro Jorge M Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology Increased levels of tissue monoaminergic neurotransmitters, as well as circulating catecholamines, appear to play a role in the regulation of the physiological responses of teleost fish. Harpagifer antarcticus is a stenothermic, Antarctic notothenioid fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increased seawater temperature and decreased salinity on the levels of 5-HT, 5-HIAA, DA, and Noradrenaline in the brain, stomach, and gut of H. antarcticus. Wild-gathered fish were acclimatized to habitat conditions (2 °C, 33 PSU) prior to placement in aquaria with 4 temperatures (2, 5, 8 and 11 °C) and 3 salinities (23, 28 and 33 PSU) for 10 days. Fish exposed to 11 °C had higher levels of the brain neurotransmitters than those at 2 °C. Concomitant exposure to low salinity exacerbated the effect of exposure to 11 °C. At lower temperatures, concomitant alterations in salinity induced differential effects on brain neurotransmitters. When fish were exposed to 28 PSU, 5-HIAA, DA, and Noradrenaline levels at 5 and 8 °C presented no significant differences with those at 2 °C. In contrast, only 5HT and 5-HIAA levels in fish at 33 PSU were elevated at 5 and 8 °C respectively. Fish at 28 and 33 PSU had lower Gut 5HT levels at the 3 elevated temperatures, meanwhile fish at 23 PSU showed a biphasic effect when exposed to elevated temperatures. 5-HIAA levels decreased at 5 and 8 °C at 33 PSU. Stomach 5HT levels also showed a differential response at the 3 salinity levels when exposed to increased temperatures. At 11 °C, 5HT levels were markedly higher than those at 2 °C for fish at 33 PSU, moderately elevated for fish at 28 PSU, and lower for fish at 23 PSU, meanwhile 5-HIAA levels only increased with temperature at 33 PSU. These findings indicate that rapid exposure to alterations in temperate with or without concomitant changes in salinity is associated with differential responses in tissue monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels. The relatively high changes in neurotransmitter levels in fish exposed to moderate salinity and high temperature changes may indicate the physiological plasticity of H. antarcticus to possible changes in ocean temperature and salinity. 10.1016/j.cbpa.2019.05.029
Decreased temperature as a signal for regulation of heat shock protein expression in anoxic brain and heart: focus on "Expression of heat shock proteins in anoxic crucian carp (Carassius carassius): support for cold as a preparatory cue for anoxia". Prentice Howard M American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 10.1152/ajpregu.00237.2010
Brain cooling marginally increases acute upper thermal tolerance in Atlantic cod. Jutfelt Fredrik,Roche Dominique G,Clark Timothy D,Norin Tommy,Binning Sandra A,Speers-Roesch Ben,Amcoff Mirjam,Morgan Rachael,Andreassen Anna H,Sundin Josefin The Journal of experimental biology Physiological mechanisms determining thermal limits in fishes are debated but remain elusive. It has been hypothesised that motor function loss, observed as loss of equilibrium during acute warming, is due to direct thermal effects on brain neuronal function. To test this, we mounted cooling plates on the heads of Atlantic cod () and quantified whether local brain cooling increased whole-organism acute upper thermal tolerance. Brain cooling reduced brain temperature by 2-6°C below ambient water temperature and increased thermal tolerance by 0.5 and 0.6°C on average relative to instrumented and uninstrumented controls, respectively, suggesting that direct thermal effects on brain neurons may contribute to setting upper thermal limits in fish. However, the improvement in thermal tolerance with brain cooling was small relative to the difference in brain temperature, demonstrating that other mechanisms (e.g. failure of spinal and peripheral neurons, or muscle) may also contribute to controlling acute thermal tolerance. 10.1242/jeb.208249
Environmental temperature variation affects brain protein expression and cognitive abilities in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio): A proteomic and behavioural study. Toni M,Angiulli E,Miccoli G,Cioni C,Alleva E,Frabetti F,Pizzetti F,Grassi Scalvini F,Nonnis S,Negri A,Tedeschi G,Maffioli E Journal of proteomics Water temperature is an important environmental parameter influencing the distribution and the health of fishes and it plays a central role in ectothermic animals. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of environmental temperature on the brain proteome and the behavioural responses in zebrafish, a widely used animal model for environmental "omics" studies. Adult specimens of wild-type zebrafish were kept at 18 °C, 34 °C and 26 °C (control) for 21 days. Proteomic data revealed that several proteins involved in cytoskeletal organization, mitochondrial regulation and energy metabolism are differently regulated at the extreme temperatures. In particular, the expression of proteins associated to synapses and neurotransmitter release is down-regulated at 18 °C and 34 °C. In both thermal conditions, fish exhibited a reduced interest for the novel environment and an impairment of cognitive abilities during Y-Maze behavioural tests. The observed pathways of protein expression are possibly associated to functional alterations of the synaptic transmission that may result in cognitive functions impairment at central nervous system level as those revealed by behavioural tests. This study indicates that temperature variations can elicit biochemical changes that may affect fish health and behaviour. This combined approach provides insights into mechanisms supporting thermal acclimation and plasticity in fishes. SIGNIFICANCE: Environmental temperature variation may impact on all levels of biological life. Understanding the impact of thermal variation on the nervous system and animal behaviour is of primary importance since the results obtained can be applied from the ecological to the biomedical fields. 10.1016/j.jprot.2019.103396
How does elevated water temperature affect fish brain? (A neurophysiological and experimental study: Assessment of brain derived neurotrophic factor, cFOS, apoptotic genes, heat shock genes, ER-stress genes and oxidative stress genes). Topal Ahmet,Özdemir Selçuk,Arslan Harun,Çomaklı Selim Fish & shellfish immunology Water temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the growth and survival of fish. Increased water temperature became a global problem and it is estimated that there will be an increase in water temperature due to global climate change. The physiological mechanism for the effects of high water temperature on the fish brain is not fully known. In the present study, fish were exposed to different temperatures (10 °C/15 °C/20 °C/25°) and brain tissues were sampled 2 h-4h-6h-8h per hour respectively and then we investigated transcriptional changes of BDNF, cFOS, apoptotic genes (caspase 3, Bax, Bcl2), heat shock genes (Hsp70 and Hsp 90) ER-Stress genes (grp78, atf6, and ire1) and oxidative stress genes (CAT, SOD, and GPx) and also immunoflourescence changes of BDNF and cFOSin rainbow trout brain. The results indicated that high temperature stress lead to physiological changes in the fish brain by causing a decrease in mRNA expression levels of CAT, SOD, GPx and Bcl2 and by causing an increase in mRNA expression of BDNF, cFOS, apoptotic genes (caspase 3, Bax), heat shock genes (Hsp70 and Hsp 90) ER-Stress genes (grp78, atf6, and ire1). This study will provide important information to elucidate the physiological mechanisms related to the effects of high water temperature on the fish brain. 10.1016/j.fsi.2021.05.002